Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1 Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14


Part I. After the first viewing session, complete the following questions



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Part I. After the first viewing session, complete the following questions:


  1. As far as you are able, list as many of the main stories reported:

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  1. Choose three of the stories you listed above and provide at least two details about that story:

a.


b.

c.




  1. Finally, choose one of the stories you detailed above and write out, as best you can recall, at least two specific, meaningful bits of dialogue from the story:

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Now complete the second viewing session and complete Part II. Be sure and use the techniques for effective note taking listed on p. 46 of the text.

Part II. After the second viewing session, complete the following questions:




  1. As far as you are able, list as many of the main stories reported:

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  1. Choose three of the stories you listed above and provide at least two details about that story:

a.


b.

c.




  1. Finally, choose one of the stories you detailed above and write out, as best you can recall, at least two specific, meaningful bits of dialogue from the story:

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Part III. Compare your responses to each question in Part I and Part II.
1. Do you notice any differences?
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2. Which techniques seem to work best for you?
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Name __________________________________


Activity 3.4 – Improving Your Listening Skills
Purpose: To identify practical ways of improving listening skills.
Instructions: Locate and read the article "Hear, Hear! (development of listening skills while dealing with customers)" by Rob Bates published in Jewelers Circular Keystone, July 1, 2007 v178 i7 p146

. (Hint: Use “listening skills” as your keyword search term using InfoTrac.)


1. The article lists various ways to improve your listening. Which of these areas do you need to work hardest at improving?
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2. For the next 24 hours, work on this skill in classes, in personal interactions, and in professional relationships. What did you learn from this one-day exercise?


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3. For one day, pay attention to the ways in which people listen to you. Which of the listening behaviors presented in the article was most often practiced by others?
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4. Which of these listening behaviors did others least often practice?


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5. As a speaker, which of the listening behaviors did you find most helpful or which did you most appreciate from those who listened to you?


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6. After reading the article and closely attending to the listening behaviors that you encounter in a typical day, what do you think is the most important piece of advice you can give to those wishing to improve their listening skills?


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Consider extending your ideas to a class discussion or online forum or chat.

Name __________________________________


Activity 3.5 – Dialogic Listening
Purpose: To learn how to use dialogue listening.
Instructions: Go to http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/stew7468.htm and read the article “Dialogic Listening: Sculpting Mutual Meanings” in Bridges Not Walls by John Stewart and Milt Thomas. The authors suggest four techniques you can use to become a more active listener. Use these techniques in your interactions with others over the following day.


  1. List and define the techniques suggested in the article.

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  1. Did you find that these techniques help you learn more from other people?

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  1. Did you notice any difference in how others responded to you when you used dialogic listening techniques?

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  1. How could these four listening strategies by useful in the speech situation?

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Name __________________________________


Chapter 3 – Effective Listening
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. Brad was studying to be an engineer. His speech on fluid mechanics seemed interesting but was difficult to listen to for the audience, due to his constant use of technical terms and jargon. Which of the reasons offered in the text might best explain the audience’s inability to listen effectively?

    1. listener interference

    2. differing listening styles

    3. speaker interference caused by information

    4. speaker interference caused by language

    5. speaker interference caused by differences




  1. Jake could not decide what to give his speech on until very late. Finally, in desperation he chose to give a speech on how to make a peanut and butter sandwich to his class of college-age students. What mistake did Jake make that might best explain the audience’s inability to listen effectively to his speech?

    1. listener interference

    2. differing listening styles

    3. speaker interference caused by information

    4. speaker interference caused by language

    5. speaker interference caused by differences




  1. Candy thought it would be great to give a speech on how her favorite music artist. But when she revealed that she would discuss the legendary song writing talents of Barry Manilow she noticed that her audience seemed to tune her out. Which of the reasons offered in the text might best explain her audience’s inability to listen effectively?

    1. listener interference

    2. differing listening styles

    3. speaker interference caused by information

    4. speaker interference caused by language

    5. speaker interference caused by differences




  1. Ali decides to give a speech about his ethnic heritage as a Shiite Muslim. Which of the following ethical listening issues will likely give Ali the most difficulty with his American audience?

    1. suspending judgment

    2. responding to speaker’s ideas

    3. audiences who are distracted or disruptive

    4. audiences who are uninterested

    5. audiences who are confused




  1. Muriel noticed several of her classmates were reading the student newspaper and one was fiddling with his cell phone. She found this behavior quite rude. Which of the ethical listening issues discussed in Chapter 3 challenges Muriel?

