Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1 Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14



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Introduction


Captured attention and interest/related to the audience _____

Introduced the topic _____

Established credibility _____

Previewed main points _____
Body
Main points clear _____

Established a need for change ______

Clear solution ______

Attempted to gain immediate action _______

Main points supported _____

Sources cited _____

Connectives _____

Audience centered _____

Avoided fallacies _____

Clarity of PowerPoint _____

Managed PowerPoint _____


Conclusion

Signaled the finish _____

Summarized main points _____
Delivery
Volume ______

Eye contact _____

Avoided distracting mannerisms _____

Articulation _____

Rate _____

Extemporaneous/conversational style _____

Enthusiasm _____


Outline

Complete-sentence form ______

Logical subordination _____

Grammar _____

Works cited _____
Name __________________________________
Chapter 17 – Persuasion and Reasoning
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice

  1. The appeal to the audience’s emotions is known as

    1. logos.

    2. pathos.

    3. ethos.

    4. ethics.




  1. The appeal to the speaker’s credibility is known as

    1. logos.

    2. pathos.

    3. ethos.

    4. ethics.




  1. The logical arrangement of evidence in a speech is known as

    1. logos.

    2. pathos.

    3. ethos.

    4. ethics.




  1. Nan is a dietician and has decided to persuade her audience to eat a diet high in antioxidants for long term health benefits. Given what we know about Nan, her ___________ would be high.

    1. initial credibility

    2. derived credibility

    3. terminal credibility

    4. competence




  1. Najib has conducted interviews and has included information from four different sources including the local fire chief to use in his persuasive speech on fire safety. This means his ___________ would be high.

    1. initial credibility

    2. derived credibility

    3. terminal credibility

    4. competence




  1. While Carey’s speech sounded good to the audience, upon further consideration some of the information was discovered to be inaccurate. This means his ___________ would be low.

    1. initial credibility

    2. derived credibility

    3. terminal credibility

    4. competence

  2. Roberto was debating politics with his roommate who had just said, “I don’t care what the Governor said—he’s a cheat and a liar, any way you look at it!” This is an example of the ___________ fallacy.

    1. red herring

    2. either or

    3. ad hominem

    4. bandwagon




  1. A television commercial shows lots of people drinking and enjoying a new softdrink product. This commercial encourages viewers to commit the ___________ fallacy.

    1. red herring

    2. either or

    3. ad hominem

    4. bandwagon




  1. Mario suggests that any one not in favor of the Patriot Act must be a Communist. This is an instance of the ___________ fallacy.

    1. red herring

    2. either or

    3. hasty generalization

    4. bandwagon




  1. When Moisha attempts to distract her audience from the real issue. She is attempting to us a ___________ fallacy.

    1. red herring

    2. either or

    3. ad hominem

    4. bandwagon




  1. The statement, “In seven years one unspayed female cat and her unspayed offspring can produce 420,000 cats” is an example of

    1. general evidence.

    2. novel information.

    3. credible sources.

    4. false cause.




  1. A person that appears sincere, trustworthy and concerned for the well-being of the audience is said to have

    1. credibility.

    2. competence.

    3. character.

    4. backing.




  1. A person that demonstrates intelligence, expertise, and subject knowledge is said to have

    1. credibility.

    2. competence.

    3. character.

    4. backing.

True/False
T F 14. The slippery slope fallacy suggests one false step will lead to everyone falling down.
T F 15. Mythos refers to a shared set of beliefs, attitudes and values held by members of a society.
T F 16. When you want to convince your audience that something is true, good or appropriate, you will be more successful is your evidence if general rather than specific.
T F 17. Terminal credibility doesn’t much matter, because it comes at the end of the speech after everything has been said.
T F 18. Guilt is a primary emotion expressed similarly across cultures.
T F 19. Happiness is a primary emotion expressed similarly across cultures.
T F 20. Anger is a secondary emotion expressed differently across cultures.
T F 21. Shame is a secondary emotion expressed differently across cultures.

