Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1 Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14


Preview (228) A brief overview in the introduction of a speech of each main point in the speech. Rhetorical question



Download 1.56 Mb.
Page8/14
Date30.04.2018
Size1.56 Mb.
1   ...   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   ...   14

Preview (228) A brief overview in the introduction of a speech of each main point in the speech.

Rhetorical question (229) A question a speaker asks that an audience isn’t supposed to answer out load but rather in their own minds.

Summary (238) A concise restatement of the main points at the end of a speech.
Name __________________________________
Activity 10.1 – Writing Speech Introductions
Purpose: The goal of this activity is to create choices for how you will begin your speech.
Instructions: Complete the following:
1. For the student speech by Amanda Buckman on page 355 of Invitation to Public Speaking, write three different introductions—using startling statement, rhetorical question, story, personal reference, quotation, or suspense—that you believe meet the goals of effective introductions, and that you believe would be appropriate for the speech goal and audience.
a.

b.


c.

2. Which do you believe is the best? Why?


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Write the introduction in outline form.


Name __________________________________
Activity 10.2 – Memorable Introductions and Conclusions
Purpose: To give you the opportunity to learn more about effective introductions and conclusions through listening to and analyzing the speeches of others.
Instructions: For this activity, you are to locate examples of specific types of introductions and conclusions. Be creative in looking for your examples. You are invited to research movie speeches that can be found on video or excerpted on the Internet (for example, there are several memorable speeches in Braveheart, Animal House, Gettysburg, and A Few Good Men). You can also research historical speeches that can be found on videotape (often at local libraries) and on websites such as http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/previous.htm. You are also encouraged to use InfoTrac College Edition and browse the journal Vital Speeches of the Day for examples.
1. Identify an example of a speech which opens with a startling statement (give the source of the speech as well as the startling statement).
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Identify an example of a speech which opens with a rhetorical question (give the source of the speech as well as the rhetorical question).
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Identify an example of a speech that opens with a story (give the source of the speech as well as a brief description of the story).
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Identify an example of a speech that opens with a personal reference (give the source of the speech as well as the personal reference). Remember that the personal reference is a speaker’s reference to the audience, not to himself or herself.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Identify an example of a speech that opens or closes with a quotation. Give the source of the speech as well as the quotation.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Identify an example of a speech that opens by using suspense. Give the source of the speech as well as a brief description of the speaker’s use of suspense.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________
Activity 10.3 – Starting with a Quotation
Purpose: To identify quotations that could be used in the introduction to a speech.
Instructions: Locate a quotation you might use in your next speech. Resources for locating quotations include books of quotes available through the library, and Internet sites offering quotations from many speakers on a variety of subjects (go to: http://dir.yahoo.com/Reference/Quotations/)
1. What tone would the quotation set for the speech?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Is the quotation humorous or serious?
_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Is the person quoted credible as perceived by your audience?


_________________________________________________________________________________

4. How does the quotation relate to your topic?


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________




Consider sharing your quotation during an in-class discussion or online forum.
Name __________________________________
Activity 10.4 – Catching the Audience’s Attention
Purpose: To practice a variety of approaches to catching attention in the introduction.
Instructions: Using your text as a guide, review various approaches to catching your audience’s attention. Create a catchy introduction using any three of the following approaches described in chapter 10.
Ask a question:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Tell a story:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Recite a quotation or poem:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Give a demonstration:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Make a startling statement:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

State the importance of the topic:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Share your expertise:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

State what’s to come:

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


Name __________________________________
Activity 10.5 – Creating Speech Conclusions
Purpose: The goal of this activity is to create choices for how you will conclude your speech.
Instructions: Complete the following:
1. For the introductions you developed in Activity 10.1, write three different conclusions (summary, answer your introductory question, refer back to the introduction, recite a quotation or poem) that review important points that you want the audience remember and leave the audience with vivid imagery or an emotional appeal.
a.

b.


c.

2. Which do you believe is the best? Why?


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Write the conclusion in outline form.

Name __________________________________
Chapter 10 – Introductions and Conclusions
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. When the University of Pennsylvania commencement speaker opened his speech with these words, "My name is Bono and I am a rock star," which function of the introduction was he fulfilling?

