Chapter 1—Crime and Criminal Justice multiple choice



Download 122.5 Kb.
Date18.01.2019
Size122.5 Kb.
#75655
Chapter 1—Crime and Criminal Justice

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. If one of your fellow students suggested that crime is a recent social problem, you would say

  1. Crime and violence have been common since the nation was first formed and are not recent social problems.

  2. Crime rates today are significantly higher than they were when this country was emerging as a nation.

  3. In a historical sense, crime peaked during Civil War times and has been diminishing since that era.

  4. Crime today is comparable to the lawlessness of the Old West.

ANS: A REF: p. 4 OBJ: 2


2. The _________, created in 1919, was a professional association funded by private contributions, which was integral in getting agencies of justice to work together, and getting the work of the criminal justice system recognized.



  1. Chicago Crime Commission

  2. American Bar Foundation Commission

  3. Wickersham Commission

  4. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

ANS: A REF: p. 6 OBJ: 2

3. The term criminal justice system was first used by the _____________ to reflect a view that justice agencies could be connected in an intricate yet often unobserved network of decision-making processes.


  1. Chicago Crime Commission

  2. American Bar Foundation project

  3. Wickersham Commission

  4. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

ANS: B REF: p. 6 OBJ: 1

4. What are the three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is generally divided?


  1. Law enforcement, the courts, and the legislature

  2. The courts, the correctional system, and the legislature

  3. Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system

  4. Law enforcement, the correctional system, and the legislature

ANS: C REF: p. 8 OBJ: 4

5. Because some individuals are so dangerous that must be outlawed outright or regulated, the contemporary criminal justice society uses the instrument known as:

A. Social Media

B. Social Report

C. Social Control

D. Social Adjustment
ANS: C REF: p. 7 OBJ: 4

6. The criminal justice system is vast, employing more than 2.4 million people and costing federal, state and local governments about ______ per year, up more than 300% since 1982.



  1. $100 million

  2. $200 million

  3. $100 billion

  4. $200 billion

ANS: D REF: p. 9 OBJ: 5


7. Which of the following is false about corrections in the United States?

  1. Though crime has declined for most of the past decade, the correctional population continues to grow.

  2. Approximately 1.5 million juveniles are handled in juvenile courts each year.

  3. More than 7 million people are under some form of correctional supervision.

  4. It costs approximately $10,000 per year to incarcerate an inmate.

ANS: D REF: p. 12 OBJ: 5


8. Which of the following is an extralegal factor?

  1. The seriousness of the charge

  2. The age of the offender

  3. The available evidence surrounding the offense

  4. The suspect’s prior record

ANS: B REF: p. 12 OBJ: 5


9. Which of the following is false regarding the scope of the criminal justice system?

  1. There are over 2 million individuals employed across the various branches of the criminal justice system.

  2. In law enforcement alone, there are more than 1 million individuals employed.

  3. There are 50,000 courts across the United States.

  4. There are approximately 1200 correctional institutions across the country, employing about half a million individuals

ANS: C REF: p. 10-12 OBJ: 5


10. In procedural order, which of the following comes first in the formal criminal justice process?

  1. Bail

  2. Preliminary hearing

  3. Plea bargain

  4. Post release

ANS: B REF: p. 14-17 OBJ: 6

11. The role of police officers involves primarily the first four stages of the formal criminal justice procedures. In order, what are these steps?


  1. Initial contact, arrest, charging, custody

  2. Initial contact, investigation, arrest, charging

  3. Initial contact, investigation, arrest, custody

  4. Initial contact, arrest, investigation, charging

ANS: C REF: p. 12-15 OBJ: 6


12. When the police want to interrogate or question a suspect, the office must first advise the suspect of his/her rights. This is called a (n):

  1. Miranda warning

  2. Information

  3. Charging

  4. Questioning after advisement

ANS: A REF p. 13 OBJ: 6


13. Which of the following is false about the grand jury?

  1. It can protect citizens from false prosecution.

  2. It was created in 12th- century England.

  3. Every state uses the grand jury system.

  4. It is comprised of between 12 and 23 persons.

ANS: C REF: p. 17 OBJ: 6

14. At what stage of the formal criminal justice process does the defendant enter a plea of guilty or not guilty?


  1. Arraignment

  2. Criminal trial

  3. Preliminary hearing

  4. Bail hearing

ANS: A REF: p. 15 OBJ: 6

15. Who is not a part of the courtroom work group?


  1. Prosecutor

  2. Defense attorney

  3. Bail bondman

  4. Judge

ANS: C REF: p. 19 OBJ: 6

16. Which of the following crimes would be placed in the top layer (Layer I) of the criminal justice "wedding cake"?


  1. A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard

  2. A burglary occurs at a local bar

  3. An individual is arrested for public drunkenness

  4. A first-time offender assaults a friend

ANS: A REF: p. 19-21 OBJ: 8

17. Which of the following is false regarding Herbert Packer’s notion of the criminal justice process as an assembly-line?


