Chapter 12: South Asia (Fig. 12. 1) Learning Objectives

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Ch. 10: South Asia

  • Rowntree, et. al.
  • Modified by J. Naumann, UMSL

Chapter 12: South Asia (Fig. 12.1)

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the unique climatological challenges of this region, which include monsoons and cyclones, and accompanying flooding
  • Learn about the challenges and strategies of feeding a large and growing population
  • Become familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of South Asia
  • Understand the following concepts and models:
  • -Monsoon
  • -Green Revolution
  • -Caste system
  • -Hinduism
  • -Mughal Empire
  • -Orographic rainfall
  • -Subcontinent
  • -Indian diaspora


  • IRREDENTISM – boundaries that divide groups


      • The Himalayan Mountains are in South Asia
      • Called the Indian subcontinent
      • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives
      • South Asia is the world’s second most populous region
      • The population is growing, raising concerns about food production keeping pace
      • South Asia was a British colony for several centuries
      • Since achieving in 1947, India and Pakistan have been embroiled in conflict; both countries have nuclear weapons
      • This region is one of the world’s poorest

Creation of the Realm

  • Continental Drift

Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim

  • The Film Star and the Poacher King
      • Outlaw and poacher Koose Veerappan kidnapped film star Rajkumar in a case that illustrates culture and politics in South Asia

Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim

  • Environmental Issues in South Asia
      • 1984 explosion at Bhopal fertilizer plant killed 2,500 people – inadequate supervision of foreign investors
    • Natural Hazards in Bangladesh
      • Ganges and Brahmaputra river deltas flood in wet summer monsoons; dense settlement there causes many deaths
    • Forests and Deforestation
      • Ganges Valley and coastal plains of India deforested for agriculture
      • Deforestation’s causes: agricultural, urban, and industrial expansion
      • Problems: fuel wood shortage leads to use of manure which then cannot be used as fertilizer

Environmental Issues in South Asia (cont.)

  • South Asia’s Monsoon Climates
      • Monsoon: the distinct seasonal change of wind direction; in South Asia
        • Summer monsoon brings rain and flooding to Bangladesh
        • Winter monsoon is dry
      • Orographic rainfall: precipitation from the uplifting and cooling of moist winds; it occurs in the Western Ghats and Himalayas
        • Rain-shadow effect: the area of low rainfall found on the leeward (or downwind side) of a mountain range
      • Drier conditions in Pakistan


  • “To know India and her people, one has to know the monsoon.”
  • To the people of India the monsoons are a source of life.
  • From an Arabic word meaning seasonal reversal of winds
  • General onshore movement in summer
  • General offshore flow in winter
  • Very distinctive seasonal precipitation regime – Two monsoons – wet one & dry one

Monsoon Principles

  • Wind is a horizontal movement of air from a high pressure area to a low pressure area.
  • Land surfaces heat up and cool off more quickly and to a greater degree than water bodies.
  • During the warmer months, a low pressure tends to develop over land and a high pressure over the adjacent water bodies. (wet monsoon)
  • During the cooler months, a high pressure tends to develop over land and a low pressure over the adjacent land areas. (dry monsoon)
  • This results in the shifting of the prevailing winds -- MONSOONS
  • Dry monsoon Wet monsoon
  • Seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction
  • Seasons NOT defined by temperature patterns, but by precipitation patterns



Low Elevations

  • Purple shades are highlands
  • Orange is for “uplands” – dissected plateaus
  • All the other colors are for types of plains – easily flooded areas
  • Massive Delta Region
  • Brahmaputra Delta
  • Thousands of tributaries and distributaries that can flood (only the larger ones are shown on the map.)
  • Ganges Delta
  • Rice is Dependant on the Monsoons


  • Widespread flooding
  • Property damage
  • Destruction to agricultural lands
  • Damage to transportation infrastructure
  • Homelessness
  • Disease
  • Malnutrition
  • Serious injury
  • Death

Climates of South Asia (Fig. 12.6)

Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim (cont.)

