Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1 Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14



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Introduction Time: __________


Captured attention/interest _____

Introduced the topic _____

Established credibility _____

Previewed main points _____



Body

Main points clear _____

Main points explained clearly _____

Connectives _____

Source citation _____

Audience centered _____

Use of invitational language _____

Clarity of PowerPoint _____

Management of PowerPoint _____

Dialogue With Audience Time: __________

Condition of equality _____

Condition of value _____

Condition of self-determination _____

Listening and response _____

Summary/Conclusion Time: __________

Signaled the speech is ending _____

Summarized main points _____

Final conclusions _____

Closed decisively _____

Delivery

Volume ______

Eye contact _____

Avoided distracting mannerisms _____

Articulation _____

Rate _____

Extemporaneous/conversational style _____

Enthusiasm _____



Outline

Complete sentence form _____

Logical subordination _____

Grammar _____

Works cited _____

Name __________________________________


Chapter 15 – Invitational Speaking
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. What type of invitational speech is exemplified in the following?

“Although many people fear guns, two hunting experiences in my childhood taught me to use guns responsibly and ethically, and I believe the lessons I learned have been invaluable in my life.”




    1. an invitational speech about a concept

    2. an invitational speech to explore an issue

    3. an invitational speech to explore ideas

    4. an invitational speech to articulate a position




  1. What type of invitational speech is exemplified in the following?

“I’d like to describe for my audience the controversy over three theories of how the universe was created…and then explore which theory should be taught in schools.”




    1. an invitational speech about a concept

    2. an invitational speech to explore an issue

    3. an invitational speech to explore ideas

    4. an invitational speech to articulate a position




  1. Which organizational pattern is suggested by the following thesis statement?

“Trying to understand the response to the many hate crimes that have been committed in New York, Chicago and Los Angeles might help my own community heal from our tragedy.”




    1. chronological organizational pattern

    2. spatial organizational pattern

    3. topical organizational pattern

    4. multiple perspective organizational pattern




  1. Which organizational pattern is exemplified by the following thesis statement?

“Perhaps some of the many theories throughout time and across cultures that explain how the universe was created—particularly creationism, the big bang theory, ancient Egyptian and African theories, and Native American theories—could be taught in our public schools.”




    1. chronological organizational pattern

    2. spatial organizational pattern

    3. topical organizational pattern

    4. multiple perspective organizational pattern




  1. Which of the following are the tips offered regarding invitational speaking?

    1. know your position, use invitational language, allow time for discussion

    2. self-determination, equality, value

    3. avoid criticizing the audience, allow time for discussion, stick to your plan

    4. know your audience’s position, use invitational language, leave time for discussion




  1. Jasmine gave a well practiced invitational speech but failed to offer her audience a chance to identify their perspectives. Which condition of invitational speaking did she violate?

    1. The condition of equality

    2. the condition of value

    3. the condition of self-determination

    4. all conditions were satisfied




  1. Rachel afforded her audience a chance to share their perspectives but when they did she seemed to respond to each suggestion like an objection to be refuted. Which condition of invitational speaking did she violate?

    1. The condition of equality

    2. the condition of value

    3. the condition of self-determination

    4. all conditions were satisfied




  1. Dustin closed his invitational speech with a call to action asking his audience members to sign a petition calling for a repeal of the conceal carry law. Which condition of invitational speaking did he violate?

    1. The condition of equality

    2. the condition of value

    3. the condition of self-determination

    4. all conditions were satisfied

True/False


T F 9. The condition of value requires the speaker to recognize that the audience members’ views have inherent value.
T F 10. The condition of equality presumes that audience members have equally valuable perspectives worthy of exploration.
T F 11. The condition of self-determination recognizes that audience members know what is best for themselves and others.
T F 12. Chronological organizational patterns are not useful for invitational speaking.
T F 13. Invitational language includes statements such as, “you should,” “the only correct position is,” and “anyone can see.”
T F 14. A primary ethical responsibility for invitational speakers is to stay true to their purpose.
T F 15. Invitational speakers must be willing to change their own views.
T F 16. The best way to organize an invitational speech to articulate a position is the multiple-perspectives pattern.
T F 17. Using invitational language can help manage or reduce the hostility of audience members.
T F 18. When exploring an issue, the speaker doesn’t really need to prepare very much about their chosen topic.
Essay


  1. Explain the conditions of equality, value, and self-determination for an invitational speech.




  1. Distinguish an invitational speech to articulate a position from a speech to explore an issue.




  1. Give an example of how you could use the multiple-perspectives organizational pattern for a speech exploring the issue of stem cell research.