  1. Criminal justice is seen as a screening process where each stage is a decision point.

  2. Each of these decisions can have a critical impact on the defendant, the justice system, and society.

  3. Most people who commit crime are punished for their crime.

  4. The criminal justice system suffers from congestion.

ANS: C REF: p. 16-17 OBJ: 7

18. Offenders at Level _____ of the “wedding cake” model of criminal justice have typically committed a serious offense and will receive a prison term, however will not garner much media attention.


  1. I

  2. II

  3. III

  4. IV

ANS: B REF: p. 19-21 OBJ: 8

19. Which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions, and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law?


  1. Crime control

  2. Rehabilitation

  3. Due process

  4. Equal justice

ANS: A REF: p. 21-22 OBJ: 9

20. The ________ perspective sees the justice system as a mechanism of caring for and treating people who cannot manage themselves, and assumes people are at the mercy of social, economic, and interpersonal conditions.


  1. Crime control

  2. Rehabilitation

  3. Due process

  4. Equal justice

ANS: B REF: p. 22-23 OBJ: 9

21. Between 1976 and 1999, 566 people were executed in the United States and 82 individuals awaiting execution were exonerated. This is a ratio of 1 individual freed for every 7 individuals executed. Such serious errors in the criminal justice system are of concern to advocates of the _______ perspective.


  1. Crime control

  2. Rehabilitation

  3. Due process

  4. Justice

ANS: C REF: p. 24 OBJ: 9

22. If you believe in the concept of “just desserts”, which justice perspective do you favor?


  1. Restorative justice

  2. Equal justice

  3. Due process

  4. Rehabilitation

ANS: B REF: p. 26 OBJ: 9


23. If you were concerned about the potentially stigmatizing effect of community notification laws on sexual offenders, you would be part of the ______ perspective.

  1. Rehabilitation

  2. Nonintervention

  3. Equal justice

  4. Restorative justice

ANS: B REF: p. 24-25 OBJ: 9


24. Truth-in-sentencing laws are an aspect of which justice system perspective?

  1. Crime control

  2. Due process

  3. Equal justice

  4. Rehabilitation

ANS: C REF: p. 26 OBJ: 9

25. Which of the following justice perspectives holds that the true purpose of the criminal justice system is to promote a peaceful and just society?


  1. Rehabilitation

  2. Nonintervention

  3. Equal justice

  4. Restorative justice

ANS: D REF: p. 26-27 OBJ: 9


26. Which justice perspective would advocate diversion programs or mediation programs for juvenile offenders?

  1. Due process

  2. Crime control

  3. Rehabilitation

  4. Equal justice

ANS: C REF: p. 22-23 OBJ: 9


27. Advocates of which justice perspective would advocate for decriminalization of marijuana?

  1. Rehabilitation

  2. Equal justice

  3. Nonintervention

  4. Crime control

ANS: C REF: p. 24-25 OBJ: 9


28. Which justice perspective views crime as a community-level problem?



  1. Rehabilitation

  2. Equal justice

  3. Restorative justice

  4. Crime control

ANS: C REF: p. 26-27 OBJ: 9

29. Ethical issues surface in all parts of the justice system. Why are ethical standards so important in criminal justice?


  1. Without ethical decision making, it is possible that individual civil rights and liberties would suffer.

  2. Agents of the criminal justice system have access to citizens' most personal information, raising concerns of privacy and confidentiality.

  3. Justice system personnel may work in an environment where moral ambiguity is widespread.

  4. Ethical standards are important in the justice system for all these reasons.

ANS: D REF: p. 29-34 OBJ: 10

30. What is considered the primary ethical concern of prosecutors?


  1. The adversarial system of justice in the United States.

  2. Handling both the aggravating and mitigating circumstances of the crime.

  3. Their dual role as representative of the people and officer of the court.

  4. Discretion and morality

ANS: C REF: p. 32 OBJ: 10


31. Which courtroom work group member experiences the ethical concern of having obligations to his/her client and the profession?

