Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1 Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14



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Articulation (272) The physical process of producing specific speech sounds in order to make language intelligible.

Conversational style (264) A speaking style that is more formal than everyday conversation, but remains spontaneous and relaxed.

Delivery (263) The action and manner of speaking to an audience.

Dialect (273) The pattern of speech that is shared among ethnic groups or people from a specific geographic locations.

Extemporaneous speech (264) A speech that is carefully prepared and practiced from brief notes rather than from memory or a written manuscript.

Eye contact (276) Visual contact with another person’s eyes.

Facial Expression (277) The movement of your eyes, eyebrows, and mouth to convey reactions and emotions.

Gestures (278) Movements, usually of the hands but sometimes of the full body, that express meaning and emotion or offer clarity to a message.

Impromptu speech (265) A speech that is not planned or prepared in advance.

Inflection (270) Manipulation of pitch to create meanings or moods.

Manuscript speech (266) A speech that is read to an audience from a written text.

Memorized speech (267) A speech that has been written out committed to memory, and given word for word.

Monotone (270) A way of speaking in which a speaker does not alter her or his pitch.

Pauses (271) Hesitations and brief silences in speech or conversation.

Personal appearance (274) The way speakers dress, groom, and present themselves physically.

Pitch (270) The highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice on the musical scale.

Posture (277) The way speakers position and carry their bodies.

Pronunciation (273) The act of saying words correctly according the accepted standards of a language.

Proxemics (278) The use of space during communication.

Rate (270) The speed at which a speaker speaks.

Vocal variety (269) Changes in the volume, rate, and pitch of a speaker’s voice that affect the meaning of the words delivered.

Vocalized pauses (272) Pauses that speakers fill with words or sounds like “um,” “er,’ or “uh.”

Volume (269) The loudness of a speaker’s voice.
Name __________________________________
Activity 12.1 – Speech Rehearsal Form
Purpose: The goal of this exercise is to help you analyze the effectiveness of your rehearsals.
Instructions: Rehearse your speech and then complete the following worksheet. Remember that one (1) complete rehearsal includes a practice, an analysis, and a second practice.
First Practice

Find a place where you can be alone to practice your speech. Follow the first four points of the practice procedure listed on page 279.


Analysis

Replay the tape. Look at your outline again and answer the following questions:


Did the introduction get attention and lead into the speech? ______

Were the main points clearly stated? ______

Were the main points well developed? ______

Was the material adapted to the audience? ______

Were section transitions present? ______ Were the section transitions clear? ______

Did the conclusion summarize the main points? ______

Did you leave the speech on a high note? ______

Were the visual aids well used? ______

Were the ideas expressed:

clearly? ______

vividly? ______

emphatically? ______

appropriately? ______

Did you have good eye contact? ______

Did you sound enthusiastic? ______

Did you show vocal expressiveness? ______

Did you sound spontaneous? ______

Did you speak fluently? ______


List three specific changes you will make in your next practice session:
a.
b.
c.
Second Practice

Practice your speech again, incorporating the verbal and nonverbal changes you worked out above. Did you achieve your goals for the second practice? ______

Explain:

Name __________________________________


Activity 12.2 – Practicing with Vocal Variations
Purpose: To give you practice at experimenting with rate of speech and vocal expressiveness while delivering a speech.
Instructions: In groups of two or three, complete the following exercises. (You will need a stopwatch or a watch/clock with a sweep second hand for the timed exercises.)
1. Have each group member read a set of sentences, varying the emphasis according to the bold-faced words. After each sentence, group members should give feedback as to how they interpret the sentence.
Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.

Give me five dollars, please. What are you looking at? I just love this college.
2. Have each group member read the following passage three times: first, at the speaker’s normal rate of speed; second, as slowly as possible, while remaining “normal”; and third, as rapidly as possible, while remaining “normal.” Have another group member time the three readings. (This speech, delivered over one hundred years ago, uses male pronouns to refer to both genders. You are invited to revise the speech to make the language more inclusive. You are also encouraged to discuss the effects of this non-inclusive language if it were used today.)
The one absolutely unselfish friend that man can have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous, is his dog. A man’s dog stands by him in prosperity and poverty, in health and in sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground when the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, if only to be near his master’s side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to offer, he will lick the wounds and sores that come in encounters with the roughness of the world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince. When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches take wing, and reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in its journey through the heavens. If fortune drives his master forth, an outcast in the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dog asks no higher privilege than that of accompanying him, to guard him against danger, to fight against his enemies.
Senator George Graham Vest, speaking to a jury about Old Drum, a dog shot in 1869.

