Chapter 2 Asking and Answering Sociological Questions multiple choice



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CHAPTER 2 Asking and Answering Sociological Questions
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. When Laud Humphreys studied the hidden world of the “tearoom trade,” his research:

a.

included participant observation and survey methods

b.

allowed him to separate himself completely from the activities of his subjects so that he could remain objective

c.

revealed nothing people didn’t already know about through their own casual observations

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: A REF: Pages 27–28 TOP: Applied


2. Research questions that relate and contrast one social context with others are ________ questions.

a.

factual or empirical

b.

comparative

c.

theoretical

d.

developmental

e.

none of the above

ANS: B REF: Page 29 TOP: Factual


3. What type of research is involved when a researcher studies the frequency of unmarried-couple households in the past three censuses and presents an explanation of the changes?

a.

factual

b.

comparative

c.

developmental

d.

theoretical

e.

speculative

ANS: B REF: Page 29 TOP: Applied


4. Questions that concern how things occur and involve a collection of facts are called ________; questions that concern why they occur and involve the interpretation of facts are called ________.

a.

empirical; theoretical

b.

empirical; comparative

c.

theoretical; empirical

d.

theoretical; comparative

e.

comparative; developmental

ANS: A REF: Page 29 TOP: Factual


5. All research begins with:

a.

a hypothesis

b.

conclusions

c.

the research design

d.

a research problem

e.

a review of existing evidence

ANS: D REF: Page 30 TOP: Factual


6. Good, puzzle-solving research:

a.

seeks to fill a gap in our understanding

b.

seeks to go beyond mere descriptions of what is happening

c.

seeks to contribute to our understanding of why things happen the way they do

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: D REF: Page 30 TOP: Applied


7. Which of these is the prerequisite to good sociological research?

a.

good sociological questions

b.

good sociological answers

c.

an advanced degree from a prestigious university

d.

a funding source from outside the university

e.

all of the above

ANS: A REF: Page 30 TOP: Applied


8. Once a researcher has identified a research problem, she then prepares a(n):

a.

hypothesis

b.

review of existing evidence

c.

interpretation of results

d.

appropriate research design

e.

report of the findings

ANS: B REF: Page 30 TOP: Applied


9. Which step in the research process may involve formulation of a definite hypothesis?

a.

defining the research problem

b.

reviewing the available evidence

c.

making the problem precise

d.

developing an appropriate research design

e.

reporting the findings

ANS: C REF: Page 31 TOP: Applied


10. What is the final step in a research project?

a.

developing a hypothesis

b.

reviewing the existing evidence

c.

interpreting the results

d.

developing an appropriate research design

e.

reporting the findings

ANS: E REF: Pages 31–32 TOP: Factual


11. If one event or situation produces another, the two are said to have a:

a.

hypothesis

b.

causal relationship

c.

methodology

d.

symbolic interaction

e.

theoretical approach

ANS: B REF: Page 32 TOP: Factual


12. A ________ is any dimension along which individuals or groups vary.

a.

causation

b.

correlation

c.

variable

d.

control

e.

parallel universe

ANS: C REF: Page 32 TOP: Factual


13. A relationship between variables is known as a:

a.

causation

b.

correlation

c.

variable

d.

control

e.

parallel universe

ANS: B REF: Page 32 TOP: Factual


14. There are many different kinds of variables. A variable that produces an effect on another variable is called a(n):

a.

correlative variable

b.

dependent variable

c.

independent variable

d.

conceptual variable

e.

theoretical variable

ANS: C REF: Page 33 TOP: Factual


15. “The better the grades Sheri gets in school, the better paying job she is likely to get.” In this example, grades are the _________ variable and occupational income is the ________ variable.

a.

causative; correlative

b.

dependent; independent

c.

independent; dependent

d.

hypothetical; control

e.

None of the above; there is no relationship between grades and income.

ANS: C REF: Page 33 TOP: Conceptual


16. Variables that are held constant in order to test the effects of other variables are known as:

a.

correlative variables

b.

dependent variables

c.

independent variables

d.

control variables

e.

tester variables

ANS: D REF: Page 33 TOP: Factual


17. Which research method would give a rich, detailed, inside view of a particular group, setting, or subculture?

a.

ethnography

b.

survey

c.

life history

d.

experiment

e.

comparative historical analysis

ANS: A REF: Page 34 TOP: Factual


18. Which of the following statements best reflects an advantage of fieldwork as a research method?

a.

