Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1 Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14



Download 1.56 Mb.
Page7/14
Date30.04.2018
Size1.56 Mb.
#42249
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   ...   14

Argument 1: The central argument of the speech is a deductive argument found on about the second page. Identify which statements represent “premises” and which represent the “general conclusion.”
“all practices in these sciences become information”
“all information is available”
“then clearly the weapon kind of information will be available as well”
Argument 2: This inductive argument is found approximately on page 4. It is in the paragraph that begins: “The danger with these technologies -GNR- is…” Read the argument and then use the information to complete the following parts of the argument in the model. For data, do not try to write complete sentences or give sources.
Data (Grounds/Evidence):
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Warrant (Logical connection between Data and Claim):


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Claim (Conclusion):


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________


Activity 8.4 – Ethos, Pathos and Logos
Purpose: To help you develop effective persuasive speeches through understanding and applying Aristotle’s techniques of persuasion (ethos, pathos, and logos).
Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read "The rhetoric of mock trial debate: using logos, pathos and ethos in undergraduate competition" by Felicia R. Walker in College Student Journal, June 2005 v39 i2 p277(10).. (Hint: Use “ethos” and “pathos” as your search terms.)

1. In your own words, define the term “ethos” and provide an example that illustrates the concept.


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. For your next speech, describe at least two specific actions you can take to more effectively develop ethos.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. In your own words, define the term “pathos” and provide an example that illustrates the concept.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. For your next speech, describe at least two specific actions you can take to more effectively develop pathos.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. In your own words, define the term “logos” and illustrates the concept.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

6. For your next speech, describe at least two specific actions you can take to more effectively develop logos.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

7. Although the specific examples and discussions of this article are written for an audience of mock trial competitors, many of the suggestions are relevant for any persuasive speaking occasion. Identify at least two specific suggestions discussed in this article that you can use to improve your next persuasive presentation.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________
Activity 8.5 – InfoTrac Activity: Pathos and Public Speaking
Purpose: To learn more about preparing speeches with emotional impact.
Instructions: Locate and read the article “Ache for the Impact: Four Steps to Powerful Oratory” by Andrew B. Wilson. (Hint: Use “speechwriting” as your search term.)
1. Wilson compares speechwriting with ski jumping. What are some of the similarities that he draws between the two activities?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Wilson compares the speech opening with the take-off in ski jumping. What is his advice about delivering effective introductions?


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. In your own words, apply this advice to the introduction for your next speech. What specific plans and revisions can you make to put Wilson’s advice into practice?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Wilson compares the speech ending with the landing in ski jumping. What is his advice about delivering effective conclusions?


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. In your own words, apply this advice to the conclusion for your next speech. What specific plans and revisions can you make to put Wilson’s advice into practice?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________


Chapter 8 – Reasoning
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. Appeals to the emotion’s of the audience members are known as

    1. logos.

    2. pathos.

    3. ethos.

    4. ethics.




  1. Appeals based on the speaker’s credibility are known as ______________

    1. logos.

    2. pathos.

    3. ethos.

    4. ethics.




  1. The logical arrangement of evidence in a speech is known as ______________

    1. logos.

    2. pathos.

    3. ethos.

    4. ethics.




  1. The reasoning from a general conclusion to specific supporting cases is called ___________

    1. inductive reasoning.

    2. deductive reasoning.

    3. causal reasoning.

    4. analogical reasoning.




  1. The reasoning from specific cases to general conclusion is called _______________

    1. inductive reasoning.

    2. deductive reasoning.

    3. causal reasoning.

    4. analogical reasoning.

    5. reasoning by sign.




  1. Reasoning that assumes something exists or will happen based on something else that exists or has happened is known as

    1. inductive reasoning.

    2. deductive reasoning.

    3. causal reasoning.

    4. analogical reasoning.

    5. reasoning by sign.




  1. Reasoning that supports a claim by establishing a cause-effect relationship is known as

    1. inductive reasoning.

    2. deductive reasoning.

    3. causal reasoning.

    4. analogical reasoning.

    5. reasoning by sign.




  1. Using the Map of Reasoning, what you think you want to propose is also known as the

    1. claim.

    2. grounds.

    3. warrant.

    4. backing.




  1. Using the Map of Reasoning, why you think this or want to propose it is also known as the

    1. claim.

    2. grounds.