Johnson County Circuit Court, Warrensburg, Missouri.
3. This excerpt of Vest’s 19th century jury speech contains 180 words. For each group member, calculate the number of words spoken per minute.
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4. What is the normal rate of speed for each group member?


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5. What is the range of speed for each group member?
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6. What has each group member learned about his or her personal rate of speech, as compared to normal speech rates?
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7. Note at least three different ways of providing emphasis in the reading of this tribute to dogs. How can vocal expression add to or alter the meaning of this speech?
a.

b.


c.

Name __________________________________


Activity 12.3 – Why Pi?
Purpose: To allow you to analyze the speech “Why Pi?” on paper as well as online.
Instructions: You may listen to the speech titled “Why Pi” at the CengageNOW website. Prepare to discuss your answers to the following questions:
Content
1. Was Katy’s goal clear? _______
2. Did she have high-quality information? _______

3. Did Katy use a variety of kinds of developmental material? _______


4. Did Katy effectively cite the sources of her material? _______
Organization
5. Did the introduction gain attention and lead into the speech? _______
6. Did the transitions lead smoothly from one point to another? _______
7. Did the conclusion tie the speech together? _______
Presentation
8. Did Katy sound enthusiastic? _______

9. Did she show sufficient vocal expressiveness? _______


10. Was her presentation spontaneous? _______
11. Was her presentation fluent? _______
12. What do you think of the rate of Katy’s speech? _______
13. Did Katy have good eye contact? _______
14. What emotion did Katy express through her facial expression? Was this appropriate? _______
15. What do you think of her use of gestures? _______
Overall
16. What is your overall impression of this speech?
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Name __________________________________
Activity 12.4 – Speech Rehearsal Log
Purpose: To document your rehearsal strengths and areas for improvement.
Instructions: Complete the following form. (Photocopy this rehearsal log as needed.)
Rehearsal #______
I rehearsed my speech on: _______________________ (Date) _________________ (Time)
The total time spent at this rehearsal was: _________________
Others present as peer respondents/evaluators were:
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The strengths of the speech are:


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The areas of the speech needing further revision and/or practice are:
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Rehearsal #______
I rehearsed my speech on: _______________________ (Date) _________________ (Time)
The total time spent at this rehearsal was: _________________
Others present as peer respondents/evaluators were:
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The strengths of the speech are:


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The areas of the speech needing further revision and/or practice are:
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Name __________________________________
Speech Evaluation Checklist
Although the general criteria for evaluating any speech are included here, emphasis for this first speech is placed on the primary criteria shown in boldface (speech goal, all terms of speech organization, and several items of speech presentation).
Check items that were accomplished effectively.
Content
______ 1. Was the goal of the speech clear?

______ 2. Did the speaker have high-quality information?

______ 3. Did the speaker use a variety of kinds of developmental material?

______ 4. Were visual aids appropriate and well used?

______ 5. Did the speaker establish common ground and adapt the content to the audience’s interests, knowledge, and attitudes?
Organization
______ 6. Did the introduction gain attention, gain good will for the speaker, and lead into the speech?

______ 7. Were the main points clear, parallel, and meaningful complete sentences?

______ 8. Did the transitions lead smoothly from one point to another?

______ 9. Did the conclusion tie the speech together?


Presentation
______ 10. Was the language clear?

______ 11. Was the language vivid?

______ 12. Was the language emphatic?

______ 13. Did the speaker sound enthusiastic?

______ 14. Did the speaker show sufficient vocal expressiveness?

______ 15. Was the presentation spontaneous?

______ 16. Was the presentation fluent?

______ 17. Did the speaker look at the audience?

______ 18. Were the pronunciation and articulation acceptable?

______ 19. Did the speaker have good posture?

______ 20. Was the speaker movement appropriate?

______ 21. Did the speaker have sufficient poise?


Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):
______ excellent ______ good ______ satisfactory ______ fair ______ poor

Name __________________________________


Chapter 12 – Delivering your Speech
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. What type of speech is prepared and practiced in advance, although the actual performance and wordings may vary from occasion to occasion?

    1. impromptu

    2. extemporaneous

    3. manuscript

    4. memorized




  1. As they walk into the meeting Jason is asked by his boss to update the work team on a project he is leading. What type of speech is Jason about to give if he has not planned or prepared in advance?