It provides richer information about social situations than other methods.

b.

It allows us to see a situation from the inside of a particular group.

c.

It gives the researcher greater flexibility to adjust to different situations.

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: D REF: Pages 34–35 TOP: Conceptual


19. What is one of the most difficult parts of fieldwork?

a.

selecting a random sample

b.

gaining the trust of the subjects of the study

c.

finding sufficient archival sources

d.

writing the standardized questionnaire

e.

None of the above; there are no difficulties in fieldwork.

ANS: B REF: Pages 34–35 TOP: Applied


20. Which research method would be best to use if one wanted a large, representative sample of people’s attitudes toward an issue?

a.

ethnography

b.

survey

c.

life history

d.

experiment

e.

comparative historical analysis

ANS: B REF: Page 35 TOP: Factual


21. Which type of questionnaire provides respondents with a set of questions to which only a fixed-choice or limited set of responses is allowed?

a.

fieldwork

b.

experimental

c.

standardized

d.

open-ended

e.

despondent

ANS: C REF: Page 35 TOP: Factual


22. Which type of questionnaire allows respondents to give their own answers to questions, thus providing more detail and allowing researchers to ask follow-up questions?

a.

historical analysis

b.

experimental

c.

standardized

d.

open-ended

e.

despondent

ANS: D REF: Page 35 TOP: Factual


23. What is a pilot study?

a.

a study of people who fly airplanes

b.

a trial run of a survey to find potential problems with the questionnaire

c.

the final version of a questionnaire

d.

a study conducted by licensed researchers

e.

none of the above

ANS: B REF: Page 35 TOP: Factual


24. A ________ is a smaller proportion of a larger group selected for study.

a.

population

b.

control group

c.

sample

d.

standardized group

e.

none of the above

ANS: C REF: Page 35 TOP: Factual


25. For a sample to accurately reflect the characteristics of the study population, it must be:

a.

representative

b.

democratic

c.

public

d.

open-ended

e.

standardized

ANS: A REF: Pages 35–37 TOP: Factual


26. A sample is chosen in such a way that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. This process is called:

a.

standardized sampling

b.

open-ended sampling

c.

field sampling

d.

controlled sampling

e.

random sampling

ANS: E REF: Page 35 TOP: Factual


27. Which of the following describes an advantage of survey research?

a.

Results can be easily quantified and analyzed.

b.

It allows us to see a situation from inside a particular group.

c.

It provides richer detail about a population than other methods.

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: A REF: Page 36 TOP: Applied


28. What research method tests hypotheses under highly controlled conditions?

a.

fieldwork

b.

experiment

c.

survey

d.

historical analysis

e.

life history

ANS: B REF: Page 37 TOP: Factual


29. Studying a period of the recent past by interviewing people who witnessed events makes use of:

a.

experiment

b.

random sampling

c.

life histories

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: C REF: Page 40 TOP: Applied


30. Sociologists engage in historical analysis because:

a.

a time perspective is frequently needed to make sense of a research problem

b.

sociology is ill-equipped to study the modern world

c.

survey research and fieldwork are inadequate research methods

d.

a good sociologist must also be a good historian

e.

societies were more complex in the nineteenth century

ANS: A REF: Page 40 TOP: Conceptual


31. The use of two or more methods of research to verify results is called:

a.

scientology

b.

standard deviation

c.

correlation coefficient

d.

triangulation

e.

open-ended surveying

ANS: D REF: Page 42 TOP: Factual


32. The results of sociological research often become widely known in society, thus affecting the social life sociologists study. This interaction between sociological research and human behavior is known as a ________ relation.

a.

human

b.

control

c.

standardized

d.

reflexive

e.

correlated

ANS: D REF: Page 44 TOP: Factual


33. In sociological research, various ways of calculating averages are called:

a.

correlations

b.

controls

c.

measures of central tendency

d.

measures of mediocrity

e.

standard deviations

ANS: C REF: Page 45 TOP: Factual


34. The measure of how much one variable relates to another in a consistent way is the:

a.

correlation coefficient

b.

measure of central tendency

c.

standard deviation

d.

standard of conformity

e.

mode

ANS: A REF: Page 45 TOP: Factual


35. If you add all the numbers in a series of data, then divide by the number of cases, you have calculated the:

a.

mean

b.

median

c.

mode

d.

standard deviation

e.

correlation coefficient

ANS: A REF: Page 45 TOP: Factual


36. What is the most frequent figure in a series of numbers called?

a.

mean

b.

median

c.

mode

d.

standard deviation

e.

correlation coefficient

ANS: C REF: Page 45 TOP: Factual


37. What do statisticians call the middle number in a series?

a.

mean

b.

median

c.

mode

d.

standard deviation

e.

correlation coefficient

ANS: B REF: Page 45 TOP: Factual


38. What calculation gives a researcher a good idea of the range of a series of figures?

a.

mean

b.

median

c.

mode

d.

standard deviation

e.

correlation coefficient

ANS: D REF: Page 45 TOP: Factual


39. If two variables were completely correlated, their correlation coefficient would be:

a.