  1. Defense attorney

  2. Prosecutor

  3. Judge

  4. Bail bondsman

ANS: A REF: p. 32 OBJ: 10

32. What percentage of incidents of sexual violence in prison involved staff-on-inmate sexual misconduct?


  1. 10%

  2. 20%

  3. 40%

  4. 75%

ANS: C REF: p. 32 OBJ: 10


33. What was the first police agency?

  1. Los Angeles Police Department

  2. London Metropolitan Police

  3. New York Police Department

  4. Paris Metropolitan Police

ANS: B REF: p. 5 OBJ: 3


34. Using evidence justice, what does the research say about school-based drug education programs?

  1. The track record of school-based drug education programs has proven to be spotty at best.

  2. The track record of school-based drug education programs has proven to be highly effective.

  3. The track record of school-based drug education programs has proven to fail.

  4. There has been no research on school-based drug education programs.

ANS: A REF: p. 7 OBJ: 3


35. Which of the following is society’s instrument of social control?

  1. Prisons

  2. Schools

  3. Families

  4. The Criminal Justice System

ANS: D REF: p. 7 OBJ: 5


36. Which branch of government defines the law by determining what conduct is prohibited and establishes criminal penalties for those who violate the law?

  1. Legislative

  2. Judicial

  3. Executive

  4. Correctional

ANS: A REF : p. 8 OBJ: 4


37. Which branch of government interprets existing laws and determines whether they meet constitutional requirements?

  1. Legislative

  2. Judicial

  3. Executive

  4. Correctional

ANS: B REF: p. 8 OBJ: 4


38. Which branch of government is responsible for the day-to-day operation of justice agencies?

  1. Legislative

  2. Judicial

  3. Executive

  4. Correctional

ANS: C REF: p. 8-9 OBJ: 4

39. Which branch of government oversees criminal justice practices and has the power to determine whether existing operations fall within the bounds of the U.S. Constitution?


  1. Legislative

  2. Judicial

  3. Executive

  4. Correctional

ANS: B REF: p. 8 OBJ: 4

40. Which component of the criminal justice system has the largest budgets?


  1. Police

  2. Correctional

  3. Judicial

  4. Executive

ANS: A REF: p. 9 OBJ: 5



SCENARIO BASED
NARRBEGIN: CASE 1.1

Johnny was arrested for robbery. In his state robbery is a second degree felony and Johnny can be sentenced to up to 20 years in prison. Johnny has never been arrested before and is not familiar with the criminal justice system. NARREND
41. If the arresting officer believes that sufficient evidence exists to charge Johnny with a crime who will the case be turned over to next?

  1. Defense attorney

  2. Judge

  3. Jury

  4. Prosecutor

ANS: D REF: p. 13-14 OBJ: 6

NARR: CASE 1.1
42. At what stage will the prosecution file a charging document against Johnny before a lower trial court where there will be an open hearing on the merits of the case?


  1. Investigation

  2. Charging

  3. Preliminary Hearing

  4. Plea Bargaining

ANS: C REF: p. 14-15 OBJ: 6

NARR: CASE 1.1

43. In some jurisdictions the grand jury will determine if there is sufficient evidence to support the continued prosecution of a suspect. If the grand jury, in Johnny’s case, determines there is sufficient evidence they will issue a true bill of :



  1. Attainder

  2. Certiorari

  3. Indictment

  4. Prosecution

ANS: C REF: p. 14 OBJ: 6

NARR: CASE 1.1
44. Johnny was presented with the option of a reduction of his charges from a robbery to a burglary, and a sentence of 5 years in prison instead of 20 years. This is an example of a plea bargain. If Johnny accepts this plea bargain he will be one of the ___% of all cases that end in a plea bargain.


  1. 25

  2. 50

  3. 70

  4. 90

ANS: D REF: p. 15 OBJ: 6

NARR: CASE 1.1
NARRBEGIN: CASE 1.2

In Florida, chapter 782.04 of the Florida State Statutes explains the crime of murder. Section 1 of the statute reads:

782.04 Murder.—(1)(a) The unlawful killing of a human being:

When perpetrated from a premeditated design to effect the death of the person killed or any human being; NARREND
45. Which branch of government defined this law, determined that this is conduct that is prohibited, and established the criminal penalties for those who violate this law?


