Chapter 12 Notes Manifest Destiny 1818-1853 The Oregon Country



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Chapter 12 Notes

  • Manifest Destiny
  • 1818-1853

The Oregon Country

  • Rivalry in the Northwest
  • 1) Area between Pacific Ocean & Rocky Mountains (north of California)
  • 2) 4 Nations claim it – U.S., Spain, Great Britain, & Russia
  • A. Adams-Onis Treaty
  • 1) Spanish only claim to N. border of California
  • 2) British & U.S. agree to joint occupation of Oregon Country
  • B. Mountain Men
  • 1) First Americans in Oregon were fur traders
  • 2) Most spent time in Rocky Mtns. Trapping beavers
  • 3) Robert Stuart & Jedediah Smith – found South Pass that later became main route to Oregon

Jedediah Smith’s Explorations to the West

Oregon & Manifest Destiny

  • Oregon & Manifest Destiny
  • * Many Americans believed God gave entire continent to us & wanted us to settle the west
  • A. The Oregon Trail
  • 1) Early 1840s – “Oregon Fever” hit
  • 2) Wanted to escape the hard times of the Panic of 1837 – for fertile land in Oregon
  • B. Manifest Destiny
  • 1) Many Americans felt we needed to spread our freedom & democracy across entire continent
  • 2) John O’Sullivan (N.Y. newspaper editor) credited with the phrase Manifest Destiny
  • 3) Destined – set apart by God to expand to Pacific Ocean
  • 4) 1846 – British & U.S. compromise & set Oregon boundary line at 49 degrees lat.

Independence for Texas

  • A Clash of Cultures
  • 1) Disagreement between U.S. & Spain – was present day TX part of Louisiana Purchase?
  • A. Land Grants
  • 1) Large areas of land were given away for settlement in TX
  • 2) Stephen F. Austin led this settlement in 1821
  • 3) To receive this land, settlers had to agree to learn Spanish, convert to Catholic religion, & obey Mexican law
  • B. Growing Tensions
  • 1) 1830- most settlers in TX were from U.S.
  • 2) Hadn’t adopted Mexican ways
  • 3) Mexican govt. sets official border between TX & U.S.
  • 4) Wouldn’t allow trade with U.S. & U.S. citizens no longer allowed to settle in TX

The Struggle for Independence

  • The Struggle for Independence
  • A. The Battle of the Alamo
  • 1) Mission building in San Antonio
  • 2) Brave leaders: Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, & William Travis
  • 3) Lasted for 12 days – Mexicans finally killed all defenders
  • 4) Even in defeat, they bring Texans together & buy time to gather supplies
  • B. Texas Declares its Independence
  • 1) Declared Independence on March 2, 1836 – Republic of Texas
  • C. Lone Star Republic
  • 1) Sam Houston elected Pres. of TX
  • 2) Asks to be annexed by U.S. – refused to keep slave & free state power equal
  • D. Road to Statehood
  • 1) Texas joins Union in 1845
  • Sam Houston

War with Mexico

  • The New Mexico Territory
  • * Area that included present day New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, & Nevada
  • * Americans used Santa Fe Trail to trade with Mexico & eventually settled in the region
  • California’s Spanish Culture
  • * 1821 – California became a state of the Mexican nation
  • * 1840s – American starting to settle & wanted it as part of our nation (manifest destiny)
  • War with Mexico
  • * Pres. Polk wants war with Mexico so we can gain California
  • Santa Fe Trail

A. Conflict Begins

  • A. Conflict Begins
  • 1) War with Mexico is declared on May 11, 1846. Fighting begins for California, & Texas
  • B. Polk’s War Plan
  • 1) Secure TX border
  • 2) Seize California & New Mexico
  • 3) Capture Mexico City (capital of Mexico)
  • C. The Bear Flag Republic
  • 1) July 1846, U.S. Navy captured the ports of San Francisco & Monterey
  • 2) By Jan. 1847 – California is fully controlled by America
  • D. Capture of Mexico City
  • 1) Mexican govt. surrenders in 1847
  • E. United States Expands
  • 1) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – signed in 1848
  • a) Mexico gives up TX & agrees to Rio Grande Border
  • 2) Mexican Cession:
  • a) Mexico sells California & New Mexico to U.S. for $15 million.
  • 3) Gadsden Purchase:
  • a) Strip of land south of Arizona & New Mexico
  • b) Brings U.S. mainland to present day size

California & Utah

  • California Gold Rush
  • * Gold discovered in 1848 – people come from all over the world
  • 1) Arrived in 1849 – known as 49ers
  • 2) 80% of 49ers were American
  • A. Life in California
  • 1) Due to the “gold rush”, cities exploded over night – becoming known as Boomtowns
  • 2) Gold rush doubled world’s supply of gold
  • 3) Very few miners found wealth – but boomtown merchants did
  • 4) One example was Levi Strauss (Levi jeans)

B. Economic & Political Progress

  • B. Economic & Political Progress
  • 1) Many miners stayed to run businesses – population grew rapidly
  • 2) Californian’s then wrote a constitution & applied for statehood in 1850
  • 3) Banned slavery – southern states wouldn’t support until a compromise was reached later in 1850
  • A Religious Refuge in Utah
  • A. A Haven in the Desert
  • 1) Mormon migration begins in 1846
  • 2) Largest single migration in American history (12,000 people)
  • 3) Made life in the desert flourish through hard work & dedication
  • 4) Utah does not become a state until 1896 (known as Deseret)
  • Brigham Young

CH.12 VOCAB CONT.

  • 5. Annex- To add a territory to one’s own territory
  • 6. Decree- An order given by one in authority

CH. 12 VOCABULARY

  • 1. Joint Occupation- The possession & settling of an area by two or more countries
  • 2. Rendezvous- A meeting
  • 3. Mountain Man- A frontiersman living in the mountain wilderness
  • 4. Manifest Destiny- Idea popular in U.S. during 1800’s that the country must expand its boundaries to the Pacific

Ch. 12 Vocab #2

  • Forty-niner- People who arrived in California in 1849 to search for gold
  • Boomtowns- New communities built over night in California during the gold rush
  • Vigilantes- Groups formed by citizens that would act as police, judges, and sometimes executioners
  • Californios- Mexicans who lived in California

ESSAY

  • HOW DID PRESIDENT JAMES K. POLK GET AMERICANS TO GO TO WAR WITH MEXICO?


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