Chapter 18: Gymnosperms



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Chapter 18-final
Chapter 17-final
Essay Questions
1. Introduction; p. 430; easy

In what way was the seed such an important adaptation in the evolution of plants?


2. Evolution of the Seed; p. 430; moderate

List the key events that led to the evolution of the ovule.


3. Progymnosperms Gymnosperms; pp. 432–433; moderate

Explain the evidence to support the hypothesis that progymnosperms are progenitors of seed plants.


4. Living Gymnosperms; pp. 435-437; difficult

Discuss the phylogenetic relationships among the four groups of living gymnosperms.


5. Living Gymnosperms; pp. 436-437; moderate

Discuss the role and evolutionary development of the pollen tube.


6. Living Gymnosperms; pp. 436, 440-441; moderate

Explain the difference between pollination and fertilization. How much time elapses between these two processes in pine?


7. Phylum Coniferophyta; p. 438; easy

Explain the difference between determinate and indeterminate growth, and give an example of each.


8. Phylum Coniferophyta; pp. 439–443; difficult

Outline the main events of the pine life cycle, indicating the time frame for each.


9. Phylum Coniferophyta; p. 439; difficult

Explain why an ovuliferous scale is more properly called a seed-scale complex.


10. Phylum Coniferophyta; pp. 439-441; moderate

List the steps, including the names of all cells produced, by which a microspore becomes a mature pollen grain.


11. Other Living Gymnosperm Phyla: Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Gnetophyta; pp. 448–454; difficult

Compare and contrast the reproductive structures of cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.


12. Other Living Gymnosperm Phyla: Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Gnetophyta; pp. 453–454; moderate

Describe the three living genera of gnetophytes. What features suggest that they are closely related to the angiosperms?
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