0

b.

1

c.

10

d.

100

e.

nonexistent

ANS: B REF: Page 45 TOP: Factual


40. What should be your first step when reading a table?

a.

Scan all of the information on the page to try and concentrate the data provided.

b.

Read the footnotes; they contain the most important information.

c.

Read the full title; it is the researcher’s attempt to describe the data in the table.

d.

Create a theory about the subject so it can be tested against the data provided.

e.

Read the headings on the table; they’ll provide information about the content.

ANS: C REF: Page 46 TOP: Applied


41. Which of the following statistical terms refers to the mathematical average?

a.

mean

b.

mode

c.

median

d.

standard deviation

e.

middle

ANS: A REF: Page 45 TOP: Factual


42. What does “activities in a public bathroom are socially constructed” mean?

a.

The architecture of a public bathroom influences the activities that take place within.

b.

Activities in a public bathroom are influenced solely by the sex of the occupant.

c.

What bathrooms are used for depends on the occupants of the bathroom.

d.

Women’s public bathrooms are now made larger than men’s to accommodate the traditionally social nature of women’s bathroom visits.

e.

none of the above

ANS: C REF: Page 28 TOP: Applied


43. Which of the following is an example of the social construction of bathroom behavior?

a.

women meeting in the bathroom to talk about their dates

b.

gay men meeting to engage in sexual activity

c.

girls sharing makeup secrets while combing their hair

d.

men changing their children’s diapers.

e.

all of the above

ANS: E REF: Page 28 TOP: Conceptual


44. Which of the following theoretical approaches would most likely interpret the activity described in Laud Humphreys’s research on the so-called tearoom trade as a legitimate reaction to a homophobic society?

a.

feminist

b.

Marxist

c.

functionalist

d.

interactionist

e.

rational choice

ANS: E REF: Page 28 TOP: Conceptual


45. What statement best describes why the findings in the textbook are more significant than the opinions of groups of citizens at a town hall meeting?

a.

Town hall meetings are an American tradition and could not be replicated in another country.

b.

The findings in the book reflect a variety of personal experiences, not the limited experience of the attendees at a town hall meeting.

c.

Other sociologists have investigated the findings throughout the textbook to confirm their accuracy.

d.

The findings in the book are based on research rather than the personal experiences of attendees at town hall meetings.

e.

Sociologists reject the common sense provided by town hall meetings and prefer to use their own opinions.

ANS: D REF: Pages 28–29 TOP: Conceptual


46. What kind of research question best describes a study comparing the patterns of inheritance among the Rockefeller family during the early twentieth century and the patterns of inheritance among the Kennedy family in the latter part of the twentieth century?

a.

factual

b.

comparative

c.

developmental

d.

theoretical

e.

experimental

ANS: C REF: Page 29 TOP: Conceptual


47. Why is theory a necessary component of sociological research?

a.

Theory provides an important context for the research.

b.

Theory is what makes the research intellectual.

c.

Theory is necessary for publication.

d.

Theory is what makes sociological research a science.

e.

None of the above; theory is superfluous to sociological research.

ANS: A REF: Page 29 TOP: Applied


48. Given what you learned in high school about scientific research, in what way does the sociological research process differ from that of physics?

a.

Physicists use a scientific process which, unlike sociological research, doesn’t rely on theory.

b.

There is little difference in the processes that are employed by physicists or sociologists.

c.

Sociologists study mental states, whereas physicists study particles.

d.

Physicists are usually employed by private corporations, whereas sociologists work only at universities.

e.

The differences between the research processes of physicists and sociologists are far too vast to list.