  • The Four Subregions of South Asia
    • Mountains of the North
      • Collision of Indian Subcontinent with Asian landmass
        • Himalayas, Karakoram Range, Arakan Yoma Mountains
    • Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands
      • Lowlands created by three major river systems
        • Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers
    • Peninsular India
      • Deccan Plateau covers most of India, is bordered by Eastern and Western Ghats (mountains)
    • The Southern Islands
      • Sri Lanka (1 island) and Maldives (1,200 small islands)

Physical Geography of South Asia (Fig. 12.2)

  • Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands
  • Peninsular India
  • Mountains of the North
  • The Southern Islands

Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma

      • India has more than 1 billion people
        • Concern about producing enough food
        • India’s TFR at 3.2, but preference for males creates problems
      • Pakistan has 145 million people
        • Pakistan lacks an effective, coordinated family planning program
        • Overall TFR is 5.6; RNI is 2.8%
        • Linked to Muslim culture
        • Early childhood mortality, and low rate of female contraception
      • Bangladesh has 133.5 million people
        • Has one of the highest settlement densities in the world
        • TFR is 3.3
        • Strong government support for family planning
        • Muslim culture, but more flexible

Population Density

    • ARITHMETIC- 904/sq mi
    • PHYSIOLOGIC- 1,615/sq mi (US=415/sq mi)
  • 265
  • 22
  • 42
  • 874
  • 7.6
  • 176
  • 53
  • 52
  • 82
  • 865
  • 341
  • 315
  • 36
  • 0
  • 200
  • 400
  • 600
  • 800
  • 1000
  • People per square mile
  • Europe
  • Russia
  • North America
  • Japan
  • Middle America
  • South America
  • N. Africa/S.W. Asia
  • Subsaharan Africa
  • South Asia
  • Southeast Asia
  • Europe
  • Russia
  • North America
  • Japan
  • Austral
  • Middle America
  • South America
  • N. Africa/S.W. Asia
  • Subsaharan Africa
  • South Asia
  • East Asia
  • Southeast Asia
  • Pacific
  • World Average = 117/mi2
  • Realm

Population Map of South Asia (Fig. 12.8)


  • United States - Bangladesh
  • 77 people/
  • sq mile
  • 133,000,000
  • 50,300
  • 2,644 people/
  • sq mile

Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

  • Migration and the Settlement Landscape
      • South Asia is one of the least urbanized regions of the world
        • Majority live in compact rural villages
        • Rural-to-urban migration caused by agricultural changes
      • Most settlement near fertile soils and dependable water sources
  • Agricultural Regions and Activities
      • Agriculture has historically been unproductive
      • Green Revolution: agricultural techniques based on hybrid crop strains and heavy use of industrial fertilizers and chemical pesticides
        • Greatly increased agricultural yields in South Asia
        • High social and cultural costs

Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

  • Agricultural Regions and Activities
    • Crop Zones
      • Rice: lower Ganges Valley, lowlands of India’s eastern and western coasts, delta lands of Bangladesh, Pakistan’s lower Indus Valley, and Sri Lanka
      • Wheat: northern Indus Valley, western half of India’s Ganges Valley
        • Punjab is India’s “breadbasket”
      • Millet and sorghum in less fertile areas
  • Cooler to the north and warmer to the south
  • Drier in the west and wetter in the east
  • Orographic precipitation in the south

Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

    • The Green Revolution
      • Use of hybrid, high-yield seeds to bolster production
        • 1970 to 1990s: India more than doubled annual grain production
      • Only more prosperous farmers could afford to adopt seeds and use mechanization
      • Environmental problems from dependency on chemical fertilizers and pesticides
      • Poorer farmers forced from their lands
      • Salinization in irrigated areas

Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

  • Urban South Asia
      • About 25% of the South Asian population resides in urban areas
        • Many live in bustees (sprawling squatter settlements)
    • Mumbai (Bombay)
      • Largest city in South Asia
      • Financial, commercial, and industrial center
      • Less-fortunate immigrants live in “hutments” – crude shelters built on formerly busy sidewalks
    • Delhi/New Delhi
      • More than 11 million people
      • India’s capital, has British colonial imprint
      • Air pollution a problem

Mumbai (Bombay)

  • Boy begging from motorists
  • Three ages in architecture: colonial, modern, and pre-colonial.
  • Modern Hotel
  • Red Fort Mosque (disused)
  • Lotus Temple Parliament Delhi street scene

Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

  • Urban South Asia (cont.)
    • Calcutta
      • More than 12 million people
      • Problems: poverty, pollution, congestion, homelessness
    • Karachi
      • More than 7 million people
      • Pakistan’s largest city
      • Political and ethnic tensions between Sindis (native inhabitants) and Muhajirs (Muslim refugees from India)


  • Street scene Modern Business District Children on school bus
  • Jain temple
  • Outdoor market

Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries

      • Since its inception in 1948, India has been a secular state
        • Growth of Hindu nationalism: movement promoting Hindu values as essential and exclusive fabric of Indian society
        • Tensions between Hindus and Muslims in India
        • Tensions between fundamentalists and secularists in Pakistan
  • Origins of South Asian Civilizations
      • Indus Valley civilization established 5,000 years ago
      • By 800 B.C., a new urban focus in Ganges Valley
    • Hindu Civilization
      • Hinduism: a complicated faith without a single, uniformly accepted system of belief
      • Sanskrit: sacred languages of Hinduism
      • Caste system: strict division of Hindu society into ranked hereditary groups

Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

  • Origins of South Asian Civilizations (cont.)
    • Buddhism
      • Siddhartha Gautama (563 B.C.), the Buddha
        • From elite caste, but rejected wealth and power
        • Sought to attain mystical union with the universe (enlightenment)
      • Faith spread throughout South Asia, and East, Southeast, and Central Asia, but retreated from South Asia
    • Arrival of Islam
      • Around 700 A.D. Arab armies conquered lower Indus Valley
      • Mughal Empire, a powerful Muslim state, dominated
      • Conversion in northwest (Pakistan) and Northeast (Bangladesh)

Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

  • Origins of South Asian Civilizations (cont.)
    • The Caste System
      • Regional variations, religious differences in acceptance of caste system
      • Caste: complex social order
        • Varna: ancient fourfold social hierarchy of the Hindu world
        • Jati: refers to local hundreds of local endogamous groups
          • Castes include Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras
          • Scheduled castes or “untouchables” or dalits

Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

  • Contemporary Geographies of Religion
    • Hinduism
      • Major faith of India and Nepal
      • Forms of worship differ by region
    • Islam
      • 400 million Muslims in the region, among the largest Muslim communities in the world
        • Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives are mostly Muslim
        • In India, Muslims concentrated in the cities, in the north, the upper and central Ganges plain, and in Kerala
    • Sikhism
      • Sikhism: faith incorporating elements of Hinduism and Islam
      • Originated in Punjab in 1400s, still concentrated in Punjab
      • Sikh men noted for work as soldiers and bodyguards
  • Not just a religion – an intricate web of religious, philosophical, social, economic, & artistic elements
  • No common creed
  • No single doctrine
  • No direct divine revelation
  • No rigid narrow moral code
  • No leadership hierarchy
  • Can be practiced on different levels of spirituality – mainly an individual enterprise
  • Has had the ability to absorb competing religious ideologies – except for Islam
  • BRAHMAN – the “Ultimate Reality” – something like “The Force” of Star Wars –not a “personal” god –impersonal force under girding all
  • BRAHMA – the creator – & many incarnations
  • VISHNU – the sustainer – & many incarnations
  • SHIVA – the destroyer – & many incarnations
  • CYCLES OF CREATION (somewhat like reincarnation of the universe) – we’re in 4th cycle
  • When reincarnation ceases, one becomes one with Brahman
  • Shiva – the Destroyer
  • Shiva-nataraja – incarnation as the king of dancers – very common symbol of Shiva