    1. impromptu

    2. extemporaneous

    3. manuscript

    4. memorized




  1. Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State shares a prepared written statement about International Human Rights Day. What type of speech is she giving?

    1. impromptu

    2. extemporaneous

    3. manuscript

    4. memorized




  1. What type of speech is given word for word with out the benefit of a script?

    1. impromptu

    2. extemporaneous

    3. manuscript

    4. memorized




  1. The highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice are aspects of vocal

    1. pitch.

    2. volume.

    3. articulation.

    4. quality.




  1. Xavier’s American audience was having a hard time understanding him. Xavier spoke English as a second language, his first language being Spanish. In addition to speaking louder, what else should Xavier adjust to quickly improve his audience’s understanding?

    1. rate

    2. pitch and inflection

    3. pauses

    4. articulation

    5. pronunciation




  1. The act of saying words correctly according to accepted standards of a language is known as?

    1. rate

    2. pitch and inflection

    3. pauses

    4. articulation

    5. pronunciation




  1. This gives an audience time to absorb and process information and is often used to reinforce a word or point.

    1. rate

    2. pitch and inflection

    3. pauses

    4. articulation

    5. pronunciation




  1. Ramon tends to speak quickly and run words together, mumble and slur. Which component of verbal delivery must Ramon improve?

    1. rate

    2. pitch and inflection

    3. pauses

    4. articulation

    5. pronunciation




  1. Bernice's delivery is dry, slow and monotone. What component of verbal delivery must she improve?

    1. rate

    2. pitch and inflection

    3. pauses

    4. articulation

    5. pronunciation




  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of nonverbal delivery?

    1. appearance

    2. eye contact

    3. dialect

    4. facial expression

    5. proxemics

True/False
T F 12. Proxemics refers to how effectively the speaker uses time in the managing of their speech and question-and-answer session.
T F 13. The text recommends practicing your speech many times in order to sound natural and feel comfortable.
T..F.. 14 American audiences believe speakers who make little eye contact are insincere, dishonest and uncomfortable.
T F 15. Making eye contact with your audience for more than half your speech is likely to increase perceptions of credibility and trustworthiness.
T F 16. A person could be perceived as confident based solely on their posture.
Essay


  1. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of at least three of the four delivery methods.




  1. Explain the four different methods for delivering a speech and describe how your preparation for each would differ.




  1. Heidi is struggling with her verbal delivery. What might some of her challenges be and how could she make improvements?




  1. Identify what you think is the most important element of nonverbal delivery and provide support for your claim.




  1. Explain what personal appearance means, how to decide how formal or informal to dress, and the impact that decisions about appearance have on speaker credibility.

Chapter Thirteen: Visual Aids


Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • discuss the importance of using visual aids,

  • identify and describe the different types of visual aids,

  • determine what to show on a visual aid,

  • format visual aids effectively,

  • identify the five guidelines for using visual aids.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:
Balance (305) The relationship of the items on a visual aid to one another.

Bar graph (296) A graph that compares quantities at a specific moment in time.

Demonstration (288) A display of how something is done or how it works.

Drawing (298) A diagram or sketch of someone or something.

Flow chart (295) A chart that illustrates direction or motion.

Font (302) A type or style of print.

Font size (302) The size of letters in a particular text.

Graph (296) A visual comparison of amounts or quantities that shows growth, size, proportions, or relationships.

Line graph (296) A graph that shows trends over time.

List (294) A series of words or phrases that organize ideas one after the other.

Map (299) A visual representation of geographic features, urban areas, roads, stars and planets, and the like.

Model (288) A copy of an object, usually built to scale, that represents an object in detail.

Object (288) Something that can be seen or touched.

Organizational chart (295) A chart that illustrates the makeup of a group.

Picture graph (296) A graph that presents information in pictures or images.

Pie graph (296) A graph that shows the relative propotions of parts to a whole.

Name __________________________________


Activity 13.1 – Choosing and Preparing Visual Aids
Purpose: The goal of this activity is to identify information whose visual presentation would increase audience interest, understanding, and retention.
Instructions: Complete the following:


          1. Identify ideas from your next speech you believe should be depicted with visual aids in order to create audience interest, facilitate understanding, or increase retention.

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      1. What type(s) of visual aid will be most appropriate to develop for each of the ideas you identified above?