ANS: B REF: Pages 30–32 TOP: Conceptual


49. Before researchers publish their findings, they need to:

a.

determine whether there is an issue that requires a deeper understanding

b.

spend time learning the current state of knowledge about their research interest

c.

decide how to gather information about their subject

d.

gather information about their research interest

e.

all of the above

ANS: E REF: Pages 30–31 TOP: Applied


50. The 55-mph speed limit was introduced in the United States in 1973. Shortly thereafter the number of auto accidents declined. We can conclude that:

a.

the reduced speed limit caused the decline in auto accidents

b.

the reduced speed limit may have contributed to the decline in the number of auto accidents

c.

the reduced speed limit and the number of auto accidents are causally related

d.

the reduced speed limit had nothing to do with the decline in auto accidents

e.

auto manufacturers created safety features to decrease the number of auto accidents

ANS: B REF: Pages 32–33 TOP: Applied


51. Following the popularity of MTV there was a decrease in the age at which young women had their first sexual relationship. Thus:

a.

displays of sexual relationships on television caused young women to have sex at an earlier stage in their development

b.

the role models displayed on MTV caused people to have sex at an earlier age

c.

if there were fewer displays of sexual relationships on television, there would be an increase in the age at which young women would have their first sexual relationship

d.

none of the above

e.

all of the above

ANS: D REF: Pages 32–33 TOP: Applied


52. “The more education you have, the greater your earning potential.” The preceding sentence represents a:

a.

causal relationship

b.

correlation between two variables

c.

participant observation

d.

control mechanism

e.

representative relationship

ANS: B REF: Page 32 TOP: Applied


53. What is the dependent variable in the following hypothesis? “If college students live with their parents, the students are less likely to engage in binge drinking than if they live in the dormitory.”

a.

college students

b.

parental supervision

c.

binge drinking

d.

dormitory life

e.

college life

ANS: C REF: Page 33 TOP: Applied


54. What kind of research method would be best suited if you were hired by a real estate company to learn how the residents in a gated community feel about racial desegregation?

a.

participant observation

b.

comparative research

c.

historical analysis

d.

surveys and interviews

e.

fieldwork

ANS: D REF: Pages 34–37 TOP: Applied


55. Which of the following methods could be used by sociologists to study homeless people?

a.

quantitative analysis

b.

qualitative analysis

c.

microsociological analysis

d.

macrosociological analysis

e.

all of the above

ANS: E REF: Pages 34–37 TOP: Factual


56. The term used to describe the interconnectedness between sociology and human social relationships is:

a.

reflexivity

b.

causation

c.

statistical analysis

d.

modal configuration

e.

trend analysis

ANS: A REF: Page 44 TOP: Factual


57. Who said “men make their own history . . . but they do not make it under conditions of their own choice”?

a.

Anthony Giddens

b.

Mitch Snyder

c.

C. Wright Mills

d.

Elliot Liebow

e.

Christopher Jencks

ANS: C REF: Page 42 TOP: Factual


58. How did C. Wright Mills bring the sociological imagination to the American public?

a.

He used plain, everyday language to explain complex ideas, published articles in popular magazines, and gave public speeches.

b.

He wrote for college-level students to ensure that his theories would be familiar to the educated public.

c.

He joined the New Left and participated in antiwar protests.

d.

He did numerous television interviews to explain his theory.

e.

He wrote multiple letters to a variety of news sources for publication.

ANS: A REF: Page 43 TOP: Factual


59. Cawo’s research question is, What impact does age have on income? What is Cawo’s dependent variable?

a.

age

b.

impact

c.

income

d.

ageism

e.

forced retirement

ANS: C REF: Page 33 TOP: Factual


60. Factual investigations are based on the premise that:

a.

the data are empirical

b.

sociologists must examine all previous forms of society

c.

the data are theoretical

d.

it need not be relevant to real-world concerns

e.

all of the above

ANS: A REF: Page 29 TOP: Factual


61. The strongest sociological research begins with problems that:

a.

detail factual evidence

b.

are puzzles, meaning a gap in our understanding

c.

answer socially pertinent questions

d.

review the evidence

e.

all of the above

ANS: B REF: Page 30 TOP: Factual


62. Puzzle-solving research attempts to:

a.

answer the question/questions posed in the research problem

b.

figure out what happened in the past

c.

illuminate why events happen as they do

d.

develop answers to questions that stand alone

e.

prove previous research to be correct or incorrect

ANS: C REF: Page 30 TOP: Factual


63. The second step in the research process is to:

a.

make the problem precise

b.

develop answers that stand alone

c.

interpret the data using sociological theory

d.

review the evidence and related research

e.

formulate a hypothesis

ANS: D REF: Page 30 TOP: Factual


64. Reviewing the evidence involves:

a.

reviewing the research problems that previous researchers have left unanalyzed

b.

reviewing related research

c.

examining how previous researchers approached the problem under study

d.