Hindu Temple

  • Four main ideas are important in understanding the Hindu religion and the caste system
    • Reincarnation
    • Karma
    • Dharma
    • Ahimsa


  • Every living thing has a soul.
  • When a living thing dies, its soul moves into another living creature (transmigration of souls).
  • Souls are reborn in a newly created human or animal life.
  • This continues until the “ultimate reality” is fully understood (one sees the Atman is also Brahman)– then it ceases


  • Every action brings about certain results.
  • There is no escaping the consequences of one’s actions.
  • Good behavior is rewarded when the soul is reborn into a higher ranking living creature.
  • Karma is somewhat the result of one’s approach to one’s dharma.


  • A set of rules that must be followed by all living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation. This ties into the caste system.
  • Sometimes seen as analogous to duty
  • Each person’s dharma is different.


  • Seeing all life as sacred – a part of a “oneness”
  • Results in the life principle of non-violence
  • Supports the idea of being in harmony with nature
  • A principle also found in Jainism and Buddhism


  • Puja or worship – corporate worship not required – largely individual practices
  • Cremation of the dead
  • Regulations of the caste system

Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

  • Contemporary Geographies of Religion (cont.)
    • Buddhism and Jainism
      • Buddhism virtually disappeared in India but persisted in Sri Lanka, mainland Southeast Asia, and the high valleys of the Himalayas
      • Jainism – religion that emerged around 500 B.C. as protest to orthodox Hinduism
        • Stressed extreme non-violence
    • Other Religious Groups
      • Parsis (Zoroastrians): an ancient religion focusing on the cosmic struggle between good and evil
        • Concentrated in the Mumbai area
      • More Indian Christians than either Parsis or Jains
      • British missionaries converted animists to Protestantism


  • Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.) – founder searching for understanding of suffering
  • Emperor Asoka (3rd Century B.C.) Spread Buddhism in India


  • Objected to harsher features of Hinduism such as the caste system
  • Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge
  • Enlightenment ends the cycle of reincarnation
  • Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals


  • Sorrow and suffering are part of all life.
  • People suffer because they desire things they cannot have.
  • The way to escape suffering is to end desire, to stop wanting, and to reach a stage of not wanting.
  • To end desire, follow the “middle path,” i.e., the path that avoids the extremes of too much pleasure and desire.


  • Right understanding
  • Right purpose
  • Right speech
  • Right conduct
  • Right means of earning a living
  • Right effort
  • Right awareness
  • Right meditation


  • Hinduism - broad and tolerant, accepting many of the teachings of Buddha
  • Buddhists in India - willing to compromise with the beliefs and customs of Hinduism
  • Final blow - 8th century - arrival of Islam
  • -- Destroyed the great Buddhist monasteries
  • -- Burned libraries
  • -- Killed monks
  • Today - only 1 million Buddhists in India
  • Hindu/Muslim-practices/perceptions
  • Hindus tend to be vegetarians (ahimsa and reincarnation beliefs foster this)
  • Cows are sacred animals
  • Believe in reincarnation
  • Brahman, if it is God, is an impersonal one
  • Follow caste system – no social or religious mobility within one lifetime
  • Formerly practiced sutee
  • Muslims see Hindus as polytheistic infidels not to be tolerated
  • Muslims eat meat (cows) – not pork
  • Muslims are strict monotheists
  • Muslims believe in a personal God
  • Muslims reject the concept of castes – equality of believers
  • Reject reincarnation

Religious Geography of South Asia (Fig. 12.16)

Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

  • Geographies of Language
      • Dravidian: a linguistic group is unique to southern India
      • Major languages of India associated with an Indian state; political subdivisions follow linguistic lines
    • The Indo-European North
      • Hindi: most widely spoken language of South Asia
        • Second-most widely spoken language in the world
        • Language of the Hindu majority
      • Urdu: language of the Muslim minority
    • Languages of the South
      • Dravidian languages prevail in southern India and northern Sri Lanka
        • Tamil in Sri Lanka

Geographies of Language (cont.)

