Chapter 16 Classroom Assessment and Grading Learning Goals

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Learning Goals

  • Discuss the classroom as an assessment context.
  • Provide some guidelines for constructing traditional tests.
  • Describe some types of alternative assessments.
  • Construct a sound approach to grading.

Classroom Assessment

  • The Classroom as an Assessment Context
  • Assessment as an Integral Part of Teaching
  • Current
  • Trends
  • Making Assessment
  • Compatible with Contemporary Views of Learning and Motivation
  • Creating Clear, Appropriate Learning Targets

Assessment as an Integral Part of Teaching

  • Pre-Instruction Assessment
  • Formative Assessment
  • Summative Assessment

Learning Targets

  • Define what students should know and be able to do, and
  • Provide criteria for judging whether students have attained the stated learning target.

Establishing High-Quality Assessments

  • Validity Does the assessment measure what it is intended to measure?
  • Reliability Does the assessment yield stable and dependable scores relatively free of measurement errors?
  • Fairness Do all students have equal opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and skill?

Current Trends in Classroom Assessment

  • Include some performance-based methods of assessment
  • Examine higher-level cognitive skills
  • Use multiple assessment methods
  • Use more multiple-choice items to prepare students for taking high-stakes state-standards-based tests
  • Have high performance standards
  • Use computers as part of assessment

Classroom Assessment

  • Constructed-
  • Response Items
  • Traditional
  • Tests
  • Selected-Response Items

Traditional Tests

  • Traditional tests are typically paper-pencil tests in which students select from choices, calculate numbers, construct short responses, and write essays.
  • Two main types:
  • Selected-response items
  • Constructed-response items

Selected-Response Items Multiple-Choice Items

Selected-Response Items True-False Items

Selected-Response Items Short-Answer Items, Essay Items

Classroom Assessment

  • Portfolio
  • Assessment
  • Alternative Assessments
  • Performance Assessment
  • Trends in Alternative Assessment

Alternative Assessments

  • Authentic assessment includes dance, music, art, and physical education as well as papers, projects, experiments, and portfolios.
  • Authentic assessment means evaluating
  • a student’s knowledge or skill in a context
  • that approximates the real world or real life
  • as closely as possible.

Performance Assessments

  • Performance assessments
  • are evaluated when
  • specific criteria (behaviors)
  • are performed
  • by the student.

Guidelines for Performance Assessments

  • Establishing a clear purpose
  • Identifying observable criteria
  • Providing an appropriate setting
  • Judging or scoring the performance

Portfolio Assessments

  • Artifacts: Students’ papers and homework.
  • Reproductions: Documentation of a student’s work outside the classroom.
  • Attestations: Teachers’ or others’ documentation of a student’s work.
  • Productions: Documents prepared especially for the portfolio.
  • Portfolio assessment consists of evaluating a systematic and organized collection of a student’s work that demonstrates the student’s skills and accomplishments.

Using Portfolios Effectively

  • Establishing purpose
    • Growth portfolio
    • Best-work portfolio
  • Involving students in selecting portfolio materials
  • Reviewing with students
  • Setting criteria for evaluation
  • Scoring and judging

Classroom Assessment

  • Grading and
  • Reporting
  • Performance
  • Some Issues in Grading
  • Reporting Students’ Progress and Grades to Parents
  • The Components of a Grading System

Purposes of Grading

  • Informational: The grade
  • represents the teacher’s
  • summary judgment of student performance.
  • Administrative: Help
  • determine class rank,
  • graduation, and promotion.
  • Motivational: Students
  • are motivated to achieve high grades and to fear low grades.
  • Guidance: Help in appropriate course selection and identifying students with special needs.

Standards of Comparison

  • Based on comparison of student’s performance with classmates
  • Referred to as “grading on the curve”
  • Grading scale determines what percentages of students get particular grades
  • Based on comparisons with predetermined standards or criteria
  • Referred to as “absolute grading”
  • Grading is based on level of mastery
  • Criterion-Referenced Grading
  • Norm-Referenced Grading

Grading and Reporting Performance

  • The Report Card
  • Standard method of reporting student progress
  • Letter and numerical grades are typically used, some checklists
  • Some report affective characteristics
  • Some provide teacher’s summative comments
  • Reports can include student’s performance on tests, projects, reports
  • Can include comments on student motivation, cooperation, and behavior
  • Suggestions for parents
  • Parent-Teacher Conference
  • Provide an opportunity to give parents useful information
  • Provide an avenue to develop parent-teacher partnerships on the student’s behalf

Enter the Debate

  • Should grades be abolished?
  • YES
  • NO

Crack the Case The Project

  • What are the issues involved in this situation?
  • What did Mr. Andrews do wrong?
  • How should he have gone about developing his alternative assessments?
  • How should he have developed his grading guide?
  • What do you think of the practice of including an effort grade on students’ projects? Why?

Reflection & Observation

  • Reflection:
  • How have teachers assessed your learning?
  • How did different types of feedback affect your self-perceptions and motivation to learn?

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