  1. Legislative

  2. Judicial

  3. Executive

  4. Correctional

ANS: A REF: p. 8 OBJ: 4

NARR: CASE 1.2

46. Which branch of government is responsible for enforcing this statue?



  1. Legislative

  2. Judicial

  3. Executive

  4. Police

ANS: C REF: p. 8 OBJ: 4

NARR: CASE 1.2
47. Which agency in the criminal justice system is responsible for the adjudication of this case if Samantha has been arrested and charged with this crime of murder?


  1. Police

  2. Courts

  3. Corrections

  4. Legislature

ANS: B REF: p. 15 OBJ: 6

NARR: CASE 1.2
NARRBEGIN: CASE 1.3

A local police department is noticing that there is an increase in the number of serious felonies that are being committed. The department forms a task force to assess the extent of the problem. Officers from the detective bureau, the vice squad, and the crime analysis division meet to discuss the problem and begin investigating these crimes. NARREND

48. The task force determines that the most common crimes being committed are robberies and burglaries where the typical amount stolen from each home is approximately $10,000. The officers realize that they are dealing with professionals. At which level on the criminal justice wedding cake do these crimes qualify?



  1. Level I

  2. Level II

  3. Level III

  4. Level IV

ANS: B REF: p. 20 OBJ: 8

NARR: CASE 1.3
49. One of the officers on the task force expresses his frustration with the criminals who are committing these crimes. He believes that the police department needs to work aggressively to apprehend these offenders, and that society must be protected from them through harsh punishment. What perspective is this officer promoting?


  1. Crime Control

  2. Due Process

  3. Nonintervention

  4. Rehabilitation

ANS: A REF: p. 21-22 OBJ: 9

NARR: CASE 1.3
50. Another officer expresses that those committing these crimes are probably doing so as an expression of frustration and anger created by social inequality. In his view what is needed?


  1. Crime Control

  2. Due Process

  3. Nonintervention

  4. Rehabilitation

ANS: D REF: p. 22-23 OBJ: 9 NARR:

CASE 1.3

TRUE/FALSE
1. If, after conducting a preliminary investigation of the legal merits of the case, a prosecutor decides to take no further action, this is referred to as a charging warning.
ANS: F REF: p. 14 OBJ: 6
2. It was in 1919 with the creation of the Chicago Crime Commission, that the work of the criminal justice system began to be recognized.
ANS: T REF: p. 6 OBJ: 3

3. Cost effectiveness is one of the unifying principles of evidence-based justice efforts.


ANS: T REF: p. 7 OBJ: 6

4. Most criminal cases are processed through the entire formal justice system.


ANS: F REF: p. 12 OBJ: 6

5. An officer’s initial contact with an individual is considered part of the informal criminal justice process.


ANS: F REF: p. 12 OBJ: 6

6. Less serious felonies make up the bottom layer of the criminal justice system wedding cake.


ANS: F REF: p. 19-20 OBJ: 8
7. The crime control perspective views the justice system as a means of caring for and treating people who cannot manage themselves.
ANS: F REF: p. 21-22 OBJ: 9
8. The equal justice perspective advocates judges consider extra-legal factors in sentencing.
ANS: F REF: p. 26 OBJ: 9

9. During the past decade the crime control and equal justice perspectives have dominated in criminal justice.


ANS: T REF: p. 27 OBJ: 9

10. Ethical behavior is particularly important in law enforcement because police officers have the authority to deprive people of their liberty, and use physical, and even deadly force.


ANS: T REF: p. 29-31 OBJ: 10

11. The only professionals in the criminal justice system that should be concerned with ethical behavior are police officers.


ANS: F REF: p. 29-33 OBJ: 10

12. Correctional officers have significant coercive power over offenders.


ANS: T REF: p. 33 OBJ: 10
13. If a lawyer assists their client in engaging in illegal behavior they are not subject to criminal charges because of their attorney-client privilege.
ANS: F REF: p. 32 OBJ: 10

14. The nonintervention perspective believes there is a stigma that locks people into a criminal way of life.


ANS: T REF: p. 24-25 OBJ: 9
15. The crime control perspective believes that too many suspects go free because of legal technicalities.
ANS: T REF: p. 22 OBJ: 9

16. The media tends to focus on Level IV cases of the wedding cake model of justice.


ANS: F REF: p. 19 OBJ: 8

17. Most cases that go to trial result in a conviction.


ANS: T REF: p. 16 OBJ: 7

18. Grand jury proceedings are open to the public.


ANS: F REF: p. 14 OBJ: 6

19. The Miranda warnings must be read to all suspects arrested by law enforcement.


ANS: F REF: p. 13 OBJ: 6

20. The level of government that collectively spends the most on justice expenditures are local agencies.


ANS: T REF: p. 9 OBJ: 5

COMPLETION
1. The ____________________ is a federal agency that provided technical assistance and hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to state and local justice agencies between 1969 and 1982.
ANS: Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA ) REF : p. 6 OBJ: 2

2. The ____________________ defines the law by determining what conduct is prohibited and establishes criminal penalties for those who violate the law.