All of the above are steps that are necessary to properly review the evidence.

e.

None of these steps are necessary in reviewing the evidence.

ANS: D REF: Pages 30–31 TOP: Factual


65. The stage at which sociological researchers may formulate hypotheses is when they are:

a.

identifying a research problem

b.

developing a research design

c.

clearly formulating the research problem

d.

reviewing the evidence

e.

reporting the findings

ANS: C REF: Page 31 TOP: Factual


66. More often than not, many sociological research projects:

a.

provide the public with clear cut and definitive answers to the research problem

b.

allow us to use anecdotal information to illuminate social processes

c.

are not as conclusive as we would like and are open for further research questions and problems

d.

researching clear and precise answers tends to be the least complicated part of the research process

e.

end up influencing the behavior of subjects rather than observing it

ANS: C REF: Pages 31–32 TOP: Applied


67. Sociological research indicates there is a significant correlation between level of education attainment and occupational success. Identify the causal mechanism for this correlation.

a.

positive parental attitudes toward education and such tools as books and computers for learning in the home

b.

up-to-date school facilities and well-educated teachers

c.

positive peer associations

d.

the overall school experience

e.

the overall work experience

ANS: A REF: Pages 32–33 TOP: Applied


68. What is one mechanism sociologists use to discover whether a correlation between variables is a causal connection?

a.

sampling

b.

causal relationship

c.

causal mechanism

d.

controls

e.

identifying cause

ANS: D REF: Page 33 TOP: Factual


69. Ethnography involves firsthand studies of people and uses:

a.

life histories

b.

participant observation

c.

pilot studies

d.

intricate sampling procedures

e.

fieldwork

ANS: B REF: Page 34 TOP: Factual


70. Recently social scientists using participant observation have written about how their race, class, gender, and sexual orientation:

a.

affect their research due to power differences

b.

did not affect the research process

c.

allowed many researchers to go native

d.

allowed them to be completely objective about their work

e.

forced their work to be subjective

ANS: A REF: Page 34 TOP: Applied


71. Using participant observation in the sociological research process involves:

a.

establishing a formal relationship with the leaders and members of the group

b.

great skill and sensitivity in gaining the trust and confidence of numerous members of the group and/or community under study

c.

little interaction with the group members or leaders, just observation

d.

the researcher losing the perspective of an outside observer through his or her relationship with the group

e.

creating a formal boundary between the researcher and the group

ANS: B REF: Page 34 TOP: Applied


72. The Polish Peasant in Europe and America, by W. I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki, is an example of:

a.

ethnography

b.

participant observation

c.

experiment

d.

life histories

e.

survey research

ANS: D REF: Page 40 TOP: Factual


73. The scope of experimentation is much smaller in sociology than in the natural sciences. Why is this?

a.

Sociological researchers can only bring small groups into a laboratory setting, and people may behave unnaturally because they are being watched.

b.

Sociological researchers can control all of the conditions, making experiments more laborious for them.

c.

It is exceptionally difficult to find willing participants who meet the criteria of sociological studies.

d.

There is not enough statistical data to gather while conducting experiments.

e.

Sociological researchers exercise unconscious prejudices while choosing experiment subjects.

ANS: A REF: Pages 37, 40 TOP: Applied


74. A classic experiment in social science research involved setting up a make-believe jail and randomly assigning male student volunteers to the roles of guards and prisoners. The researcher concluded that:

a.

students had a very difficult time assuming their assigned role due to maturity

b.

because students could not imagine what it is like to be in a prison situation, they were unable to carry out their assigned duties

c.

behavior in prisons is more influenced by the nature of the prison setting than the individual characteristics of those in prison

d.

because prisoners became overly hostile toward the guards, the experiment had to be canceled early

e.

behavior in prisons is more influenced by individual characteristics of those in prison than the nature of the prison setting

ANS: C REF: Page 40 TOP: Applied


75. Theda Skocpol’s States and Social Revolutions:

a.

drew on numerous documents, official and unofficial, over a short period of time

b.

applied comparative research in a historical context that examined social change of revolutions

c.

illustrated that enlisted men often ignored the commands of their officers

d.

was an illuminating experiment that could not be conducted today under more stringent federal regulations

e.

showed that social transformation is more common in a time of war than peace

ANS: B REF: Page 41 TOP: Factual


76. All sociological research imposes some sort of:

a.

ethical dilemmas that could possibly have a negative effect on the subjects involved

b.

risk to the sociologist as someone could accuse the researcher of being biased

c.

need to use survey methods

d.

need for social transformation

e.

historical analysis on present-day culture

ANS: A REF: Pages 43–44 TOP: Applied


77. American universities require a review of all research that involves human subjects. This has had an effect on sociological research in what way?

a.