    • Linguistic Dilemmas
      • Linguistic nationalism: linking of a language with political goals
        • India encountered resistance to Hindi as a national language
      • Role of Hindi is expanding
      • English is the main integrating language in South Asia
  • South Asians in a Global Cultural Context
      • Use of English helped spread global culture to the region
      • South Asian literature has spread throughout the world
      • Indians migrate to developed and less-developed world regions
      • Imported global culture, especially with sexual content, creates tensions

Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region

  • South Asia Before and After Independence in 1947
      • During the 1500s most of region was under the Mughal Empire
        • European merchants established coastal trading posts
      • By 1700s the empire weakened and contending states emerged
    • The British Conquest
      • British East India Company – a private organization acted as an arm of the British government and monopolized trade
        • Exploited political chaos to stake empire
      • Sepoy Mutiny (1856) led to South Asia being ruled directly by the British
      • Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh rulers retained their states under British rule

South Asia Before and After Independence in 1947 (cont.)

    • Independence and Partition
      • By the 1920s political protestors called for independence
      • Gandhi favored a unified state, while Muslim leaders argued for a division
      • Post World War II partitioning
        • India, East and West Pakistan
        • 1971: Bangladesh independence
    • Geopolitical Structure of India
        • India organized as a federal state
          • Individual states retain significant power
          • Following linguistic patterns
          • Added in 2000: Jharkand, Uttaranchal, and Chhattisgarh

India’s Political Development – effective leaders in early years

  • Jawaharlal Nehru 1947-1964
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri – 1964-1966
  • Indira Gandhi 1966-1977
  • 1977- 1980 – Janata Coalition (had defeated Indira Gandhi)
  • Indira Gandhi 1980-1984 -- Assassinated
  • Rajiv Gandhi 1984 – 1989 – assassinated in election of 1991
  • Mid 1990s –corruption and scandals
  • 1997 – K. R. Narayanan (of the lowest caste)
  • 1998 – Atal Vajpayee – Hindu Nationalist party
  • Oldest continuously functioning democracy in Asia
  • Took a neutralist position in the Cold War
  • West Pakistan
  • East Pakistan
  • (Bangladesh)
  • India
  • Kashmir -- disputed

Centrifugal & Centripetal Forces – India

  • Centrifugal
    • Caste System
    • Jharkhand—new state in the making?
      • Area of marginalized people seeking statehood so as to have a “voice” in the system.
    • Muslim minority
    • Frontier wars
    • Cultural/linguistic diversity
    • Hindu nationalism
  • Centripetal
    • A single capital
    • An interregional transport network
    • A lingua franca
    • A trained civil service
    • Federal system of government
    • Strong leadership in its formative years after gaining independence

Geopolitical Issues in South Asia (Fig. 12.22)

Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia

  • Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia
    • Kashmir
      • During British period, ruled by a maharaja (a Hindu king subject to British advisors)
      • During partitioning, Kashmir went to India
      • Tensions between India and Pakistan because Kashmir is Muslim
    • The Punjab
      • Original Punjab area divided between India and Pakistan in 1947
      • Punjab has Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs
      • Tensions, violence led to assassination of Prime Minister Indira Ghandi by her Sikh bodyguards in 1984
      • Still potential for conflict


  • Disputed with India

Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region (cont.)

  • Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia (cont.)
    • The Northeast Fringe
      • Ethnic conflict in states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and portions of Assam
        • Migration from Bangladesh and other parts of India is a potential threat to local culture
    • Sri Lanka
      • North dominated by Hindu Tamils (minority) and south by Buddhist Singhalese (majority)
      • Singhalese favor a national government whereas Tamils support political and cultural autonomy
      • A rebel force, the Tamil Tigers, attacked Sri Lankan army in 1983; tensions still brewing

Civil War in Sri Lanka (Fig. 12.27)

  • Sinhalese vs Tamils
  • Tamils - demanded equal rights in:
  • -- education
  • -- employment
  • -- landownership
  • -- linguistic & political representation
  • Insurgent State
  • LTTE - Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region (cont.)

