Which of the following is NOT a characteristic shared by bryophytes and vascular plants?
b. a charophycean-alga-like ancestor
c. a monophyletic lineage
d. dominant gametophytes
e. an alternation of heteromorphic generations
2. Evolution of Vascular Plants; p. 392; difficult; ans: d
In the evolution of vascular plants, there is a trend toward the:
b. progressive reduction of the sporophyte.
c. sporophyte becoming nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte.
d. increased protection of the gametophyte by the sporophyte.
e. production of seeds in all lineages.
3. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 393; easy; ans: d
The main tissue systems of the vascular plant are the ______ systems.
b. root, shoot, and reproductive
c. root, stem, and leaf
d. dermal, vascular, and ground
e. xylem, phloem, and ground
4. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 393; moderate; ans: c
Which of the following statements about primary growth is FALSE?
b. It is initiated by the apical meristems.
c. It primarily leads to thickening of the plant body.
d. It gives rise to primary tissues.
e. It gives rise to the primary plant body.
5. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 394; easy; ans: e
The cork cambium is a(n) ______ meristem that produces________.
b. apical; cork
c. lateral; phloem
d. lateral; xylem
e. lateral; periderm
6. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 394; easy; ans: d
The conducting cells of the phloem are called:
b. vessel elements.
c. leaf traces.
d. sieve elements.
7. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 395; moderate; ans: b
Tracheids differ from vessel elements in that tracheids:
b. are less-specialized cells.
c. are a type of tracheary element.
d. conduct water and minerals.
e. provide support.
8. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 395; moderate; ans: a
What do ALL steles have in common?
b. a pith
c. leaf gaps
d. dermal tissue
e. vascular and cork cambia
9. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 396; moderate; ans: e
The siphonostele of ferns:
b. consists of a solid core of vascular tissues.
c. occurs only in the roots.
d. has a series of discrete strands around a central pith.
e. has leaf gaps.
10. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; p. 396; moderate; ans: c
Microphylls differ from megaphylls in that microphylls:
b. are associated with leaf gaps.
c. are associated with protosteles.
d. have branched veins.
e. evolved from branch systems.
11. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body; pp. 396, 397; moderate; ans: b
Which sequence of events most likely describes the evolution of megaphylls?
a. Overtopping, dichotomous branching, planation, webbing
b. Dichotomous branching, overtopping, planation, webbing
c. Planation, dichotomous branching, overtopping, webbing
d. Webbing, dichotomous branching, overtopping, planation
e. Overtopping, planation, webbing, dichotomous branching
12. Reproductive Systems; p. 397; moderate; ans: b
Which of the following statements about reproduction in vascular plants is FALSE?
b. The gametophyte is structurally more complex than the sporophyte.
c. All vascular plants are oogamous.
d. There is an alternation of heteromorphic generations.
e. The sporophyte is the dominant phase of the life cycle.
13. Reproductive Systems; p. 397; moderate; ans: c
In ferns, antheridiogens induce antheridia in _______ gametophytes.
b. larger, less mature
c. smaller, less mature
d. larger, more mature
e. smaller, more mature
14. Reproductive Systems; p. 398; moderate; ans: a
Heterospory differs from homospory in that heterospory involves:
b. larger gametophytes.
c. bisexual gametophytes.
d. spores differentiated on the basis of size not function.
e. different types of spores produced in the same sporangium.
15. Reproductive Systems; p. 398; moderate; ans: d
Which of the following is NOT an evolutionary trend in the vascular plants?
b. Reduction in size of the gametophyte
c. Reduction in complexity of the gametophyte
d. Increased prominence of antheridia and archegonia
e. Decreased reliance on water for transferring sperm to egg
16. The Phyla of Seedless Vascular Plants; p. 398; difficult; ans: c
The four major groups of vascular plants are:
I. monilophytes, lycophytes, and progymnosperms
II. flowering plants
III. rhyniophytes, zosterophyllophytes, and trimerophytes
Which of the following is the correct sequence—from earliest to most recent—of the time period in which they were dominant on Earth?
a. I, II, III, IV
b. I, III, IV, II
c. III, I, IV, II
d. III, IV, II, I
e. IV, III, I, II
17. Phylum Rhyniophyta; p. 402; difficult; ans: c
Which of the following statements about the phylum Rhyniophyta is FALSE?
b. They lived during the mid-Silurian.
c. They were differentiated into stems, roots, and leaves.
d. They had dichotomously branching stems.
e. They were homosporous.