Researchers are more attuned to the ethical dilemmas encountered when using human subjects in research.

b.

The reviews include a clause making it mandatory for researchers to pay their subjects.

c.

Once the project has been approved, subjects are much more likely to participate because the university pays them a stipend.

d.

The reviews allow more people to have knowledge of sociological research.

e.

Research reviews are posted publicly so that industry professionals and laymen can decide if they’re ethical.

ANS: A REF: Page 44 TOP: Applied


TRUE/FALSE
1. The results of sociological research often challenge our commonsense beliefs.

ANS: T REF: Page 29


2. If you observe a correlation, you have observed causation.

ANS: F REF: Page 32


3. Sociologists can never be sure they have covered all possible causes in a correlation.

ANS: T REF: Page 33


4. A disadvantage of participant observation is that only small groups or communities can be studied this way.

ANS: T REF: Page 35


5. The only valid way to study a large population is to include every member of the population in the study group.

ANS: F REF: Page 35


6. Life histories often use sources like newspapers and contemporary descriptions to supplement the subject’s account.

ANS: T REF: Page 40


7. The results of sociological research often become so widely known that people consider that knowledge to be “common sense.”

ANS: T REF: Page 44


8. To study the homeless, you must actually live among them.

ANS: F REF: Page 34


9. The private lives of individuals are formed in part by the historical conditions in which they live.

ANS: T REF: Page 40


10. A dependent variable produces an effect on another variable.

ANS: F REF: Page 33


11. The three main methods used in sociological research are ethnography, survey, and experiment.

ANS: T REF: Page 34


12. The mode and the mean are both measures of central tendency.

ANS: T REF: Page 45


13. Drawing on other researchers’ ideas helps the sociologist clarify relevant issues and appropriate research methods.

ANS: T REF: Pages 30–31


14. It is uncommon for practical difficulties to occur in sociological research.

ANS: F REF: Page 31


15. Sociological research involves following fixed schemes to ensure accurate findings.

ANS: F REF: Page 32


16. Sociological fieldwork is seldom, if ever, physically dangerous.

ANS: F REF: Page 34


17. By employing the method of ethnography it is possible for sociologists to study large, complex groups and/or societies.

ANS: F REF: Page 34


18. All American universities review all research that involves human subjects.

ANS: T REF: Page 44


ESSAY
1. Discuss the types of questions a sociologist might ask when conducting each of the following research types: factual, comparative, developmental, and theoretical. Give an example of each.

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Answer will vary.
2. What research methods did Humphreys employ when studying the “tearoom trade”? Why was this an appropriate research strategy? Detail the advantages and disadvantages of his research design.

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Answer will vary.
3. List the steps in the scientific research process and discuss what happens in each step.

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Answer will vary.
4. What is meant by the statement “scientific knowledge is a cumulative process”? How does this accumulation take place? Is there just an addition of new knowledge on top of old knowledge, or does refinement also take place? Explain.

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Answer will vary.
5. What is a causal relationship? What is a correlation? What, if any, is the difference between causation and correlation?

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6. Which method or methods would most likely provide evidence of causation? Why?

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Answer will vary.
7. Which method or methods would most likely show evidence of correlation between variables? Would that be conclusive evidence of causation? Explain.

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Answer will vary.
8. A sociologist wishes to gain insight into street-vendor activities in a major American city. What research method would probably be best to use in such a study? Why?

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Answer will vary.
9. Would it ever be desirable to use more than one method in a study? Explain.

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Answer will vary.
10. Is it ever appropriate for a sociologist to conduct research on subjects who do not know that they are being studied? Explain.

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11. Compare and contrast three research methods. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method? Pick a topic and write a research question using each of the three methods.

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Answer will vary.
12. Describe any ethical dilemmas Laud Humphreys may have encountered while undertaking his seminal research that resulted in the publication of Tearoom Trade.

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Answer will vary.

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