    1. suspending judgment

    2. responding to speaker’s ideas

    3. audiences who are distracted or disruptive

    4. audiences who are uninterested

    5. audiences who are confused




  1. Moses found his audience seemed to feel they were already informed about his speech topic. Which of the ethical listening issues discussed in Chapter 3 challenges Moses?

    1. suspending judgment

    2. responding to speaker’s ideas

    3. audiences who are distracted or disruptive

    4. audiences who are uninterested

    5. audiences who are confused




  1. Wade seems to have difficulty listening to speeches. He is encouraged to ask himself to determine the speaker’s goal, to consider what he is being invited to consider. Which of the listening tips is Wade being encouraged to follow?

    1. listen for the speaker’s purpose

    2. listen for the main ideas

    3. listen for the link between ideas

    4. write down new words and ideas

    5. offer nonverbal feedback




  1. Wyona tries to listen carefully but tends to slouch lower and lower in her chair as the speech goes on. She doesn’t like it when people look at her, so she tries not to look at the speaker. Which listening tip could Wyona use to improve her listening behavior?

    1. listen for the speaker’s purpose

    2. listen for the main ideas

    3. listen for the link between ideas

    4. write down new words and ideas

    5. offer nonverbal feedback




  1. Words and phrases such as "like," "you know," "stuff like that," and "um" are all examples of?

    1. spotlighting

    2. slang

    3. inclusive language

    4. verbal clutter

    5. euphemisms




  1. Words such as "phat," "dogg," "cat," and "beastly" are all examples of?

    1. spotlighting

    2. slang

    3. inclusive language

    4. verbal clutter

    5. euphemisms

True/False
T F 11. If your audience appears confused by information presented in your speech, it is best to slow down, consider reducing your main points, alter your language and explain with more detail.
T F 12. If an audience member allows himself or herself to be distracted by your appearance, accent or style of dress, there is nothing you can do.
T F 13. Critical listening involves asking oneself questions before making decisions about a speaker’s claims.
T F 14. Differences in speech style, speaker background, appearance and values are all possible causes for listening problems between speaker and listener.
T F 15. Pretending to listen when you really aren't is a type of listener interference.
T F 16. When we listen, we confirm another person's humanity, presence, and worth.
T F 17. Problems listening are always the result of poor listening habits.
Essay


  1. Contrast effective listening behaviors with ineffective listening behaviors.




  1. Discuss the three types of listening styles described in the text and then identify which type(s) best describe your style. Include why you believe this to be true.




  1. We often hear people criticizing the use of politically “correct” language. Explain, with examples, what gender-inclusive and culturally inclusive language is, and why it is important to be sensitive to spotlighting when speaking.




  1. Imagine your audience appears confused as you speak, what could you do in response to this feedback and how does your response demonstrate effective listening skills?




  1. What is wrong with allowing your cell phone to ring during a speech? How would you feel as a speaker if your speech was interrupted by a cell phone? What if the cell phone ring was "I Get Money" by 50 Cent?




  1. What possible listening problems are created when a person uses their phone to text message during a student's speech?




  1. Describe how you would manage a person who disrupted your speech by allowing his or her cell phone to ring on and on as you spoke.




  1. Make a list of your bad listening habits and then offer yourself recommendations based on the text for improving these problem areas.

Chapter Four: Developing Your Speech Topic and Purpose
Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • identify how context influences your speaking goals,

  • choose a speech topic whether you decide to speak, are asked to speak, or are required to speak,

  • develop clear statements of purpose for your speech,

  • develop the thesis statement of your speech.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:
Behavioral objectives (85) The actions a speaker wants the audience to take at the end of the speech.

Brainstorming (80) The process of generating ideas randomly and uncritically, without attention to logic, connections, or relevance.

General purpose (84) A speech’s broad goal: to inform, invite, persuade, introduce, commemorate, or accept.

Specific purpose (84) A focused statement that identifies exactly what a speaker wants to accomplish with a speech.

Speech topic (76) The subject of your speech

Thesis statement (89) A statement that summarizes in a single declarative sentence the main proposition, assumption, or argument you want to express in your speech.
Name __________________________________
Activity 4.1 – Topic Brainstorm
Purpose: To assist you with a simple format for brainstorming speech topics.
Instructions: Below, you will find three general topic areas. Working in one area at a time, list 10 possible topics for a speech in this course. Once you have finished brainstorming, select three topics in each area that you feel would be an appropriate topic for this class.
1. Areas of expertise such as college major or professional skills: [list 10 topics]
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2. Areas of expertise such as hobby or entertainment interests: [list 10 topics]


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3. Concern or issue: [list 10 topics]


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Name __________________________________
Activity 4.2 – Many Approaches to Brainstorming
Purpose: To assist you with a simple format for brainstorming speech topics.
Instructions: Below, you will find three approaches to brain storming a speech topic: free association, clustering and categories. Working in one area at a time, list five to ten possible topics for your assignment in this course. Once you have finished, identify your favorite topics in each area for a speech in this course.
1. Free Association Brainstorm: Record all the ideas that come to your mind for two full minutes in the space below.