    3. warrant.

    4. backing.




  1. Using the Map of Reasoning, how you know your grounds support your claim is also known as the

    1. claim.

    2. grounds.

    3. warrant.

    4. backing.




  1. Using the Map of Reasoning, how you know the warrant supports the grounds is also known as the

    1. claim.

    2. grounds.

    3. warrant.

    4. backing.




  1. The statement, “Living near power lines increases the risk of cancer” is most likely a

    1. claim.

    2. grounds.

    3. warrant.

    4. backing.




  1. A person that appears sincere, trustworthy, and concerned for the well-being of the audience is said to have

    1. credibility.

    2. competence.

    3. character.

    4. backing.




  1. What pattern of reasoning is being used in the following example? "All known planets travel about the sun in elliptical orbits; therefore all planets travel about the sun in elliptical orbits."

    1. inductive

    2. deductive

    3. causal

    4. analogic

    5. reasoning by sign

  1. What pattern of reasoning is being used in the following example? "All dogs are mammals. All mammals have kidneys. Therefore all dogs have kidneys."

    1. inductive

    2. deductive

    3. causal

    4. analogic

    5. reasoning by sign

True/False


T F 16. When developing your speech argument, you should prepare yourself for an angry dispute with your audience.
T F 17. Deduction is also known as argument by example.
T F 18. Hasty generalizations are a hazard with inductive reasoning.
T F 19. Credibility is a perception of a speaker’s competence and character.
T F 20. Competence relates to how sincere or trustworthy a person is.
T F 21. It is important to have enough examples when using inductive reasoning to make a claim.
T F 22. False cause and hasty generalizations are errors in reasoning.
Essay


  1. Explain how you would develop a persuasive speech on the topic of global warming using the three modes of proofs introduced by Aristotle.




  1. Use inductive reasoning to support the claim that student cheating is a serious problem on your campus.




  1. Use deductive reasoning to support the claim that parking is a problem at your institution.




  1. Explain the guidelines for using causal reasoning.




  1. Use analogical reasoning to support the claim that legalization of drugs will decrease drug abuse.




  1. Describe how your local weather forecaster uses reasoning by sign. What signs do they offer for today's weather? Where his or her predictions accurate? .




  1. Define and explain the elements of the Toulmin model with an example.




Chapter Nine: Organizing And Outlining Your Speech
Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • identify your main points for your speech,

  • determine the appropriate number of main points for your speech,

  • organize your main points according to five different patterns,

  • apply tips for preparing your main points effectively,

  • use four different kinds of connectives in your speech,

  • create a preparation outline,

  • prepare a speaking outline,

  • prepare note cards to use as prompts during a speech.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

Causal pattern (200) A pattern of organization that describes a cause-and-effect relationship between ideas.

Chronological pattern (197) A pattern of organization that traces a sequence of events or ideas.

Connective (205) A word or phrase used to link ideas in a speech.

Coordination (209) ) The process of arranging points into various levels, with the points on a specific level having the same weight or value.

Internal preview (205) A statement in the body of the speech that details what the speaker plans to discuss next.

Internal summary (206) A statement in the body of a speech that summarizes a point a speaker has already discussed.

Main points (195) The most important ideas you address in your speech.

Organization (195) The systematic arrangement of ideas into a coherent whole.

Preparation outline (207) ) The detailed outine a speaker builds when preparing a speech that includes the title, specific purpose, thesis statement, introduction, main points and subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and source citations of the speech.

Problem-solution pattern (200) A pattern of organization that identifies a specific problem and offers a possible solution.

Signpost (206) A simple word or statement that lets an audience know where a speaker is in a speech or that indicates the importance of an idea.

Spatial pattern (198) A pattern of organization in which ideas are arranged in terms of location or direction.

Speaking outline (218) The condensed form of a preparation outline, used to help a speaker remember his or her ideas when speaking.

Subordination (213) The process of ranking ideas in order to from the most to the least important.

Subpoint (209) A point in a speech that develops an aspect of a main point.

Sub-subpoint (209) A point in a speech that develops an aspect of a subpoint.

Topical pattern (201) A pattern of organization that allows the speaker to divide the topic into subtopics, each of which addresses a different aspect of the whole topic.

Transition (205) A phrase that indicates a speaker is finished with one point and moving to a new one.

