Chapter 1—Crime and Criminal Justice multiple choice



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Chapter 1—Crime and Criminal Justice

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. If one of your fellow students suggested that crime is a recent social problem, you would respond by saying:

a.

Crime and violence have been common since the nation was first formed and are not recent social problems.

b.

Crime rates today are significantly higher than they were when this country was emerging as a nation.

c.

In a historical sense, crime peaked during Civil War times and has been diminishing since that era.

d.

Crime today is comparable to the lawlessness of the Old West.

ANS: A REF: p. 4

OBJ: 2
2. The _________ was a professional association created in 1919 and funded by private contributions, which was integral in getting agencies of justice to work together and getting the work of the criminal justice system recognized.

a.

Chicago Crime Commission

b.

American Bar Foundation Commission

c.

Wickersham Commission

d.

President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

ANS: A REF: p. 6

OBJ: 2
3. The term criminal justice system was first used after the findings of the _____________ to reflect a view that justice agencies could be connected in an intricate yet often unobserved network of decision-making processes.

a.

Chicago Crime Commission

b.

American Bar Foundation project

c.

Wickersham Commission

d.

President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

ANS: B REF: p. 6

OBJ: 1
4. What are the three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is generally divided?

a.

Law enforcement, the courts, and the legislature

b.

The courts, the correctional system, and the legislature

c.

Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system

d.

Law enforcement, the correctional system, and the legislature

ANS: C REF: p. 8

OBJ: 4
5. Which of the following is NOT one of the unifying principles of evidence based justice efforts?

a.

Participation of the audience

b.

Randomized experiments

c.

Intervening factors

d.

Cost effectiveness

ANS: C REF: p. 7

OBJ: 4
6. The criminal justice system is vast, employing more than 2.4 million people and costing federal, state and local governments about ______ per year, up more than 300% since 1982.

a.

$114 million

b.

$214 million

c.

$114 billion

d.

$214 billion

ANS: D REF: p. 10

OBJ: 5
7. Which of the following is false about corrections in the United States?

a.

Though crime has declined for most of the past decade, the correctional population continues to grow.

b.

Approximately 1.5 million juveniles are handled in juvenile courts each year.

c.

More than 7 million people are under some form of correctional supervision.

d.

It costs approximately $10,000 per year to incarcerate an inmate.

ANS: D REF: p. 11

OBJ: 5
8. Which of the following is an extralegal factor?

a.

Whether the charge is a misdemeanor or a felony

b.

The age of the offender

c.

The evidence surrounding the offense

d.

The suspect’s prior record

ANS: B REF: p. 11

OBJ: 5
9. Which of the following is false regarding the scope of the criminal justice system?

a.

There are 2.4 million individuals employed across the various branches of the criminal justice system.

b.

In law enforcement alone, there are more than 1 million individuals employed.

c.

There are 50,000 courts across the United States.

d.

There are approximately 1200 correctional institutions across the country, employing about half a million individuals.

ANS: C REF: p. 10-13

OBJ: 5
10. In procedural order, which of the following comes first in the formal criminal justice process?

a.

Bail

b.

Preliminary hearing

c.

Plea bargain

d.

Arraignment

ANS: B REF: p. 14-17

OBJ: 6
11. The gatekeeper role of police officers involves primarily the first four stages of the criminal justice process. In order, what are these stages?

a.

Initial contact, arrest, charging, custody

b.

Initial contact, investigation, arrest, charging

c.

Initial contact, investigation, arrest, custody

d.

Initial contact, arrest, investigation, charging

ANS: C REF: p. 14-17

OBJ: 6
12. When the police want to interrogate or question a suspect, the office must first advise the suspect of his/her rights. This is called a(n):

a.

Miranda warning

b.

Information

c.

Charging

d.

Questioning after advisement

ANS: D REF: p. 15

OBJ: 6
13. Which of the following is false about the grand jury?

a.

It can protect citizens from false prosecution.

b.

It was created in 12th- century England.

c.

Every state uses the grand jury system.

d.

It is comprised of between 12 and 23 persons.

ANS: C REF: p. 17

OBJ: 6
14. At what stage of the formal criminal justice process does the defendant enter a plea of guilty or not guilty?

a.

Arraignment

b.

Criminal trial

c.

Preliminary hearing

d.

Bail hearing

ANS: A REF: p. 17

OBJ: 6
15. Which element is NOT characteristic of the courtroom work group?

a.

Shared norms

b.

Socialization

c.

Reward and sanction

d.

Conflict

ANS: D REF: p. 21

OBJ: 6

16. Which of the following crimes would be placed in the top layer (Layer I) of the criminal justice "wedding cake"?



a.

A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard

b.

