Chapter 12: Testing and Assessment Chapter 13: Research and Evaluation



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  • Testing and Assessment

Testing: a subset of assessment

  • Testing: a subset of assessment
  • Assessment includes:
    • Informal Assessment
    • Personality Testing
    • Ability Testing
    • The Clinical Interview
    • See Figure 12.1, p. 396

You will be administering and interpreting assessment instruments

  • You will be administering and interpreting assessment instruments
  • You may consult with others on their proper use
  • You may use them in program evaluation and research
  • You will read about them in the professional literature
  • School counselors: Sometimes the only expert on assessment in the schools
  • Other counselors: Will likely be using them in your setting and consulting with others who use them
  • Why testing? Why not testing? Testing is an additional method of gaining information about your client

2200 BCE: Chinese developed essay type test for civil service employees

  • 2200 BCE: Chinese developed essay type test for civil service employees
  • Darwin, set the stage for modern science and the examination of differences
  • Wundt, Fechner: 1st experimental labs to examine differences in people
  • Binet: Hired by Ministry of Public Education in France to develop intelligence test
  • Binet test, later became “Stanford Binet”—revised by Terman

Spread of testing at beginning of 20th century:

  • Spread of testing at beginning of 20th century:
    • Psychoanalysis spurred on development of objective and projective personality tests
    • Industrial Revolution and need for vocational assessment
    • WWI: Ability and personality tests used to determine placements of recruits
    • 1940s and 1950s: advances in statistics led to better test construction
    • 1980s and on: Personal computers make tests easier to develop, analyze, use, administer, and interpret

Ability Testing (Testing in the Cognitive Domain) (see Figure 12.2, p. 399)

  • Ability Testing (Testing in the Cognitive Domain) (see Figure 12.2, p. 399)
    • Two types
      • Achievement Testing (What one has learned)
      • Aptitude Testing (What one is capable of learning)
    • Achievement Testing
      • Survey Battery Tests
      • Diagnostic Tests (see Box 12.1, p. 400: PL 94-142)
      • Readiness Tests

Ability Testing (Testing in the Cognitive Domain) (see Figure 12.2, p. 399) (Cont’d)

  • Ability Testing (Testing in the Cognitive Domain) (see Figure 12.2, p. 399) (Cont’d)
    • Aptitude Tests (What one is capable of learning)
      • Intellectual and Cognitive Functioning Testing
        • Intelligence Tests
        • Neuropsychological Assessment
      • Cognitive Ability Tests
      • Special Aptitude Tests
      • Multiple Aptitude Tests

Personality Assessment (Testing in the Affective Domain; see Figure 12.3, p. 399)

  • Personality Assessment (Testing in the Affective Domain; see Figure 12.3, p. 399)
    • Objective Tests
    • Projective Tests
    • Interest Inventories
  • Informal Assessment (see Figure 12.4, p. 399)
    • Observation
    • Rating Scales (see Box 12.2, p. 404)
    • Classification Systems (see Box 12.3)
    • Environmental Assessment
    • Records and Personal Documents
    • Performance-Based Assessment

The Clinical Interview

  • The Clinical Interview
    • Sets a tone for the types of information that will be covered during the assessment process
    • Allows client to become desensitized to information that can be very intimate and personal
    • Allows examiner to assess nonverbals of client while he or she is talking about sensitive information
    • Allows examiner to learn problem areas firsthand
    • Gives client and examiner opportunity to study other’s personality style to assure they can work together

Norm-referenced Tests

  • Norm-referenced Tests
    • Your results are compared to your peer group
  • Criterion-referenced Tests:
    • Preset learning goals are established
    • Examinee has increased time to meet educational goals
    • Often used for individuals with learning disabilities
  • Norm-Referenced and Criterion Tests Can Be Standardized or Non-Standardized
    • Standardized: Given exactly the same way each time
    • Non-Standardized: Vary in how administered. Generally not as rigidly researched as standardized tests (e.g., teacher made tests)
    • See Table 12.1, p. 407

Relativity and Meaningfulness of Scores

  • Relativity and Meaningfulness of Scores
    • Raw scores don’t hold much meaning unless you do something to them
    • By comparing raw scores to those of an individual’s peer group, you are able to:
      • See how the individual did in comparison to similar people
      • Allow test takers who took the same test, but are in different norm groups to compare their results
      • Allow an individual to compare his or her results on two different tests

Some statistics help us make meaning of test scores

  • Some statistics help us make meaning of test scores
    • Measures of Central Tendency
      • Mean
      • Median
      • Mode
    • Measures of Variability
      • Range
      • Interquartile Range
      • Standard Deviation
        • See Figure 12.5, page 409
        • See Figures 12.6 and 12.7; page 410 and 411

TYPES OF DERIVED SCORES

  • TYPES OF DERIVED SCORES
    • Percentile Rank
    • T-Scores
    • Deviation IQ
    • SAT/GRE Type Scores
    • ACT Scores
  • TYPES OF DERIVED SCORES
    • Normal Curve Equivalents (NCEs)
    • Stanines
    • Sten Scores
    • Grade Equivalent Scores
    • Idiosyncratic Publisher-Derived Scores

A basic statistic not directly related to interpretation of test but crucial in test construction

  • A basic statistic not directly related to interpretation of test but crucial in test construction
    • Ranges from -1.0 to +1.0
    • The closer to -1.0 and +1.0 the strong the relationship between variables
    • Positive correlation: tendency for two sets of scores to be related in same direction
    • Negative correlation: tendency for two sets of scores to be related in opposite direction
    • 0 = no relationship between variables
    • See Figure 12.8, p. 413

Four Types

  • Four Types
    • Validity: Is the test measuring what it’s supposed to measure?
    • Reliability: Is the test accurate (consistent) in its measurement?
    • Practicality: Is this a practical test to use?
    • Cross-Cultural Fairness: Has the test been shown to be fair across different cultures?