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3. What method will you use to display each visual aid?
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Name __________________________________


Activity 13.2 – Professionalizing Your Visual Aids
Purpose: To give you practical suggestions for the effective use of visual aids.
Instructions: It is often helpful to learn “insiders’ tips” on subjects from experts. Presentations magazine has sponsored an online website which features strategies and techniques employed by some of the most successful public speakers in America. Visit the website http://www.presentersuniversity.com/visuals_visuals_add_pizzazz.php and read the online article “Add Pizzazz to Presentations” by Marjorie Brody. Complete the following worksheet.
1. While ‘low tech’ visual aids may be common in the classroom, why does Brody argue for using multimedia for visual aids in a professional speaking environment?
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2. Brody recommends several tips for using overhead transparencies. List three of the tips:
a.

b.


c.

3. Brody also argues that using a limited number of slides, while somewhat expensive, is best for formal presentations. List three tips Brody gives:


a.

b.


c.

4. For longer formal presentations, Brody recommends the use of videotapes and film as visual aids in a professional speaking environment. List three tips given by Brody:


a.

b.


c.

5. According to Brody, how can computers be used to enhance professional presentations?


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6. What considerations does Brody suggest when using computers to enhance your visual aids?
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7. List three other tips Brody provides for using computers and visual aids:
a.

b.


c.

Name __________________________________


Activity 13.3 – Developing Good Visual Aid Habits
Purpose: To apply the knowledge discussed in chapter about the effective use of visual aids.
Instructions: Prepare a one-page handout or PowerPoint slide on “Mistakes to Avoid when Using Visual Aids.” The audience for this handout is your speech class. Your handout should emphasize your main points, organize your information so that it is visually pleasing, and reflect knowledge of the concepts discussed in this chapter.
It is suggested that you review the chapter first to select what you feel is the most important and relevant material. Then, use the section of the chapter entitled “Formats for Visual Aids” to plan and revise the specific details of your handout.
Name __________________________________
Activity 13.4 – Using Color with Your Visual Aids
Purpose: To learn more about the ways in which presenters can use color to increase the impact of their message.
Instructions: Locate, using InfoTrac, and read the article “Envisioning Persuasion: Painting the Picture for the Jury” by Rodney Jew and Martin Q. Peterson. (Hint: Use “visual communication technique” as your search term.)
1. List at least three statistics or facts presented in this article that argue for the use of visual images and color.
a.

b.


c.

2. In less than two sentences, summarize the advice that this article gives about the use of visual images in the “Select” and “Compare” phases of the message.


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3. List and briefly describe the three “guideposts” for using visuals that are offered by this article.
a.

b.


c.

4. What suggestions does this article offer for using the speaker as a visual aid?


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5. This article discusses color symbolism and preferences at length. Identify information that you found surprising or interesting.


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6. Write a two-to-three sentence action plan for applying material from this article to your next speech.


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Name __________________________________


Activity 13.5 – Thinking Critically about PowerPoint
Purpose: To understand the limitations of using PowerPoint.
Instructions: Use InfoTrac College Edition to locate the article, “Five tips for misusing PowerPoint,” by Barry R. Weissman, Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, May 2005 v39 i5 p52(2). Read the article and respond to the following questions:
1. What does Weissman say are the misuses of PowerPoint?
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2. How has PowerPoint become a distraction to the audience for speeches you’ve seen?


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3. How could a speaker overcome those limitations?
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4. What are some alternatives to using PowerPoint too much?
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Name __________________________________


Visual Aid Assessment Checklist






Excellent

Good

Competent

Needs Improvement

Type of visual is well-suited to information and audience













All information is clearly labeled













Size of type face is appropriate













Appearance of type face is visually pleasing













Visual presents an appropriate amount of information and is not cluttered with details













Information is presented in a way that is easily and quickly grasped













Layout of information uses white space effectively













Layout of information uses special font qualities effectively (boldface, underlining, etc.)













Color, if used, enhances the impact of the visual













General impression of the visual












Name __________________________________


Chapter 13 – Visual Aids
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. Bob is planning a speech to inform his audience about polyatomic ions. What is the best reason to use visual aids in this instance?

    1. help gain and maintain audience attention

    2. help audiences recall information

    3. help explain and clarify information

    4. increase persuasiveness

    5. reduces nervousness




  1. Barb decides to show three short videos showing various popular rock bands. In this instance, the speaker is using visuals aids primarily to

    1. help gain and maintain audience attention.

    2. enhance credibility.

    3. help explain and clarify information.

    4. increase persuasiveness.

    5. reduces nervousness.




  1. Mickey is a baseball player and quite anxious about giving his first speech. He decides to explain the mechanics of hitting a baseball successfully. In this instance the speaker is using visuals aids primarily to

    1. help gain and maintain audience attention.