Essay



  1. Explain the importance of using emotional appeals ethically.




  1. Explain what mythos is, and how it can be used to persuade.




  1. Create an example of the ad hominem fallacy.




  1. Which of the reasoning fallacies do you believe is most commonly committed? Defend your answer.




  1. Explain and provide an example of the bandwagon fallacy.




  1. Explain and provide an example of the either-or fallacy.




  1. Explain and provide an example of the red herring fallacy.




  1. Explain and provide an example of the slippery slope fallacy.

Chapter Eighteen: Speaking on Special Occasions

Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • describe the four types of special occasion speeches,

  • identify at least four tips for giving effective special occasion speeches.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:
Acceptance speech (420) A speech that acknowledges gratitude, appreciation, and pleasure at receiving an honor or a gift.

Commemorative speech (417) A speech that praises, honors, recognizes, or pays tribute to a person, an event, an idea or an institution.

Introductory speech (414) A speech that gives the audience a sense of the unique perspective of the person introduced or welcomed and that familiarizes the audience with an event.

Speech of award (417) A speech given to present a specific award to someone and describe why that person is receiving the award.

Speech of tribute (417) A speech given in honor of someone.

Speech to entertain (422) A lighthearted speech that addresses issues or ideas in a humorous way.

Timing (422) The way a speaker uses pauses and delivery for maximum effect.
Name __________________________________
Activity 18.1 – Analyzing a Special Occasion Speech
Purpose: To apply research skills and analyze the construction of a special occasion speech.
Instructions: Locate a speech of introduction utilizing online search tools or traditional library catalogs as described in Chapter 6 (pp.127-134). You might also consider speeches made locally or available through InfoTrac or your favorite search engine. Carefully read the speech and answer the following questions:


  1. How is the speech organized?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Which “type” of special occasion speech did you find?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Does the speech follow the recommendations offered for this type of speech? Explain.

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________


Activity 18.2 – Speeches of Commencement
Purpose: To examine the conventions of graduation speeches, so as to speak with greater originality and effectiveness.
Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read the Harvard commencement speech by Bill Gates. (Hint: Use the author’s name and/or the term commencement speech as your search string.)
1. How does the speech begin? How appropriate is this approach? Why?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. How does Bill Gates connect with this audience?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. How does Bill Gates attempt to inspire his audience?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. After having read this article, suggest an unconventional message that you would like to deliver for a graduation speech that would still be appropriate for this ceremonial occasion.


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. In your own words, explain why it might be difficult to speak with sincerity or originality on a ceremonial occasion.


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________


Activity 18.3 – Speeches of Acceptance
Purpose: To give you experience with understanding and evaluating an acceptance speech.
Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read The acceptance speech of Julius Lester for his Boston Globe-Horn Book award, John Henry. (Hint: Use as your search term either “acceptance speech” or the author’s name.)
1. What is the typical way in which recipients begin an acceptance speech?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Julius Lester begins his acceptance speech with a story. What is the effect of this beginning?


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Lester contrasts his response at being told he had won a Newberry Award with his response at being informed that he had won the Boston Globe-Horn Book Award. What is the effect of contrasting these two stories?


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Lester thanks a number of people who contributed to his achievement. Identify a specific instance of this acknowledgment that you feel is particularly well worded or communicated with particular impact (and explain your choice).


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. List and briefly describe at least one way in which Lester gives his audience something new or unexpected, something that makes this acceptance speech memorable.


_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Name __________________________________


Activity 18.4 – Speeches of Tribute
Purpose: To give you experience with understanding and evaluating a tribute speech.
Instructions: Using InfoTrac, locate and read “Remarks at the Congressional Tribute Honoring Officer Jacob J. Chestnut and Detective John M. Gibson.” (Hint: This article is a transcript of a speech given by President Clinton on July 27, 1998. It may be useful to locate and read newspaper articles covering Chestnut and Gibson’s deaths before reading the transcript of Clinton’s tribute.)
1. A conventional tribute speech praises the accomplishments of an individual. What does Clinton praise these two men for?
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Locate an example from this tribute speech that demonstrates how Clinton uses either a specific illustration, vivid language, or another figurative language device to increase the impact of his message.
_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Clinton’s tribute speech to the two men praises the accomplishments and character of others. List at least two other people or groups of people who are praised in this speech and briefly describe the possible reasons for acknowledging them in this tribute:
a.

b.


Name __________________________________
Speech Assignment: Speech of Introduction
Prepare a two- to three-minute speech of introduction. Assume that you are introducing the featured speaker for a specific occasion. Criteria for evaluation include creativity in establishing speaker credibility and presenting the name of the speaker and the speech title.