2. Clustering Brainstorm: Write one idea down in the circle below and then narrow the idea by connecting related ideas with the lines. See the example in figure 4.1 of your text.











3. Category Brainstorm: Use the categories below to stimulate your idea generation.


Object Concepts Problems Processes Places People

————— ————— ————— ————— ————— —————


Name __________________________________
Activity 4.3 – Considering Assignment Requirements
Purpose: To help you in preparing a speech topic and purpose that will meet the specific assignment expectations and situation required for your speech situation.
Instructions: Respond to each question below to ensure complete clarity regarding the assignment objectives and expectations.
1. What is the general purpose of the speech as assigned by your instructor?
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2. What time limits (maximums and minimums) have been established for this speech?


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3. What are the other structural requirements for the speech? (How many sources, are any visuals aids required, is an organizational pattern required, will there be question and answer time?)


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  1. Instructor considerations:

a. Has he or she mentioned any speech topics to avoid?


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b. Has he or she recommended any speech topics to consider?


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  1. Class member considerations:

a. Events and other topics of interest?


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b. Overused topics?


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6. Based on the information identified above the general purpose for your next speech and three possible topics to consider.


General Purpose: _______________________________________

Topic 1: _______________________________________

Topic 2: _______________________________________

Topic 3: _______________________________________

Name __________________________________
Activity 4.4 – Writing Speech Goals
Purpose: The goal of this activity is to help you develop a clear, specific speech purpose.
Instructions: Complete each of the following:
1. Write a first draft of your speech goal using a complete sentence that specifies the behavioral response you want from the audience:
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2. Review what you have written. Underline the infinitive phrase. Does the infinitive phrase express precisely the specific audience reaction desired? If not revise the infinitive phrase:


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3. Review what you have written. If the statement contains more than one idea, revise the sentence so that the goal contains only one idea:


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4. Review what you have written. Does the statement clearly express the complete response you want from your audience? If not, revise the infinitive phrase until it has this clarity:


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5. Write at least one different version of this goal statement. Now, select the version you plan to use for your speech, and write it here—Specific Goal:


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Name __________________________________
Activity 4.5 – Identifying Central Idea Thesis Statements
Purpose: To identify and evaluate central ideas thesis statement
Instructions: Go to the opinion pages of your local newspaper. Read several editorials or letters to the editor.
1. For at least three articles that you read, write what you believe to be the specific statement of purpose and central idea / thesis statement.
a. ______________________________________________________________________________

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b. ______________________________________________________________________________

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c. ______________________________________________________________________________

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2. Do the writers offer clear statements of purpose?
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3. Is a clear thesis identifiable in each opinion?


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4. How might the writing have been improved?


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5. In what way could problems with these articles be similar to problems in a speech? Different?
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Consider extending your ideas to a class discussion or online forum or chat.
Name __________________________________
Activity 4.6 – Practice Creating Specific Speaking Purpose
Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.
Instructions: Following the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85–88, develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a speech assignment to inform in your class. Use the topic prompts below if you can not think of your own topics.
Topic prompts: ice cream, peace, Bill Gates, substance abuse, drought, World Cup, taxation, poverty

Sample topic: Chocolate

Specific Purpose: To inform my audience of how chocolate is derived from cocoa beans.

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

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Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

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Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

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Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

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Reminders:
General purposes typically include:


  • To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

  • To invite: explore, interact, exchange

  • To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

  • To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

  • To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

  • To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:




  • State your specific speaking purpose clearly

  • Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

  • Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Name __________________________________
Activity 4.7 – Developing a Specific Purpose and Thesis Statement
Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.
Instructions: Follow the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85-88 to develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a speech assignment to inform in your class.

General Purpose: _____________________________________________________________________


Specific Purpose: _____________________________________________________________________
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Thesis Statement: _____________________________________________________________________
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Reminders:


General purposes typically include:


  • To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

  • To invite: explore, interact, exchange

  • To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

  • To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

  • To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

  • To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:




  • State your specific speaking purpose clearly

  • Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

  • Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Thesis statements should:




  • States the exact content of your speech in a single declarative sentence

Name __________________________________


Chapter 4 – Developing Your Speech Topic and Purpose
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason people speak in public according to your text?