18. Phylum Rhyniophyta; p. 402; moderate; ans: b
Cooksonia, a member of the phylum ______, is the oldest known ______.
a. Psilotophyta; fern
b. Rhyniophyta; vascular plant
c. Rhyniophyta; protracheophyte
d. Zosterophyllophyta; vascular plant
e. Zosterophyllophyta; protracheophyte
19. Phylum Zosterophyllophyta; p. 403; difficult; ans: e
The Zosterophyllophyta differ from the Rhyniophyta in that the Zosterophyllophyta:
b. were not differentiated into roots, stems, and leaves.
c. had a protostele.
d. became extinct.
e. produced lateral sporangia.
20. Phylum Trimerophytophyta; p. 403; moderate; ans: c
Members of the phylum ______ probably evolved directly from the rhyniophytes and most likely are the ancestors of the ferns and progymnosperms.
21. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 404, 406; difficult; ans: b
Which of the following statements about sporophylls in the club mosses is FALSE?
b. They are borne on the gametophyte.
c. They bear sporangia.
d. They may be interspersed among sterile microphylls.
e. They may be grouped into strobili.
22. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 404-405; moderate; ans: b
In the club moss life cycle:
b. a gametophyte may produce a series of sporophytes.
c. water is not required for fertilization.
d. microphylls, but not strobili, are formed.
e. the sporophyte does not usually become independent of the gametophyte.
23. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 405, 408; moderate; ans: d
Lycopodium differs from Selaginella and Isoetes in that Lycopodium:
a. is differentiated into roots, stems, and leaves.
b. has sporophylls.
c. is heterosporous.
d. lacks ligules.
e. has a protostele.
24. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; p. 405; moderate; ans: b
In the Selaginella life cycle, the archegonia:
b. protrude through a rupture in the megaspore wall.
c. develop on the microsporophyll.
d. develop from the suspensor.
e. cause the microsporangial wall to rupture.
25. Phylum Lycopodiophyta; pp. 408-409; moderate; ans: a
Which of the following statements about quillworts is FALSE?
b. They have a specialized cambium.
c. Some obtain carbon for photosynthesis from sediments.
d. Some have CAM photosynthesis.
e. Each leaf is a potential sporophyll.
26. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 409; easy; ans: c
Which of the following is NOT one of the major lineages of the Monilophyta?
27. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 409; moderate; ans: d
The common name “fern” refers to which of the following groups.
b. Marattiopsida, Polypodiopsida, and Equisetopsida only
c. Psilotopsida, Marattiopsida, and Equisetopsida only
d. Psilotopsida, Marattiopsida, and Polypodiopsida only
e. Psilotopsida, Marattiopsida, Polypodiopsida, and Equisetopsida
28. Phylum Monilophyta; pp. 414-415; moderate; ans: a
In contrast to a eusporangium, a leptosporangium:
b. produces more spores.
c. has a tapetum that is one cell layer thick.
d. is larger.
e. arises from one or more surface cells.
29. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 414; easy; ans: b
The innermost wall layer of a eusporangium is called the:
d. lip cell.
30. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 414; easy; ans: b
The annulus is most directly involved in:
b. discharging spores.
c. protecting against dessication.
d. water uptake.
31. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: c
______ is a genus of phylum Monilophyta, order Ophioglossales.
32. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: a
Psilotum is a _______ fern belonging to the order _______.
a. eusporangiate; Psilotales.
b. eusporangiate; Psilotopsida.
c. leptosporangiate; Psilotales.
d. leptosporangiate; Psilotopsida
e. leptosporangiate; Ophioglossales
33. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: c
Who am I? I am a eusporangiate fern belonging to the class Psilotopsida that has tiny leaves but no
34. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 415; moderate; ans: d
A eusporangiate fern with a leaf having two parts—a vegetative portion and a fertile portion—belongs to the:
b. order Filicales.
c. genus Azolla.
d. genus Ophioglossum.
e. order Marattiales.
35. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 417; moderate; ans: c
A rachis is a(n):
b. type of rhizome.
c. extension of the petiole.
d. folded portion of a frond.
36. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 417; easy; ans: b
The indusium of Polypodiopsida is a:
b. leaf outgrowth covering a sorus.
c. leaf outgrowth covering a prothallus.
37. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 418; difficult; ans: a
In a typical member of Polypodiopsida, the:
b. gametophyte persists long after the sporophyte has become independent.
c. roots develop by circinate vernation.
d. sporangia are produced on the upper surface of the leaves.
e. rhizomes are the most conspicuous part of the sporophyte.
38. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 418; easy; ans: b
The prothallus of Polypodiopsida is a(n):
b. heart-shaped gametophyte.
c. outgrowth of a leaf.
d. type of pinna.
e. portion of the rachis.
39. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; moderate; ans: a
Trichomanes speciosum is an example of a fern:
a. lacking a sporophyte stage.
b. lacking a gametophyte stage.
c. lacking gemmae.
d. producing thalloid sporophytes.
e. producing filamentous sporophytes.
40. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; difficult; ans: d
The Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae differ from the other families of ferns in that the Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae:
b. are eusporangiate.
c. are homosporous.
d. are heterosporous.
e. produce leaves in whorls of three.
41. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; moderate; ans: c
An example of a water fern that produces bean-shaped sporocarps is:
42. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 419; easy; ans: b
______ is a water fern that bears sporangia on submerged, rootlike leaves.
43. Phylum Monilophyta; p. 421; easy; ans: d
Carinal canals and conspicuously jointed stems are characteristic of the:
c. whisk ferns.
e. resurrection plants.
44. Phylum Monilophyta; pp. 422, 424; moderate; ans: b
Which of the following statements about the Equisetum life cycle is FALSE?
b. Spore dispersal is facilitated by elaters similar to those of Marchantia.
c. Gametophytes may be bisexual.
d. Sperm are multiflagellated.
e. Gametophytes are green and free-living.
1. Evolution of Vascular Plants; p. 392; easy; ans: T
The great height reached by some vascular plants was made possible by the evolution of the ability to synthesize lignin.
The vascular tissue system is embedded in the ground tissue system.
The vertical growth of the plant is an example of primary growth.
Tracheary elements are the conducting cells of the xylem.
Tracheids most likely evolved from vessel elements.
A eustele has a pith, but a siphonostele does not.
Microphylls are associated with stems possessing protosteles.
The blade of a megaphyll contains only a single vein.
Antheridiogens are water-soluble substances that affect sex expression.
In angiosperms and most gymnosperms, the entire megagametophyte is the pollen grain.
Three of the phyla of seedless vascular plants—Rhyniophyta, Zosterophyllophyta, and Trimerophytophyta—had become extinct by the end of the Devonian period.
The zosterophyllophytes were most likely the ancestors of the lycophytes.
In Lycopodium, the sporangia are borne on microsporophylls and megasporophylls.
Each leaf of Isoetes is a potential sporophyll, capable of bearing either megasporangia or microsporangia.
The thick trunk of tree ferns is due to the functioning of a vascular cambium.
In a eusporangium, the initials divide by the formation of walls parallel to the surface.
The tapetum of a leptosporangium consists of two layers.
All ferns other than Psilotopsida and Marattiopsida are leptosporangiate.
Circinate vernation is a type of branching pattern in a megaphyll.
Sporocarps are produced by members of the genus Marsilea.
Horsetails are homosporous plants having jointed stems.
In Equisetum, strobili are clustered into sporangiophores.
Summarize the key events in the evolution of vascular plants from a charophycean-algal-like organism.
Explain the differences between primary and secondary growth.
Discuss the evolution of tracheary elements. In what way is this an example of convergent evolution?
Describe the three main types of steles and their hypothesized evolution.
Describe the evolution of megaphylls.
Discuss the main differences between homospory and heterospory.
Describe the ways in which the gametophytes of vascular plants have evolved.
Discuss the evolution of primitive vascular plants by using representatives of the rhyniophytes, zosterophyllophytes, and trimerophytes.
Compare and contrast the Lycopodiaceae, Selaginaceae, and Isoetaceae.
How is the development of a eusporangium different from that of a leptosporangium?
What are the features that distinguish the Psilotopsida, Polypodiopsida, and Equisetopsida? Sketch a representative life cycle of each.