    2. help audiences recall information.

    3. help explain and clarify information.

    4. increase persuasiveness.

    5. reduces nervousness.




  1. Finn decides to use a number of graphs and charts to prove how much better Pete Rose’s statistics are than many members of the Major League Baseball’s Hall of Fame. In this instance, the speaker is using visuals aids primarily to

    1. help gain and maintain audience attention.

    2. help audiences recall information.

    3. help explain and clarify information.

    4. increase persuasiveness.

    5. reduces nervousness.




  1. Mark wants to help his audience understand the unique look and extraordinary firepower of the A-10 “Warthog.” Which one of the following visual aid types should he use?

    1. object

    2. model

    3. demonstration

    4. chalkboard

    5. handouts




  1. Justin decides to inform his audience about the equipment needed for snowboarding. Which one of the following visual aid types should he use?

    1. object

    2. model

    3. demonstration

    4. chalkboard

    5. handouts




  1. Sallie hopes to inform her classmates on how to do a popular line dance. Which one of the following visual aid types should she use?

    1. object

    2. model

    3. demonstration

    4. chalkboard

    5. handouts




  1. This type of graph compares quantities at a specific moment in time.

    1. bar graph

    2. line graph

    3. pie graph

    4. picture graph




  1. This type of graph shows trends over time.

    1. bar graph

    2. line graph

    3. pie graph

    4. picture graph




  1. This type of graph shows the relative proportion of parts to the whole.

    1. bar graph

    2. line graph

    3. pie graph

    4. picture graph




  1. This type of graph shows information in pictures or images.

    1. bar graph

    2. line graph

    3. pie graph

    4. picture graph




  1. Molly worked for hours creating her PowerPoint slides for her invitational speech on recycling. She did her best to use the visuals during her speech, but somehow her slides became out of sync in the middle of her speech. She ended her speech, but still had one slide left to show. Molly’s difficulty stems from which one of the following guidelines for effective visual aid use?

    1. prepare in advance

    2. practice in advance

    3. use visuals only when you are discussing them

    4. talk to the audience, not the visual




  1. Mia worked hard to prepare materials for her informative speech on the art of Pablo Picasso. At the beginning of her speech, she gave each audience member a handout, which included a variety of pictures, front and back, by the famous artist. Which guideline for effective visual aid use has she neglected?

    1. prepare in advance

    2. practice in advance

    3. use visuals only when you are discussing them

    4. talk to the audience, not the visual




  1. José has carefully prepared slides summarizing the quarterly production statistics for his department. He feels they are clear and attractive. He uses the graphs projected on the screen behind him as a trigger for his comments and discusses each slide carefully. He splits his attention between his audience and his slides. Which guideline for effective visual aid use has he neglected?

    1. prepare in advance

    2. practice in advance

    3. use visuals only when you are discussing them

    4. talk to the audience, not the visual




  1. Patricia has developed her PowerPoint slide to include everything she wants to say. This way she believes she won't forget any portion of her speech. She has 6 slides each consisting of a long paragraph of information. What has Patricia done wrong?

    1. She failed to check her equipment in advance.

    2. She did not understand the purpose of a visual aid.

    3. She didn't explain each visual aid.

    4. The visual aids should have incorporated humor.

    5. She needs to speak to the audience, not to the visual aid.

True/False


T F 16. Charts help an audience understand the relationship among steps or parts compared to the whole.
T F 17. Line graphs compare quantities at a specific moment in time.
T F 18. Drawings should be complex and realistic or not be used.
T F 19. Cool colors are calm and relaxing and should always be used for text or graphics in visual aids.
T F 20. Hot colors grab an audience’s attention and should be used sparingly when presenting your visual aids.
T F 21. It is acceptable to pass out a photographs if you have only one.
T F 22. When using a map the speaker shouldn't worry if it is drawn to scale.
Essay


  1. Explain the reasons it might be a good idea to include visual aids in a speech to inform.




  1. Identify any additional reasons that make visual aids helpful for a persuasive speech.




  1. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of computer-projected technology over more traditional, low technology forms of visuals aids.




  1. Renaldo is giving a speech about Costa Rica. Suggest three visual aids he should use for this informative speech and include suggestions as to why these are necessary for his speech.

Chapter Fourteen: Informative Speaking


Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • describe the five types of informative speeches,

  • apply the four most common patterns of organization for informative speeches,

  • identify three tips for giving effective informative speeches,

  • identify three principles for giving ethical informative speeches.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:
Informative speaking environment (313) An environment in which a speaker has expertise or knowledge that an audience needs but doesn’t already have.