    1. We decide to speak on issues of importance.

    2. We are asked to speak.

    3. We are required to speak as part of our job or life.

    4. We are born to speak.




  1. When a speech’s purpose includes language such as explore, interact, exchange a person can assume the general purpose of the speech is to

    1. inform.

    2. invite.

    3. persuade.

    4. introduce.

    5. accept.




  1. When a speech’s purpose includes language such as acquaint, present, or familiarize a person can assume the general purpose of the speech is to

    1. inform.

    2. invite.

    3. persuade.

    4. introduce.

    5. accept.




  1. When a speech’s purpose includes language such as change, shape, influence or motivate a person can assume the general purpose of the speech is to

    1. inform.

    2. invite.

    3. persuade.

    4. introduce.

    5. accept.




  1. Nellie decides to explore issues related to the vegan lifestyle. What type of speech is this general speaking purpose appropriate for?

    1. a speech to inform

    2. a speech to invite

    3. a speech to persuade

    4. a speech to introduce

    5. a speech to accept

  2. Joshua decides to influence his audience’s attitude toward responsible parenting. What type of speech is this general speaking purpose appropriate for?

    1. a speech to inform

    2. a speech to invite

    3. a speech to persuade

    4. a speech to introduce

    5. a speech to accept




  1. Joshua states his specific purpose for his speech on responsible parenting as, “I am going to talk to my audience about responsible parenting.” Which tip for writing a specific purpose, if any, has he violated most directly?

    1. State your specific purpose clearly.

    2. Keep your audience in the forefront of you mind.

    3. Use definitive, complete sentences.

    4. The specific purpose statement is fine as written.




  1. Claire decides to explain to her audience the concept of academic integrity. What type of speech is this general speaking purpose appropriate for?

    1. a speech to inform

    2. a speech to invite

    3. a speech to persuade

    4. a speech to introduce

    5. a speech to accept




  1. Claire considers her specific purpose statement and writes, “I will inform my audience of the importance of academic integrity to their future careers.” Which tip for writing a specific purpose, if any, has she violated most directly?

    1. State your specific purpose clearly.

    2. Keep your audience in the forefront of you mind.

    3. Use definitive, complete sentences.

    4. The specific purpose statement is fine as written.




  1. Your boss informs you that she has chosen you to lead a new project at work. This involves reporting on the project at future staff meetings. Which of the following reason's to speak would best explain why you speak in the staff meeting according to your text?

    1. We decide to speak on issues of importance.

    2. We are asked to speak.

    3. We are required to speak as part of our job or life.

    4. We are born to speak.




  1. As a vegetarian you think it is important to share your views and concerns about the dangers of traditional American diets. Which of the following reason's to speak would best explain why you speak in when ever possible, according to your text?

    1. We decide to speak on issues of importance.

    2. We are asked to speak.

    3. We are required to speak as part of our job or life.

    4. We are born to speak.

True/False
T F 12. Topic selection, identifying the general purpose, selecting a specific purpose and creating a thesis are all audience-centered elements of speech making.
T F 13. It is important to select a speech topic that is both interesting to the speaker and the audience.
T F 14. There are different ways to brainstorm, including free association, clustering, by categories, and through technology.
T F 15. A thesis statement should be a single declarative statement.
T F 16. The thesis statement should help identify the main points of your speech.
T F 17. The following thesis statement is effective: “Airline travel can be simplified through proper planning, packing, and personal patience.”
T F 18. The following thesis statement is effective: “Hybrid vehicles are the future.”
T F 19. The context regarding why you speak does not influence what you will speak about.
Essay


  1. Explain how the context regarding whether you decide to speak, are asked to speak, or are required to speak influences what you speak about.




  1. You have been asked to give a speech to Juniors and Seniors at your local high school. What topic would you address, how would you choose it and defend why your choice is a good one.




  1. Identify and explain how technology can make topic selection easier.




  1. Create clear, specific purpose statements and thesis statements for an informative speech on the topic of popular music.




  1. Create clear, specific purpose statements and thesis statements for an invitational speech on the topic of popular music.




  1. Create clear, specific purpose statements and thesis statements for a special occasion speech on the topic of popular music.




  1. Create clear, specific purpose statements and thesis statements for a persuasive speech on the topic of popular music.

Chapter Five: Your Audience and Speaking Environment
Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • define what an audience is,

  • conduct a demographic audience analysis,

  • adapt to an audience that is both a diverse group of people and a unique community,

  • identify the influence of a speaking environment on an audience,

  • identify strategies for adapting to audience expectations for a speech.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:



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