ANS: legislature REF: p. 8 OBJ: 3

3. It currently costs federal, state, and local governments more than $______ billion per year for civil and criminal justice, up more than 300% since 1982.


ANS: 200 REF: p. 19 OBJ: 5

4. When prosecutors decide to take no further action after conducting a preliminary investigation of the legal matters of a case it is referred to as a (n) ____________________.


ANS: nolle prosequi REF: p. 14 OBJ: 6

5. The ____________________ is the term used to describe the process through which large numbers of cases are systematically filtered out of the formal criminal justice process.


ANS: criminal justice funnel REF: p. 16 OBJ: 7

6. The ____________________ is comprised of the prosecutor, defense attorney, judge, and other court personnel who function to streamline the process of justice through the extensive use of plea bargaining and other trial alternatives.


ANS: courtroom work group REF: p. 19 OBJ: 7
7. Millions of misdemeanors, such as disorderly conduct, shoplifting, public drunkenness, and minor assault comprise Level ____________________ of the criminal justice "wedding cake" which are handled by lower courts in an assembly-line fashion.
ANS: IV REF : p. 21 OBJ: 8

8. Decriminalization, deinstitutionalization, and pretrial diversion are favored by those adhering to the ____________________ perspective.


ANS: nonintervention REF: p. 24-25 OBJ: 9
9. The goal of the ____________________ perspective is to enable the offender to appreciate the damage caused to society and to the victim, to make amends, and to be reintegrated into the community.
ANS: restorative justice REF: p. 26-27 OBJ: 9

10. Advocates of the ____________________ perspective argue that the greatest concern of the justice system should be providing fair and equitable treatment to those accused of crime.


ANS: due process REF: p. 23-24 OBJ: 9
11. ____________________ uses scientific method to determine whether criminal justice programs actually reduce crime rates and offender recidivism.
ANS: Evidence-based Justice OBJ: 2 REF: p. 6-7

12. A society’s ability to control individual behavior in order to serve the best interests and welfare of the society as a whole is known as ________________.


ANS: social control OBJ : 4 REF : 7

13. The purpose of the criminal _______________ is to gather enough evidence to identify a suspect and support a legal arrest.


ANS: investigation OBJ: 6 REF: 12-13
14. The _______________________ is the principle that in order to make an arrest in a misdemeanor, the arresting officer must have personally witnessed the crime being committed.

ANS: in-presence requirement OBJ : 6 REF : 13

15. The _______________ is responsible for investigating alleged crimes, examining evidence, and issuing indictments.
ANS: grand jury OBJ: 6 REF: 14
ESSAY
1. Discuss crime as a historical social problem in the United States.
ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 4-5 OBJ: 2
2. Discuss the five unifying principles of evidence based justice efforts to determine whether criminal justice programs work and whether they reduce crime rates and offender recidivism.

ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 7-8 OBJ: 4


3. Describe the main components of the contemporary criminal justice system, including a discussion of the scope of the system.
ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 7-9 OBJ: 4 | 5
4. Discuss the steps in the formal criminal justice system.
ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 12-17 OBJ: 6
5. Discuss the criminal justice system as an assembly line model and the potential negative consequences of this on society.
ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 16 OBJ: 7
6. List and discuss the levels of Walker’s “wedding cake” model of justice.
ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 19-21 OBJ: 8
7. Compare and contrast the crime control perspective of criminal justice to the due process perspective of criminal justice.
ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 22-24 OBJ: 9
8. Discuss the nonintervention perspective and the restorative justice perspective on criminal justice.
ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 24-27 OBJ: 9
9. Discuss the branches of government and how they impact the criminal justice system.
ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 8-9 OBJ: 5

10. Discuss through the use of examples why ethics are important at each stage of the criminal justice system?


ANS: answers will vary REF: p. 29-33 OBJ: 10



Download 122.5 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page