  • International and Global Geopolitics
      • Cold war between India and Pakistan
        • Nuclear capabilities of both countries escalated tensions
        • China allied with Pakistan (China-India border conflict)
        • Terrorist attacks of September 11th complicated matters
        • Pakistani had supported Afghanistan’s Taliban regime, now helps U.S.
      • Marxist rebel movement against India in Nepal

Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty

  • South Asian Poverty
      • More than 300 million Indian citizens are below their country’s poverty line, and Bangladesh is poorer
      • Nepal and Bhutan are in worse condition
      • India has a growing middle class, and an upper class
        • About 100 million Indians afford modern consumer goods
  • Geographies of Economic Development
    • The Himalayan Countries
      • Rugged terrain and isolation in Nepal and Bhutan are a disadvantage
      • Bhutan has isolationist stance (tourists must spend $165/day)
      • Nepal’s tourism has resulted in environmental degradation

Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

  • Geographies of Economic Development
    • Bangladesh
      • Poorest country in the region
      • Heavy reliance on production of commercial crops
      • Environmental degradation has contributed to poverty
      • Internationally competitive in textile and clothing manufacturing
    • Pakistan
      • Inherited a reasonably well-developed urban infrastructure
      • Agriculture, cotton, textile industry are important
      • Less dynamic economy and less potential for growth
      • Burdened by high levels of defense spending

Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

  • Geographies of Economic Development (cont.)
    • Sri Lanka and the Maldives
      • Sri Lanka: second-most highly developed economy in region
        • Exports of agricultural products (rubber and tea) and textiles
        • Civil war has undercut economic progress
      • Maldives is most prosperous country in region, based on GNI
        • Small total economy
    • India’s Lesser Developed Areas
      • India’s economy dwarfs that of other South Asian countries
      • Prosperous west and poorer east
      • Caste tensions exist in these areas

Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

  • Geographies of Economic Development (cont.)
    • India’s Centers of Economic Growth
      • Punjab and Haryana are showcase states of Green Revolution
      • Gujarat and Maharashtra are noted for their industrial and financial clout
        • Many Gujarat merchants and traders were part of Indian diaspora (migration of large numbers of Indians to foreign countries)
        • Karnataka’s capital Bangalore is a growing high-tech center

Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

  • Globalization and India’s Economic Future
      • South Asia is one of the world’s least globalized regions
        • Low foreign trade and low foreign direct investment
        • Economy based on private ownership combined with government control of planning, resource allocation, and certain heavy industrial sectors
          • Led to low, slow-paced growth
        • 1990s: liberalization of the economy, regulations reduced
        • Future economic policies remain uncertain

Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

  • Social Development
      • South Asia has low levels of health and education
        • Punjab, Gujarat, Maharashtra on top; Bihar at the bottom
        • But literacy rates are high in the poor northeast because of missionary education
    • The Educated South
      • Sri Lanka has high levels of social welfare
        • Long life expectancy, low literacy rate
        • Fertility rate reduced to near replacement levels
      • Kerala on the mainland, though not prosperous, has best social development in India
        • Socialist leaders promote education and community health care

Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

  • The Status of Women
      • Both Hindu and Muslim traditions tend to limit women
      • In many regions of India, female literacy is far lower than that of male literacy
      • Gender imbalances as a result of “differential neglect”
        • In poorer families, boys tend to receive better and more preferential treatment than girls
      • Social position of women is improving, especially in the more prosperous parts of the north


  • End of Chapter 12: South Asia
  • Geopolitical tensions in South Asia cause concern
  • Nuclear rivalry between India and Pakistan
  • Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka
  • Religious strife between Hindus and Muslims
  • Bangladesh draws foreign direct investment and prospects for the future
  • India may be perfectly positioned for globalization

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