    1. catch the audience’s attention

    2. reveal the topic

    3. establish credibility

    4. preview your speech




  1. Which function of the introduction establishes the organization of your speech’s main points?

    1. catch the audience’s attention

    2. reveal the topic

    3. establish credibility

    4. preview your speech




  1. Which function of the introduction contains an ethical dimension?

    1. catch the audience’s attention

    2. reveal the topic

    3. establish credibility

    4. preview your speech




  1. Which function of the introduction discloses the subject of your speech?

    1. catch the audience’s attention

    2. reveal the topic

    3. establish credibility

    4. preview your speech




  1. A main objective for a compelling conclusion of any speech is to

    1. introduce key concepts.

    2. move the audience to take action.

    3. resolve any inconsistencies in the main points.

    4. reinforce the thesis statement.




  1. Which of the following isn't recommended in your text for preparing a compelling conclusion?

    1. summarize your main points.

    2. refer back to your introduction

    3. recite a quotation

    4. answer your introductory questions

    5. state the sources used in your speech

True/False


T F 7. Singing a song is an appropriate way to open your speech and capture attention.
T F 8. Singing a song is an appropriate way to end your speech and create closure.
T F 9. The introduction is not a good time to be creative.
T F 10. Conclusions are the last thing in your speech and therefore need the least preparation.
T F 11. The conclusion is not a good time to be creative.
T F 12. The conclusion requires only that you summarize your main points.
T F 13. The conclusion of your speech is not an audience-centered activity.
T F 14. It is a good idea to keep your audience guessing as to the topic of your speech until the conclusion, when you should clearly reveal your topic.
T..F.. 15. Telling a story is an appropriate way to capture your audience's attention.

Essay



  1. Write an introduction on the topic of arachnophobia (the fear of spiders) that includes all four of the functions of an effective introduction.




  1. Prepare a conclusion for the introduction you have written above that includes the two functions of an effective conclusion.




  1. List and explain the tips for an effective introduction.




  1. List and explain the tips for an effective conclusion.




  1. Devise three creative ways to capture your audience’s attention for an informative speech on the dangers of second-hand smoke .




  1. Review a speech by Bono on You-tube and identify his attention-getting tactics.

Chapter Eleven: Language

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • use clear and accurate language in your speeches,

  • use culturally inclusive and gender inclusive language,

  • explain the differences between spoken and written language,

  • describe at least three ways to use language to create memorable images,

  • describe at least four ways to use language to create a pleasing rhythm.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Abstract language (247) Language that refers to ideas or concepts but not to specific objects.

Alliteration (258) The repetition of a particular sound in a sentence or a phrase.

Antithesis (258) The placement of words or phrases in contrast or opposition to one another.

Concrete language (247) Language that refers to a tangible object—a person, place, or thing.

Idiom (248) A fixed distinctive expression whose meaning is not indicated by its individual words.

Language (245) The system of verbal or gestural symbols a community uses to communicate with one another.

Metaphor (254) A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things by describing one thing as being something else.

Mixed metaphor (255) A metaphor that makes illogical comparisons between two or more things.

Mnemonic device (258) A rhyme, phrase, or other verbal device that makes information easier to remember.

Oral style (252) A speaking style that reflects the spoken rather than the written word.

Parallelism (257) The arrangement of related words so they are balanced or of related sentences so they have identical structures.

Personification (255) A figure of speech that attributes human characteristics to animals, objects, or concepts.

Referent (246) The object, concept, or event a symbol represents.

Repetition (257) Repeating keywords or phrases at the beginnings or endings of sentences or clauses to create rhythm.

Rhythm (257) The arrangement of words into patterns so the sounds of the words together enhance the meaning of the phrase.

Simile (254) A figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison of two things, using the words like or as.

Symbol (246) A word or phrase spoken by a speaker.

Thought, or reference (246) The memory and past experiences that audience members have with an object, concept, or event.