Name __________________________________


Activity 9.1 – Writing Thesis Statements
Purpose: To familiarize you with the basic process of organizing and developing your material.
Instructions: This exercise will walk you briefly through each step of the process using an applied example: “Applying for admission to your college/university.”
Take a moment and think about the steps that you took to enroll at your college. (If necessary, use a separate piece of paper to jot down the steps required to apply for admission.) Now complete the following steps:
1. Write a thesis statement that would clearly indicate your specific goal to your audience. (Hint: What is the purpose of this speech?)
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. List the main points, the steps, one must complete to enroll at your institution. (Remember to avoid creating more than five steps.)
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Organize the main points in time order. (This will help you see your organizational pattern.)


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. What supporting information will be needed to properly explain the process of applying for admission? Consider the “substeps” that are necessary to complete the main steps.


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. What words will help you smoothly move from main point to main point? List several of them here.


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________
Activity 9.2 – Determining the Main Points
Purpose: To familiarize you with the specific of developing the main points of your speech.
Instructions: Using a topic you are considering for your speech, or a topic discussed in class, complete the following steps: (You may also use the topic from Activity 9.1.)
1. Write your thesis statement:
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Underline the two to five specific ideas in your thesis statement. For each underlined item, write a sentence that summarizes what you want your audience to know about that item:
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Review your main points. Are they clear? Do they use parallel structure? Are they meaningful? Rewrite any sentence that you feel does not meet these three criteria:


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________
What is the best order for your main points: topical, chronological or causal?___________________
4. Use the space provided to write your main points in the order that you feel will best assist your audience in understanding your thesis and aid you in reaching your speech goal.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________


Activity 9.3 – An Alternative Organizing Technique
Purpose: To give you experience in organizing ideas using an alternative brainstorming technique.
Instructions: Tree diagramming, also known as hierarchical outlining, gives you an opportunity to organize your ideas without the apparatus of traditional outlines (the Roman and Arabic numbering and lettering systems which many people find confusing and intimidating).
Use this “blank” outline to practice tree diagramming; fill in the blanks to organize your speech ideas. The large square on the left should state your thesis; the three medium-sized squares should list your main points in the order in which you plan to discuss them; the six small boxes should be used to list supporting details (facts, statistics, examples, stories, quotations, etc.) This exercise can also be done using a blank piece of paper, turned sideways (“landscape”).




Name __________________________________


Activity 9.4 – Outlining the Speech Body
Purpose: To give you experience creating a full outline following recommendations in the chapter.
Instructions: Complete each section using one or more complete sentences. Use the material developed in Activity 9.1 and 9.2 for this exercise.
Speech goal:

Thesis statement:

Transition to main point 1:

Main point 1:

Supporting information:

Transition to main point 2:

Main point 2:

Supporting information:

Transition to main point 3:

Main point 3:

Supporting information:

Name __________________________________


Activity 9.5 – Analyzing a Speech
Purpose: To outline the various components in a famous speech.
Instructions: Pick one speech from the American Rhetoric website, http://www.americanrhetoric.com. Your task is to outline the components of the speech by identifying the attention getting strategy (and what type it is), the thesis statement, the main points, the summary, and the kind of concluding attention-getter. You will need to turn in the outline with your answers written on it.
Name __________________________________
Activity 9.6 – Citing Sources & Avoiding Plagiarism
Purpose: To reinforce understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it.
Instructions: Read the Duke University definition of plagiarism and respond to the questions below.
Duke University defines plagiarism to include:

  • Copying from published sources without adequate documentation.

  • Purchasing a pre-written paper (either by mail or electronically).

  • Letting someone else write a paper for you.

  • Paying someone else to write a paper for you.

  • Submitting as your own someone else’s unpublished work, either with or without permission.




  1. How does your institution define plagiarism? How could you find out?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


  1. When might a speaker be inclined to knowingly commit plagiarism?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


  1. When might a speaker unknowingly commit plagiarism?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


  1. What is the impact of plagiarism from the speaker’s perspective?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


  1. What is the impact of plagiarism from the audience’s perspective?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


  1. How can incidents of plagiarism in a speech be avoided?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________



Consider sharing your insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________


Activity 9.7 – Creating a Keyword Outline
Purpose: To give you practice at revising full sentence outlines into keyword outlines that can be used as prompts while delivering a speech.
Instructions: In your textbook, locate the full sentence outline for the speech “Tap” by Rachel Rota (found on pages 329-331). Convert this full sentence outline to a keyword outline that would be suitable for note cards during the delivery of the speech. (Review pages 220-222 in the text if you need more guidance on preparing speech notes and sample note cards.)
Name __________________________________
Activity 9.8 – Creating a Preparation Outline
Purpose: To give you experience in creating a preparation outline.
Instructions: Below is a basic outline format for your first speech. In the space provided, fill in your full sentence outline.