A burglary occurs at a local bar

c.

An individual is arrested for public drunkenness

d.

A first-time offender assaults a friend

ANS: A REF: p. 22

OBJ: 8
17. Which of the following is false regarding Herbert Packer’s notion of the criminal justice process as an assembly-line?

a.

Criminal justice is seen as a screening process where each stage is a decision point.

b.

Each of these decisions can have a critical impact on the defendant, the justice system, and society.

c.

Most people who commit crime are punished for their crime.

d.

The criminal justice system suffers from congestion.

ANS: C REF: p. 18-19

OBJ: 8
18. Offenders at Level _____ of the “wedding cake” model of criminal justice have typically committed a serious offense and will receive a prison term, however will not garner much media attention.

a.

I

b.

II

c.

III

d.

IV

ANS: B REF: p. 22-23

OBJ: 8
19. Which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions, and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law?

a.

Crime control

b.

Rehabilitation

c.

Due process

d.

Equal justice

ANS: A REF: p. 24-25

OBJ: 9
20. The ________ perspective sees the justice system as a mechanism of caring for and treating people who cannot manage themselves, and assumes people are at the mercy of social, economic, and interpersonal conditions.

a.

Crime control

b.

Rehabilitation

c.

Due process

d.

Equal justice

ANS: B REF: p. 27-28

OBJ: 9
21. Between 1976 and 1999, 566 were executed in the United States and 82 individuals awaiting execution were exonerated. This is a ratio of 1 individual freed for every 7 individuals executed. Such serious errors in the criminal justice system are of concern to advocates of the _______ perspective.

a.

Crime control

b.

Rehabilitation

c.

Due process

d.

Justice

ANS: C REF: p. 29

OBJ: 9
22. If you believe in the concept of “just deserts”, which justice perspective do you favor?

a.

Restorative justice

b.

Equal justice

c.

Due process

d.

Rehabilitation

ANS: B REF: p. 31

OBJ: 9
23. If you were concerned about the potentially stigmatizing effect of community notification laws on sexual offenders, you would be part of the ______ perspective.

a.

Rehabilitation

b.

Nonintervention

c.

Equal justice

d.

Restorative justice

ANS: B REF: p. 31

OBJ: 9
24. Truth-in-sentencing laws are an aspect of which justice system perspective?

a.

Crime control

b.

Due process

c.

Equal justice

d.

Rehabilitation

ANS: C REF: p. 31

OBJ: 9
25. Which of the following justice perspectives holds that the true purpose of the criminal justice system is to promote a peaceful and just society?

a.

Rehabilitation

b.

Nonintervention

c.

Equal justice

d.

Restorative justice

ANS: D REF: p. 31

OBJ: 9

26. Which justice perspective would advocate diversion programs or mediation programs for juvenile offenders?



a.

Due process

b.

Crime control

c.

Rehabilitation

d.

Equal justice

ANS: C REF: p. 27-28

OBJ: 9
27. Advocates of which justice perspective would advocate for decriminalization of marijuana?

a.

Rehabilitation

b.

Equal justice

c.

Nonintervention

d.

Crime control

ANS: C REF: p. 30

OBJ: 9
28. Which justice perspective views crime as a community-level problem?

a.

Rehabilitation

b.

Equal justice

c.

Restorative justice

d.

Crime control

ANS: C REF: p. 31

OBJ: 9
29. Ethical issues surface in all parts of the justice system. Why are ethical standards so important in criminal justice?

a.

Without ethical decision making, it is possible that individual civil rights and liberties would suffer.

b.

Agents of the criminal justice system have access to citizens' most personal information, raising concerns of privacy and confidentiality.

c.

Justice system personnel may work in an environment where moral ambiguity is widespread.

d.

Ethical standards are important in the justice system for all these reasons.

ANS: D REF: p. 34-37

OBJ: 10
30. What is considered the primary ethical concern of a prosecutor?

a.

The adversarial system of justice in the United States.

b.

Handling both the aggravating and mitigating circumstances of the crime.

c.

Their dual role as representative of the people and officer of the court.

d.

Discretion and morality.

ANS: C REF: p. 36

OBJ: 10
TRUE/FALSE
1. If, after conducting a preliminary investigation of the legal merits of the case, a prosecutor decides to take no further action, this is referred to as a charging warning.

ANS: F REF: p. 16

OBJ: 6
2. It was in 1919 with the creation of the Chicago Crime Commission, that the work of the criminal justice system began to be recognized.

ANS: T REF: p. 6

OBJ: 3
3. Cost effectiveness is one of the unifying principles of evidence-based justice efforts.

ANS: T REF: p. 8

OBJ: 6
4. Most criminal cases are processed through the entire formal justice system.