Name __________________________________


Activity 11.1 – The Power of Words
Purpose: To experience the power of language through a famous speech.
Instructions: Locate the speech made by Mary Fisher at the Republican National Convention. The speech is widely available and can be located at Gifts of Speech, http://gos.sbc.edu/. This speech may also be available on video or DVD; check with your instructor.
Carefully read the speech and highlight any notable or creative use of language and then respond to the following.
1. Does the speaker create any images through the use of simile or metaphor? Offer an example.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Does the speaker use parallelism? Offer an example.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Does the speaker use repetition? Offer an example.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Does the speaker use alliteration? Offer an example.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Does the speaker use antithesis? Offer an example.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. What other use of language do you find particularly moving?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________



Consider sharing your insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________


Activity 11.2 – Developing Effective Language Strategies
Purpose: To apply the chapter’s information about effective language to the analysis of an actual speech.
Instructions: Locate the transcript of a sample speech that you find particularly effective in its wording and language. Particularly good samples are found at http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/previous.htm. One good example is George Graham Vest’s “Tribute to the Dog.” Once you have identified the speech you wish to work with, use it to complete the following worksheet.
1. How would you characterize the oral style of this speech?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Identify a word or phrase used in this speech which is particularly effective due to the connotations it evokes.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to its use of specific words.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to the use of concrete words and sensory language.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to the precision of the words used.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that uses a word you are not familiar with or which you think others in the audience might be unfamiliar with.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. In your opinion, was the use of this unfamiliar word justified? Why or why not?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

8. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to the use of a metaphor.


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

9. Locate a word or phrase or sentence that is particularly effective due to the use of a simile.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

10. Locate a portion of this speech that is particularly effective due to its use of repetition.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

11. Locate an instance of a specific and active verb that contributes to the effectiveness of this speech.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

12. Locate an internal or a sectional transition in this speech which contributes to the effectiveness of the communication.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

13. In your opinion, what one or two language resources/effects best explains the impact of this speech’s wording?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________


Activity 11.3 – Considering the Use of Sensitive Language
Purpose: To allow you to compare various reactions to sensitive language.
Instructions: Complete the following worksheet, then discuss your answers in groups of two to four students. As you compare responses to this worksheet, attempt to describe not only what you answered, but also why you responded as you did. (You may wish to review chapter eleven before completing this activity.)
For each of the following sample sentences, choose whether you would feel comfortable using these phrasings in a speech given to your class. If you would not use the sentence as worded, rewrite it in a form that you find more acceptable.
1. All men are created equal. Use/Not Use

2. This was a retarded decision that cost the company millions. Use/Not Use

3. Many schizos have real problems in communicating clearly Use/Not Use

with others.

4. When a teacher gives an assignment, he should also provide a Use/Not Use handout detailing the requirements.

5. The blonde and blue-eyed lawyer argued her side of the case Use/Not Use

with great intensity.

6. At garage sales and flea markets, the practice of “jewing down” Use/Not Use

the price of items is common.

7. When my friends and I go out to eat, we find that the easiest way Use/Not Use

to settle the bill is to simply go Dutch treat.

8. A student should be certain that they understand the total financial Use/Not Use

aid package before committing to any school.

9. The perky secretary is always in early, with coffee ready Use/Not Use

for all the staff.

10. If a businessman wants to succeed in this economy, he must Use/Not Use

have a college degree.

11. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is one of the only Negroes to be honored Use/Not Use

with a national holiday in America.

12. Last week’s newspaper reported that Orientals are over-represented Use/Not Use

in national advertising.

13. In order for a student to succeed at this college, he/she must study Use/Not Use

at least ten hours a week.



  1. Supply a sentence or word or phrasing which you have heard someone else use which you found inappropriate or insensitive:

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________


  1. After discussing your responses with others in your class, what insights have you gained about sensitivity and language choices?

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

Consider sharing your answers and insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________


Activity 11.4 – Using Language More Effectively
Purpose: To provide you with practical suggestions for using language more effectively.
Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read “Speak with Style and Watch the Impact” by Carl Wayne Hensley. (Hint: Use the author’s full name as your search term.)
1. How does Hensley characterize the speaking style of modern America?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Hensley’s first suggestion for improving the style of speeches is “Guard against language homicide.” What metaphors does Hensley use to develop this idea and to give a more listeners a more specific sense of his meaning?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. List and briefly describe what you see as the most useful advice Hensley provides as to how to avoid language homicide.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Hensley’s second suggestion for improving speaking style is “Choose correct words and correct grammar.” Review Hensley’s examples of commonly misused language. Which of these misuses do you struggle with?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


Name __________________________________
Activity 11.5 – Identifying Language Techniques
Purpose: To recognize the use of imagery and rhythm in popular music selections.
Instructions: Review liner notes of your favorite music for use of various language techniques described in the text. See how many of the following strategies you can locate.
simile:

metaphor:

personification:

parallelism:

repetition:

alliteration:

antithesis:

Use of these language strategies tends to make music more interesting to listen to and at times leads us to think in new ways about things we’ve encountered regularly.