  1. Introduction




    1. Attention Getting Device


    1. Thesis Statement


    1. Preview of Main Points

Transition





  1. Body




    1. Main Point One



      1. Evidence


      1. Evidence


      1. Evidence

Transition





    1. Main Point Two



      1. Evidence


      1. Evidence


      1. Evidence

Transition





    1. Main Point Three



      1. Evidence


      1. Evidence


      1. Evidence

Transition





  1. Conclusion




    1. Summary of Main Points


    1. Memorable Closing Statement

Name __________________________________


Activity 9.9 – Evaluating Speeches from the Internet
Purpose: To apply chapter organization concepts to a speech transcript from the Internet.
Instructions: Select an informative speech from the Speech and Transcript Center at http://www.freepint.com/gary/speech.htm. Once you have selected the speech you wish to analyze, complete the following tasks:

1. Identify title and author of the speech you have picked to evaluate.


_________________________________________________________________________________

2. What is the exact purpose of this speech?


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. What organizational pattern did the speaker use?
_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Were the introduction and conclusion effective? If so, why? If not, why not? Explain.


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________
Activity 9.10 – Creating a Speaking Outline
Purpose: To give you experience in understanding the importance of a speaking outline.
Instructions: Below is a key word or speaking outline format for your first speech. Complete the outline using only key words and phrases to remind you of your ideas.


  1. Introduction




    1. Attention Getting Device




    1. Thesis Statement




    1. Preview of Main Points

Transition




  1. Body




    1. Main Point One




      1. Evidence




      1. Evidence

Transition




    1. Main Point Two




      1. Evidence



      1. Evidence

Transition




    1. Main Point Three




      1. Evidence




      1. Evidence

Transition




  1. Conclusion




    1. Summary of Main Points




    1. Memorable Closing Statement

Name __________________________________
Activity 9.11 – Speaker Signposting Strengthens Organization
Purpose: To analyze the impact of connectives and sign posts.
Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac “Extreme science: pushing the envelope of knowledge in geological time and space." by John F. McDonnell. located in Executive Speeches, August-Sept 2005 v20 i1 p19(3).
1. Read the speech and underline or highlight any words or phrases the speaker uses to signal where they are going in the speech (previews), where they have been (internal summaries), where they are in the speech (transitions), or any other word clues to help the audience understand and remember the organization of the speech (signposts).
2. Label each element you’ve highlighted with its proper descriptor.
3. What impact does the speaker’s use of connectives have on the clarity of the speech?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Consider sharing your insights through a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________


Activity 9.12 – Unscrambling the Organization
Purpose: To practice organizing ideas for an invitational speech.
Instructions: In groups or individually, annotate the statements below to indicate what parts of the speech they are. You should note the three main points and corresponding subpoints for an invitational speech about the United Way. Add transitions between the main points to complete the structure of the speech.

The United Way also supports other avenues of giving to the community.

The United Way brings together key public and private entities to address many of the social ills of our community.

Because of its holistic view, contributing to the United Way is a great way to give back to the community.

I’d like to discuss with my audience the idea of donating to the United Way and to other community-based agencies.

Volunteering is yet another way to support these agencies and projects.

Those who donate can feel confident that their contributions will be wisely distributed, because the advisory committee that determines the distribution formula is composed of volunteers from our own community.

When time or money are tight, simply speaking highly of the United Way and other forms of giving is a third positive act.

One contribution to the United Way supports forty-one different agencies and projects in this community.

Donations to individual agencies and projects are excellent ways to give to the community.

Name __________________________________
Chapter 9 – Organizing Your Speech
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. According to your textbook, which of the following factors is most important when deciding how many main points to include in a speech?

    1. time available to speak

    2. audience’s level of familiarity with the topic

    3. access to information on different subtopics

    4. personal understanding of the topic




  1. Identify the organization pattern used in the following thesis: “The three main steps in repairing concrete include, patching, filling and finishing.”