Three types

  • Three types
    • Content
    • Criterion-Related
      • Concurrent
      • Predictive
    • Construct
      • Experimental
      • Convergent
      • Discriminant
      • Factor Analysis
  • Face validity
    • Not a “real” type of validity. Does the test, on the surface, seem to measure what it’s supposed to measure
    • Some tests may be valid, but may not seem to be measuring what it’s supposed to measure

Is bias removed—as best as possible?

  • Is bias removed—as best as possible?
  • Does it predict well for all cultural groups?
    • Griggs v. Duke Power Company: Tests must show that they can predict for job performance
    • A number of ethical and legal issues have been addressed (see later under “Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues”)
    • See Table 12.2, p.417: Summary of Types of Validity and Reliability

Four Types:

  • Four Types:
    • Test-Retest
    • Alternate (Parallel; Equivalent) Forms
    • Split-Half (Odd-Even)
    • Internal Consistency
      • Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha
      • Kuder-Richardson

Is this a realistic test to give?

  • Is this a realistic test to give?
  • Based on:
    • Cost
    • Time to administer
    • Ease of administration
    • Format of test
    • Readability of test
    • Ease of interpretation

Over 4000 assessment procedures

  • Over 4000 assessment procedures
  • How do you find them:
    • Publisher resource catalogs
    • Journals
    • Source Books and On-Line Source “Book” Information
      • Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook
      • Tests in Print
    • Books on Testing and Assessment
    • Experts
    • The Internet

Info usually included:

    • Info usually included:
      • Demographic information
      • Reason for referral
      • Family background
      • Other relevant information (e.g., legal, medical, vocational)
      • Behavioral observations
      • Mental status
      • Test results
      • Diagnosis
      • Recommendations
      • Summary

Usually a few pages long

  • Usually a few pages long
  • Problems with:
    • Overuse of jargon
    • Focusing on assessment procedures & downplaying person
    • Focusing on person and downplaying assessment results
    • Poor organization
    • Poor writing skills
    • Failure to take a position
    • Demographics

Caution in Using Assessment Procedures

  • Caution in Using Assessment Procedures
    • Cultural bias continues to exist in testing
    • Standards and ethical codes have been developed to help us:
      • Understand the cultural bias inherent in tests
      • Know when a test should not be used due to bias
      • Know what to do with test results when a test does not predict well for minorities
  • Standards for effective use of assessment instruments
    • Association for Assessment in Counseling’s Standards for Multicultural Assessment
    • Code of Fair Testing in Education
    • ACA Ethics Code
  • Take A Stand—Do Something!
    • Our duty and moral responsibility to do something when
      • Tests have been administered improperly
      • Tests are culturally biased and the bias is not addressed
      • Cheating has taken place
      • Tests were used with limited validity or reliability

Ethics

  • Ethics
    • Guidelines for use of assessment instruments(see bottom p. 420)
    • Informed consent
    • Invasion of privacy and confidentiality
    • Competence in the use of Tests
      • Levels A, B, and C
    • Technology and Assessment
      • Sometimes, counselor not used with computer-generated reports
      • Issues of confidentiality and privacy
      • Knowing laws relative to the impact of on-line technology
      • Adequate training in technology

ETHICAL ISSUES

  • ETHICAL ISSUES
  • Ethics (Other Issues)
    • Proper release of test results
    • Selecting Tests
    • Administering, Scoring and Interpreting Tests
    • Keeping Tests Secure
    • Picking up-to-date tests
    • Proper Test Construction
  • PROFESSIONAL ISSUES
  • Professional Issues
    • Computer-Driven Assessment Reports
      • Can be very good
      • Make sure they reflect “you”
    • Professional Association
      • Assoc. for Assessment in Counseling and Education (AACE)
        • Adivision of ACA

Legal Issues

  • Legal Issues
    • Americans with Disabilities Act: Accommodations must be made when taking tests for employment
    • (FERPA) Buckley Amendment: Right to access school records, including test records
    • Carl Perkins Act (PL98-524): Right to vocational assessment, counseling, and placement for disadvantaged
    • Civil Rights Act (‘64) & Amendments: Tests must be shown to be valid for the job

Legal Issues (Cont’d)

  • Legal Issues (Cont’d)
    • Freedom of Information Act: Right to access federal records, including test records
    • PL94-142 and IDEIA: Right of students to be tested, at school’s expense, for a suspected disability that interferes with learning
    • Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act: Instruments must measure person’s ability, not be a reflection of his or her disability
    • HIPAA: Right of privacy of records, including test records

Assessment of clients is not just giving a test

  • Assessment of clients is not just giving a test
  • Use multiple methods and be wise
  • Remember, people can and will change over time
    • Don’t view them as “stagnant” and always the same


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