Chapter 1—The Nature of Philosophy multiple choice



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Chapter 1—The Nature of Philosophy
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. What is the goal of philosophy?

a.

Autonomy

b.

Angst

c.

Authority

d.

Ambivalence

ANS: A PTS: 1


2. Who wrote of the Myth of the Cave?

a.

Plato

b.

Aristotle

c.

Gyges

d.

Epicurus

ANS: A PTS: 1


3. Epistemology literally means

a.

the study of knowledge

b.

the study of the reality

c.

the study of whether humans are free or unfree

d.

the study of morality

ANS: A PTS: 1


4. The belief that there is just one God is

a.

Pantheism

b.

Agnosticism

c.

Monotheism

d.

Heresy

ANS: C PTS: 1


5. Gail Stenstad is a

a.

Greek theologian

b.

Platonic philosopher

c.

Feminist philosopher

d.

Religious theologian

ANS: C PTS: 1


6. Karma means literally

a.

Action

b.

Movement

c.

Rightness

d.

Fate

ANS: A PTS: 1


7. The idea of karma can combine

a.

Rightness and wrongness

b.

Determinism and freedom

c.

The whole and the part

d.

Life and death

ANS: B PTS: 1


8. Rachels says that finding satisfaction in helping others is not

a.

Selfishness

b.

Worthwhile

c.

Moral

d.

Karmic

ANS: A PTS: 1


9. Who said that whatever the gods love is holy?

a.

Socrates

b.

Plato

c.

Euripides

d.

Euthyphro

ANS: D PTS: 1


10. According to whom does philosophical knowledge free us from the cycle of birth, suffering, death, and rebirth?

a.

Plato

b.

Aristotle

c.

Krishna

d.

Buddha

ANS: D PTS: 1


11. What does philosophy literally mean?

a.

love of knowledge

b.

love of nature

c.

love of wisdom

d.

love of life

ANS: C PTS: 1


12. The view of philosophy as the activity of examining our assumptions and beliefs about ourselves and the universe around us was expressed by

a.

Plato

b.

Perictione

c.

Aristotle

d.

Buddha

ANS: B PTS: 1


13. What philosopher argues for determinism, the view that all things and all human beings are unfree?

a.

Paul Henri d'Holbach

b.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

c.

Viktor Frankl

d.

Plato

ANS: A PTS: 1


14. Who wrote: "Freedom is not caprice, nor is Karma necessity."

a.

Plato

b.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

c.

Viktor Frankl

d.

Buddha

ANS: B PTS: 1


15. Based on his experience in a Nazi prison camp, what philosopher argued that human beings are ultimately free and that each of us has the freedom to be whoever we choose to be?

a.

Buddha

b.

Gail Stenstad

c.

Paul Henri d'Holbach

d.

Viktor Frankl

ANS: D PTS: 1


16. The philosopher Harry Browne upholds what philosophical view?

a.

determinism

b.

skepticism

c.

egoism

d.

materialism

ANS: C PTS: 1


17. What philosopher argued that service toward others is our primary moral duty?

a.

Aristotle

b.

Mahatma Gandhi

c.

Plato

d.

Harry Browne

ANS: B PTS: 1


18. What philosopher wrote: "Everyone is selfish; everyone is doing what he believes will make himself happier."

a.

James Rachels

b.

Mahatma Gandhi

c.

Perictione

d.

Harry Browne

ANS: D PTS: 1


19. What subfield of philosophy is concerned with moral values and moral principles?

a.

theology

b.

ethics

c.

metaphysics

d.

epistemology

ANS: B PTS: 1


20. What subfield of philosophy is concerned with the ultimate characteristics of reality or existence?

a.

epistemology

b.

axiology

c.

metaphysics

d.

science

ANS: C PTS: 1


TRUE/FALSE
1. Philosophy begins with wonder.

ANS: T PTS: 1


2. Perictione suggests that philosophy is ultimately a search for an understanding of why we and our universe are here.

ANS: T PTS: 1


3. Socrates held that the gods agreed on what is holy.

ANS: F PTS: 1


4. Crito was unwilling to help Socrates escape from jail.

ANS: F PTS: 1


5. When people talk about getting along, then generally mean satisfying their maintenance needs.

ANS: T PTS: 1


6. Moulton and Lloyd claim that philosophy is a male activity with a male bias.

ANS: T PTS: 1


7. Plato tells the Myth of the Cave in the Republic.

ANS: T PTS: 1


8. Philosophy is not hard work.

ANS: F PTS: 1


9. Monotheism is the belief that there are many gods.

ANS: F PTS: 1


10. Holbach was a determinist.

ANS: T PTS: 1


COMPLETION
1. ____________________ means "the study of knowledge".

ANS: Epistemology

PTS: 1
2. Monotheism is the belief that there is just ____________________ ____________________.

ANS: one God

PTS: 1
3. ____________________ is the view that all things and all human beings are unfree because everything that happens does so in accordance with some law.

ANS: Determinism

PTS: 1
4. ____________________ is the study of the most general characteristics of reality.

ANS: Metaphysics

PTS: 1
5. ____________________ is the study of morality.

ANS: Ethics

PTS: 1
6. Harry Browne's view that morality is a sham because humans always try to satisfy themselves is called ____________________.

ANS: egoism

PTS: 1
7. Socrates claimed that he had a(n) ____________________ to obey the law.

ANS: obligation

PTS: 1
8. Genevieve Lloyd is a(n) ____________________ philosopher.

ANS: feminist

PTS: 1
9. The freedom of being able to decide for yourself what you will believe is called ____________________.

ANS: autonomy

PTS: 1
10. ____________________ is the love and pursuit of wisdom.

ANS: Philosophy

PTS: 1
ESSAY
1. What is Plato's Myth of the Cave, and how does it illustrate the challenges and advantages associated with philosophy?

ANS:


Answer not provided.

PTS: 1
2. Some people believe that the term "philosophy" is only a verb, while others hold that it could function as a noun, as well. What is your view, and why do you hold it?

ANS:

Answer not provided.



PTS: 1
3. Philosophy is traditionally divided into three categories of philosophical topics. Do you think that these divisions are strict ones, or do you think that the questions that fall under one category are relevant to those that fall under others? Explain and illustrate your answers.

ANS:


Answer not provided.

PTS: 1
4. What are the advantages of Socratic questions¾and what might its dangers be?

ANS:

Answer not provided.



PTS: 1
5. Do you think that we have an obligation to obey the law? What if the law is unjust? Would we still have an obligation to obey it? Or would we instead say that the law in question was not properly a law, since it was unjust? What do your answers to these questions tell you about (a) your views concerning the nature of law; (b) your views concerning the nature of obligation?

ANS:


Answer not provided.

PTS: 1
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