Speech Assignment: Speech of Presentation


Prepare a three- to five-minute speech in which you present a gift, a plaque, or an award to a member of your class. Criteria for evaluation include showing what the award is for, the criteria for winning, and how the person met the criteria.

Speech Assignment: Speech of Acceptance


This assignment can go together with the speech-of-presentation assignment. Prepare a one- to two-minute speech of acceptance in response to another speaker’s speech of presentation. The criterion for evaluation is how imaginatively you can respond in a brief speech.

Speech Assignment: Speech of Welcoming


Prepare a two- to three-minute speech welcoming a specific person to your city, university, or social organization. Criteria for evaluation include how well you explain the nature of the institution and how well you introduce the person being welcomed.

Speech Assignment: Speech of Tribute


Prepare a four- to six-minute speech paying tribute to a person, living or dead. Criteria for evaluation include how well you develop the person’s laudable characteristics and accomplishments.

Name __________________________________


Chapter 18– Speaking on Special Occasions
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Illustrate a person’s unique achievements.”




    1. speech of introduction

    2. speech of commemoration

    3. speech of acceptance

    4. speech to entertain




  1. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Generate enthusiasm for the event.”




    1. speech of introduction

    2. speech of commemoration

    3. speech of acceptance

    4. speech to entertain




  1. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Show awareness of the significance of the award.”




    1. speech of introduction

    2. speech of commemoration

    3. speech of acceptance

    4. speech to entertain




  1. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Make the audience think about the implications of an issue.”




    1. speech of introduction

    2. speech of commemoration

    3. speech of acceptance

    4. speech to entertain



  1. Which guidelines are most important when giving a speech of acceptance?

    1. share what is unique, express appreciation, tell the truth

    2. understand the purpose, recognize others, respect time limits

    3. use humor carefully, speak about meaningful issues, attend to deliver

    4. be brief, be accurate, be appropriate




  1. Which guidelines are most important when giving speech of introduction?

    1. share what is unique, express appreciation, tell the truth

    2. Understand the purpose, recognize others, respect time limits

    3. use humor carefully, speak about meaningful issues, attend to deliver

    4. be brief, be accurate, be appropriate




  1. Which guidelines are most important when giving a speech to commemorate?

    1. share what is unique, express appreciation, tell the truth

    2. Understand the purpose, recognize others, respect time limits

    3. use humor carefully, speak about meaningful issues, attend to deliver

    4. be brief, be accurate, be appropriate




  1. Which type of special occasion speech is affiliated with the following goal?

“Entertain the audience.”




    1. speech of introduction

    2. speech of commemoration

    3. speech of acceptance

    4. speech to entertain

True/False


T F 9. An introductory speech should acquaint the audience with the person or event, establish the initial credibility of the speaker being introduced, and generate enthusiasm for the person or event.
T F 10. Speeches of tribute are only given for people that have passed away.
T F 11. It is not necessary to tell the truth; in fact it is best to embellish the truth in a speech of commemoration.
T F 12. Due to its lighthearted approach, a speech to entertain need not address a meaningful issue.
T F 13. Timing in a speech to entertain refers to how effectively the speaker uses the time allotted.
T F 14. When introducing another person, you should always begin with their name and credentials.
T F 15. When accepting an award, it is important to express thanks for the award and show your awareness of the award’s significance.
T F 16. When accepting an award, it is impolite to recognize others.
T F 17. Potentially offensive humor is only appropriate in a speech to entertain.

Essay



  1. Create a speaker’s outline for a speech of introduction about yourself.




  1. Imagine you are presenting your favorite teacher with an award. Prepare a speaking outline for a speech of award to recognize that teacher.




  1. Explain the goals of a speech of acceptance, including a discussion of what is important for such an address.




  1. Describe what makes a speech to entertain different than a speech to inform.




  1. Compare the similarities between a speech to entertain and a persuasive speech.




  1. As the best man, Jeff needs to give a toast at Dave's wedding. Using the tips from this chapter offer Jeff at least four suggestions of what he should do and/or avoid doing.

Appendix A: Speaking in Small Groups


Goals

In this chapter you will learn:



  • explain what small groups are and why people speak them

  • describe the six most common formats for small group speaking,

  • use the reflexive thinking method to solve problems in a group,

  • conduct a productive meeting,

  • identify at least three tips for managing question-and-answer sessions,

  • identify at least four tips for speaking effectively and ethically in small groups.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:



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