Every exchange with your guest must emphasize that you will care for them, attend to their needs and that their business and concerns are valued. All your staff will need to reflect this behavior, understanding that guest satisfaction is the only performance yardstick.
- John Hendrie, CEO, Hospitality Performance, Inc.
TALES FROM THE FIELD Nobody’s perfect…
Why do some hospitality organizations do a poor job when conducting employee evaluations?
How might the chef in this Tale be damaging employee/employer relations at the hotel?
Does this kind of problem impact employee turnover?
What are the chances of this employee remaining productive and motivated?
The performance appraisal system
Uses of performance appraisals
Informal and formal appraisal systems
Commonly used appraisal methods
The role of employee counseling
Legal concerns regarding performance appraisals
EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEMS
Help identify an employee’s positive accomplishments as well as areas of performance that need improvement
Pointing out an employee’s strengths by highlighting past accomplishments boosts morale and instills positive self-esteem
When deficiencies are found, the hospitality manager can help the employee draft a plan to correct the situation
When management focuses on past accomplishments as well as future goals for improvement, employees are less likely to be defensive, and the process itself is more likely to motivate employees to improve any performance deficiencies
USES FOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS
Improve employee performance
Determine pay adjustments
Assist management when making placement decisions
Identify training needs
Assist with career planning
Identify job design errors
Provide feedback to management
Equal Employment Opportunity
PROVIDING DAILY FEEDBACK
Because there is a close connection between the behavior and the feedback, overall employee performance is likely to improve.
When honest informal feedback occurs, there will be fewer surprises when the times comes to conduct a more formal, written evaluation
An example of an informal appraisal method
ANNUAL AND SEMI-ANNUAL EVALUATIONS
A formal appraisal evaluation should be conducted at least once or twice per year, and they should always be in written form so they are documented
Sometimes referred to as BARS, is an evaluation approach that combines elements from both the forced choice and critical incidents methods of evaluating employee performance
When using the BARS method, supervisors rate their employees along a continuum just as they do with the forced choice and critical incidents methods, but they use specific, named behaviors as benchmarks, rather than general descriptions or traits
Performance Category: Uses Collaborative Methods in Meeting Hotel Sales Goals
5 [ ] Very Good
Develops workable plans for collaboration including time lines and budget and works regularly with department heads to achieve goals. Gives credit to others for their contributions and provides supportive written materials of the work. Always follows up on agreements.
4 [ ] Good
Plans for collaboration usually carried out. Helps all members of team make meaningful contributions. Experiences some difficulties in full collaboration among identified team members.
3 [ ] Below Average
Has a plan for collaboration, but experiences delays and frustrations with the nature of collaboration.
2 [ ] Poor
Has no effective plan for collaboration, but expresses interest.
1 [ ] Unacceptable
Shows no interest in working with others. Does not seek direction on how to improve.
BEHAVIORALLY ANCHORED RATING SCALE FORM
ANOTHER FORM OF BARS
The behavioral frequency scale is another form of BARS.
Rather than rating specific, named behaviors, this form requires the supervisor to indicate the frequency of the identified behavioral anchors, usually along a five-point scale from “almost never” to “almost always”
Is actively involved with and constantly nurtures staff members
Focuses on restaurant and individual needs
Provides a stable and supportive learning and working environment
BEHAVIORAL FREQUENCY SCALE FORM
BARS PROS AND CONS
Their validity tends to be superior to methods that are based on subjective personality traits
But because they must be created for each job, they can be costly to develop and maintain, especially for larger hospitality operations with an array of jobs
BARS are somewhat complex to develop and administer because they address specific, job-related behaviors
Self-appraisals tend to be an effective method of performance evaluation when the goal is to further self-development. This system works well when evaluating supervisors and managers
When employees evaluate themselves, defensive behavior is less likely to occur and there is a motive for self-improvement
There is always the risk that the employee will either be too lenient or critical when evaluating her own performance
The employee’s involvement and commitment to the improvement process is critical for this method to be truly effective
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO)
This approach requires the supervisor to be directly involved in determining performance standards for his/her employees
Ideally, the supervisor and the employee should jointly review the employee’s job responsibilities, identify the processes and results needed, and then determine performance standards that will define how well the results are accomplished.
In the best-case scenario, these goals are mutually agreed upon and objectively measurable. If both of these conditions are met, the employees are apt to be more motivated to achieve their goals since they have actively participated in setting them
ASSISTING EMPLOYEES WITH GOAL SETTING USING MBO
Management should remember that four to six goals per rating period are usually sufficient, and the goals should be changed or adjusted as needed
One drawback to MBO is that objectives are sometimes either too ambitious or too narrow
This may result in frustration for employees or overlooked areas of performance
The MBO method of performance appraisal tends to be most effective when applied to supervisors and managers
Provides each employee the opportunity to receive performance feedback from his supervisor, three to four co-workers, and even customers.
Most 360-degree performance appraisals are also responded to by the individual employee being evaluated in the form of a self- assessment.
Powerful developmental method and quite different from traditional manager- employee appraisals.
Can be used as a stand-alone development method.
Method tends to reduce the instances of rater bias.
An evaluation interview occurs when the supervisor and the employee meet one-on-one to discuss the formal employee performance appraisal
The goal is to give the employee feedback about past performance and to devise an action plan when certain elements of job performance require improvement
PREPARATION IS KEY
Employee evaluations are such a critical activity of effective hospitality management, the supervisor or manager must be prepared
This might include reviewing the employee’s previous appraisals, identifying specific behaviors to be reinforced during the interview, and planning method for providing feedback