ANS: F REF: p. 14

OBJ: 6
5. An officer’s initial contact with an individual is considered part of the informal criminal justice process.

ANS: F REF: p. 14

OBJ: 6
6. Less serious felonies make up the bottom layer of the criminal justice system wedding cake.

ANS: F REF: p. 22

OBJ: 6
7. The crime control perspective views the justice system as a means of caring for and treating people who cannot manage themselves.

ANS: F REF: p. 24-25

OBJ: 9
8. The equal justice perspective advocates judges consider extra-legal factors in sentencing.

ANS: F REF: p. 31

OBJ: 9
9. During the past decade the crime control and equal justice perspectives have dominated in criminal justice.

ANS: T REF: p. 24-25/31

OBJ: 9
10. Ethical behavior is particularly important in law enforcement because police officers have the authority to deprive people of their liberty and use physical and even deadly force.

ANS: T REF: p. 35

OBJ: 10

COMPLETION
1. ____________________ argued that only the minimum amount of punishment was needed to control crime if criminals could be convinced that their law violations were certain to be discovered and punished.

ANS: Cesare Beccaria

REF: p. 5 OBJ: 2
2. The ____________________ defines the law by determining what conduct is prohibited and establishes criminal penalties for those who violate the law.

ANS: legislature

REF: p. 8 OBJ: 3
3. It currently costs federal, state, and local governments approximately $______ billion per year for civil and criminal justice, up more than 300% since 1982.

ANS: 214


REF: p. 14 OBJ: 6


4. When prosecutors decide to take no further action after conducting a preliminary investigation of the legal matters of a case it is referred to as a(n) ____________________.

ANS: nolle prosequi

REF: p. 15 OBJ: 6


5. The ____________________ is the term used to describe the process through which large numbers of cases are systematically filtered out of the formal criminal justice process.

ANS: criminel justice funnel

REF: p. 18 OBJ: 7
6. The ____________________ is comprised of the prosecutor, defense attorney, judge, and other court personnel who function to streamline the process of justice through the extensive use of plea bargaining and other trial alternatives.

ANS: courtroom work group

REF: p. 21 OBJ: 5
7. Millions of misdemeanors, such as disorderly conduct, shoplifting, public drunkenness, and minor assault comprise Level ____________________ of the criminal justice "wedding cake" which are handled by lower courts in an assembly-line fashion.

ANS: IV


REF: p. 23 OBJ: 8
8. Decriminalization, deinstitutionalization, and pretrial diversion are favored by those adhering to the ____________________ perspective.

ANS: nonintervention

REF: p. 30 OBJ: 9
9. The goal of the ____________________ perspective is to enable the offender to appreciate the damage caused to society and to the victim, to make amends, and to be reintegrated into the community.

ANS: restorative justice

REF: p. 31 OBJ: 9
10. Advocates of the ____________________ perspective argue that the greatest concern of the justice system should be providing fair and equitable treatment to those accused of crime.

ANS: due process

REF: p. 29 OBJ: 9

ESSAY
1. Discuss crime as a historical social problem.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 4-6 OBJ: 2
2. Discuss the five unifying principles of evidence based justice efforts to determine whether criminal justice programs work and whether they reduce crime rates and offender recidivism.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 7-8 OBJ: 4
3. Describe the main components of the contemporary criminal justice system, including a discussion of the scope of the system.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 8-9/10-13 OBJ: 3 | 5
4. Explain how the formal criminal justice system differs from the informal criminal justice system. What factors in the formal system of criminal justice impact and influence the informal criminal justice system?

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 14-17/20 OBJ: 6
5. Discuss the criminal justice system as an assembly line model and the potential negative consequences of this on society.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 18-19 OBJ: 7
6. Elaborate through the use of examples, Walker’s “wedding cake” model of justice. How do individuals in the criminal justice system respond to each level of the “wedding cake”? How do the media respond to varied levels of the “wedding cake”?

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 22-23 OBJ: 8
7. Compare and contrast the crime control perspective of criminal justice to the due process perspective of criminal justice. Why do you believe these are the two perspectives that have dominated the American criminal justice system?

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 24-25/29 OBJ: 9
8. Choose two alternative perspectives on justice (alternate to the crime control or due process perspective) and elaborate how the use of these perspectives on justice might change American's views on crime and criminals.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 24-33 OBJ: 9
9. Using the example of sex offender registries and the critique offered by the ACLU, discuss the ethical issues involved from the standpoint of law enforcement personnel at a variety of levels.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 34-37 OBJ: 10
10. Discuss through the use of examples why ethics are important at each stage of the criminal justice system?

ANS: Answer not provided.



REF: p. 34-37 OBJ: 10









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