    1. chronological

    2. spatial

    3. problem-and-solution

    4. causal




  1. Identify the organizational pattern used in the following thesis: “The safety equipment used in ice hockey includes head gear, hand protection, knee protection and skates.”

    1. chronological

    2. spatial

    3. problem-and-solution

    4. causal




  1. Identify the organizational pattern used in the following thesis: “Because of a lack of available campus parking, numerous vehicles have been damaged.”

    1. chronological

    2. spatial

    3. problem-and-solution

    4. causal




  1. Identify the organization pattern used in the following thesis: “Kayaking is an exciting water sport requiring substantial equipment, skill and athleticism.”

    1. chronological

    2. spatial

    3. problem-and-solution

    4. topical




  1. Identify from the options below the tip needed (if any) to improve the following: “Electronic music is produced by various people and for various reasons.”

    1. Separate your main points.

    2. Word your main points consistently.

    3. Balance your main points.

    4. The main point is fine as stated.




  1. Adefina wishes to discuss the 10 steps to follow when applying for financial aid in her upcoming speech. Her instructor is concerned this may be a problem. Which step to developing main points might best explain the instructor’s concern?

    1. Identify your main points.

    2. Use an appropriate number of main points.

    3. Order your main points.

    4. Use connectives between main points.




  1. “Today’s workers are experiencing high levels of burnout, which is caused by increased demands on their time and energy,” is a thesis statement organized following the _____________________ method of organization.

    1. chronological

    2. spatial

    3. causal

    4. problem-solution

    5. topical




  1. “The art of batik has an intriguing history as well as methods of production and designs that reflect the skill and politics of the artisan” is a thesis statement organized following the _____________________ method of organization.

    1. chronological

    2. spatial

    3. causal

    4. problem-solution

    5. topical




  1. Statements such as “first, second, and third” or “the most important thing to remember” are examples of

    1. internal previews.

    2. internal summaries.

    3. signposts.

    4. transitions.




  1. Identify the reason citing sources in you speech is important from the list below.

    1. It adds credibility to your ideas.

    2. It adds to your own credibility.

    3. It is ethical to do.

    4. all of the above


  1. Which of the tips below is not a tip for the preparation outline?

    1. use complete sentences

    2. label the introduction, body, conclusion and connectives

    3. use key words and phrases

    4. keep an audience centered focus




  1. Which of the tips below is NOT a tip for the speaking outline?

    1. use an outline format

    2. write clearly and legibly

    3. add cues for delivery

    4. check for balance




  1. Outlines are based on the principle of

    1. organization.

    2. subordination.

    3. balance.

    4. cohesion.

True/False


T F 15. All the resources you plan to cite in the speech should be included in the preparation outline.
T F 16. The speaking outline is a brief version of the preparation outline.
T F 17. It is recommended that your speaking notes be written in a larger size than normal.
T F 18. It is not appropriate to write delivery cues on the speaking outline.
T F 19. The works cited page is not part of the preparation outline.
T F 20. Balancing your main points in the body of your speech requires that you spend an approximately equal amount of time on each point.
T F 21. Internal previews are very much like the preview offered in the introduction of a speech.
T F 22. It is not appropriate to combine internal summaries with transitions.
T F 23. Signposts let your audience know where you are in your speech.
T F 24. Citing sources is required to avoid plagiarizing, but does little more to enhance a speech.
Essay


  1. Create a speaking outline on the topic of your most popular recreational activity.




  1. Explain the difference between a preparation outline and a speaking outline.




  1. Create a set of note cards briefly outlining the tips for creating a speaking outline.




  1. Explain what guides the number of main points used in a speech, along with the dangers of attempting to cover too much or too little.




  1. Mario wants to give a speech about the equipment used by players in the game of hockey. Make a recommendation to him regarding at least two approaches to organizing such a speech.




  1. Describe the four different kinds of connectives possible in a speech, and offer examples of each.

Chapter Ten: Introductions and Conclusions


Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • describe the four functions of an effective introduction,

  • prepare a compelling introduction,

  • describe the two functions of an effective conclusion,

  • prepare a compelling conclusion,

  • identify at least four tips each for preparing an introduction and a conclusion.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:



Download 1.56 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   ...   14




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page