  • How might you incorporate these language strategies into your own speeches?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


  • What impact might they have on your audience?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


Consider sharing your favorite lyrics with others in class or through a discussion forum.

Name __________________________________


Activity 11.6 – Exploring Idioms
Purpose: To understand how we use idioms in our everyday communication.
Instructions: Review the list of idioms located below, and answer the questions that follow. For additional examples, go to http://www.eslcafe.com/idioms/id-list.html.


at the eleventh hour
beat one’s brains out
burn the midnight oil
grab a bite
hit the books
on the cutting edge
rub someone the wrong way
wet behind the ears
You don’t say!

1. Circle any of the above listed idioms you have used.


2. Pick any six that you may use, and explain what they mean and when they might be used.
























3. Identify the meaning of any idiom above that you don’t know.

Consider creating a class list of idioms during class or through an online forum discussion.

Name __________________________________
Chapter 11 – Language
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.



Multiple Choice


  1. The statement by Astronaut Neil Armstrong, “That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind,” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. alliteration.




  1. The statement by Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton, “If women are healthy and educated, their families will flourish. If women are free from violence, their families will flourish. If women have a chance to work, their families will flourish” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. alliteration.




  1. The statement, “When it comes to midterms, it's kill or be killed. Let's go in and slay this test.,” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. alliteration.




  1. The statement, “Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate,” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. alliteration.




  1. The statement, by Vice President Spiro Agnew, “In the United States today, we have more than our share of the nattering nabobs of negativism.” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. alliteration.

  2. The statement, “Fearless Fred fought ferociously,” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. alliteration.




  1. The statement, “The process is like sandpaper on wood, and it never reverses itself,” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. alliteration.




  1. The statement, “The tropical storm slept for two days,” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. personification.




  1. The expression “war on drugs” is an example of

    1. simile.

    2. metaphor.

    3. repetition.

    4. antithesis.

    5. personification.




  1. The statement, “She’s as smart as a whip,” is an example of

    1. a metaphor.

    2. the passive voice.

    3. a simile.

    4. personification.




  1. One of the key differences between an oral style and a written style is that the

    1. oral message cannot be as easily reviewed and reprocessed.

    2. oral style uses more figurative language.

    3. written style is always more formal.

    4. all of the above

True/False


T F 12. The phrase, “If you believe you are safe, you are in danger,” is an example of alliteration.
T F 13. Similes, metaphors and personification are ways of creating imagery in your speech.
T F 14. Parallelism, repetition, alliteration, and personification are examples of language that create a pleasing rhythm in the speech.
T F 15. Saying your favorite pop band played good is a correct and accurate use of the term good.
T F 16. Having a dictionary nearby when you read is a good way to increase your vocabulary.
T F 17. There isn’t much difference between the written and spoken word.
T F 18. Creative use of language is okay for politicians who have paid speech writers, but isn’t important for most speakers.
Essay


  1. Explain how a person will know if their language is clear and accurate.




  1. Give examples of language that is culturally appropriate, and explain why sensitivity to cultural differences in language use is important.




  1. Explain why gender-inclusive language like flight attendant and fire fighter are more appropriate to use than gender-biased terms for these same professions.




  1. Explain three ways in which spoken and written language differs.




  1. Develop a metaphor or simile to vividly describe your a scary driving experience.




  1. Using the word "insurgent," explain the Semantic Triangle of Meaning introduced on page 246 of your text.




  1. Review a political campaign speech and identify four concrete and four abstract terms. Explain why the politician may have chosen these terms for this speech and audience.

Chapter Twelve: Delivering Your Speech

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • identify and describe four different methods of delivering a speech,

  • list and demonstrate the verbal components of delivery,

  • list and demonstrate the nonverbal components of delivery,

  • identify effective strategies for rehearsing your speech,


Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:



Download 1.56 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   ...   14




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page