Informative speech (313) A speech that communicates knowledge and understanding about a process, an event, a person or place, an object, or a concept.

Speech about a concept (319) An informative speech about an abstraction, such as an idea, a theory, a principle, a worldview, or a belief.

Speech about a place or a person (317) An informative speech that describes a significant, interesting, or unusual place or person.

Speech about a process (314) An informative speech that describes how something is done, how something comes to be, or how something works.

Speech about an event (315) An informative speech that describes or explains a significant, interesting, or unusual occurance.

Speech about an object (318) An informative speech about anything that is tangible, that can be perceived by the senses.
Name __________________________________
Activity 14.1 – Developing a Specific Purpose and Thesis Statement
Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.
Instructions: Following the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85-87 to develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a speech assignment to inform in your class.

General Purpose: ___________________________________________________________

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

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Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________________________________

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Reminders:
General purposes typically include:


  • To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

  • To invite: explore, interact, exchange

  • To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

  • To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

  • To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

  • To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:




  • State your specific speaking purpose clearly

  • Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

  • Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Thesis statements should:




  • State the exact content of your speech in a single declarative sentence

Name __________________________________


Activity 14.2 – Analyzing an Informative Speech
Purpose: To allow you to analyze the speech “Tap” by Rachel Rata.
Instructions: You may listen to the speech titled “Tap” by Rachel Rata at the CengageNOW, or read the text of the speech in the textbook on pages 329-331. Discuss your answers to the following questions:

Primary Criteria
1. Was Rachel’s specific goal designed to increase audience information? _______
2. Was Rachel effective in establishing her credibility of this topic? _______
3. Was Rachel’s information intellectually stimulating? _______
4. Did Rachel show creativity in idea development? _______
5. Did Rachel show the relevance of her information? _______
6. Was Rachel’s organizational pattern appropriate for the intent and content of the speech? _______
General Criteria
7. Was Rachel’s introduction effective? _______
8. Were Rachel’s main points clear? _______
9. Was Rachel’s conclusion effective? _______
10. Was Rachel’s language clear, vivid, emphatic, and appropriate? _______
11. Was Rachel’s speech delivered enthusiastically, with vocal expressiveness, fluently, spontaneously, and directly? _______
Overall
12. What is your overall impression of this speech?
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Name __________________________________
Activity 14.3 – Impromptu Organization
Purpose: To gain familiarity and practice with organizational patterns appropriate for a speech to inform.
Instructions: Review the discussion on organization in your text on pages 320-324. Together with two or three other students prepare a speaker’s outline for an informative speech on one of the topics below. Pay particular attention to how you organize the ideas.

world peace

backpacks

ice cream

socialized medicine
crystal meth

arachnophobia

cell phones

racism
Mexico

making beer

disasters

water purification




Introduction:

Body:


Conclusion:

Name __________________________________


Activity 14.4 – Identifying Organizational Patterns
Purpose: To identify and assess the effectiveness of organizational patterns.
Instructions: Use InfoTrac College Edition to locate and read the article, “I Phone, you phone, we all phone for iPhone," located at The Online Reporter, August 11, 2007 v0 i552 p6(2), about the Apple iPhone. Answer the following questions:
1. How is the article organized?
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2. Does it use one of the organizational patterns you’ve explored in this chapter? Explain.


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3. How effective is the organization of the article? Why?
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4. Did the article follow the guidelines suggested in this chapter for giving speeches about concepts? How?


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5. If the purpose of the article was to persuade, how might the organization change?


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Name __________________________________
Activity 14.5 – Identifying Organizational Patterns
Purpose: To consider the power of narrative in supporting and organizing informative speeches.
Instructions: Use InfoTrac to locate and read the article by Vincent Muli Wakituku entitled “Weaving in Stories Makes a Presentation Memorable” in Presentations, Sept 2001 v15 i9 p74. Answer the following questions:


  1. What impact does the Dr. Wakituku’s parable about the mother and son have?

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  1. Summarize a parable or personal short story from your own experience that you might use to help an audience better understand some concept or issue. Provide as much detail as possible.

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  1. Where might you look for parables or personal short stories if you didn’t know any yourself?

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Impromptu Critique Sheet

Three minutes to prepare a two-minute speech.

Name _______________________________________ Time ____________ Points ____________
Key: + = Excellent;  = Satisfactory; – = Needs improvement; 0 = Failed to complete



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