  1. List and discuss the three tips for giving an effective invitational speech.




  1. Explain why ethical listening skills are a part of the invitational speech.

Chapter Sixteen: Persuasive Speaking


Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • describe the three types of persuasive speeches,

  • apply the most common patterns of organization for persuasive speeches,

  • identify three tips for effective persuasive speeches,

  • identify the principles for giving ethical persuasive speeches.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:
Call to action (368) To request that an audience engage in some clearly stated behavior.

Comparative advantages organization (372) The organizational pattern that illustrates the advantages of one solution over others.

Counterarguments (375) Arguments against the speaker’s own position.

Fear appeal (376) The threat of something undesirable happening if change does not occur.

Gain immediate action (368) To motivate an audience to engage in a specific behavior or take a specific action.

Gain passive agreement (368) To ask an audience to adopt a new position without asking them to act in support of that position.

Monroe’s motivated sequence (372) A sequential process used to persuade audiences by gaining attention, demonstrating a need, satisfying that need, visualizing the beneficial results, and calling for action.

Persuasive speech (361) A speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience’s thoughts, feelings, or actions.

Problem-cause-solution organization (370) The organizational pattern that focuses on identifying a specific problem, the causes of that problem, and a solution for the problem.

Problem-solution organization (369) The organizational pattern that focuses on persuading an audience that a specific problem exists and can be solved or minimized by a specific solution.

Question of fact (362) A question that addresses whether something is true or not.

Question of policy (363) A question that addresses the best course of action or the best solution to a problem.

Question of value (362) A question that addresses the merit or morality of an object, action or belief.

Two-sided message (375) A persuasive strategy that addresses both sides of an issue, refuting one side to prove the other is better.

Name __________________________________


Activity 16.1 – Developing a Specific Purpose and Thesis Statement
Purpose: To assist you in creating and evaluating your specific purpose statement.
Instructions: Following the guidelines offered in the text on pages 85-87 to develop a clear specific speaking purpose for a persuasive speech assignment in your class.

General Purpose: _______________________________________

Specific Purpose: ______________________________________________________________________

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Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________________________________

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Reminders:
General purposes typically include:


  • To inform: describe, clarify, explain, define

  • To invite: explore, interact, exchange

  • To persuade: change, shape, influence, motivate

  • To introduce: acquaint, present, familiarize

  • To commemorate: praise, honor, pay tribute

  • To accept: receive an award, express gratitude

Specific purposes should:




  • State your specific speaking purpose clearly

  • Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind

  • Use definitive, complete sentences (no questions)

Thesis statements should:




  • State the exact content of your speech in a single declarative sentence

Name __________________________________


Activity 16.2 – Brainstorming Persuasive Speeches
Purpose: To help you in generating topics and creative approaches to be used in persuasive speeches.
Instructions: Either on your own, or in discussions with group members, complete the following worksheet.
1. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to contribute money in support of a worthy cause. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many organizations and charitable causes as you can think of that could be promoted in a persuasive speech.
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2. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to contribute their time to a volunteer effort. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many volunteer efforts as you can think of that could be promoted in a persuasive speech.
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3. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to change some habit or lifestyle choice. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many “bad habits” or “poor lifestyle choices” as you can think of that could be “targets for change” in a persuasive speech.
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4. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners for their support in changing a policy or law. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many college/university, local, state, or federal laws and policies as you can think of that should be changed.
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5. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to support the foundation of something new. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many “new-but-badly-needed” ideas as you can which could be advocated in a persuasive speech.


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6. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to abolish, cancel, or get rid of something that is harmful, wasteful, or simply obnoxious. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many suggestions for “abolishing something” as you can.
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7. Persuasive speeches often ask listeners to choose between “X” and “Y,” or they may claim that “Z” is clearly the most superior example currently available. Take three minutes and brainstorm as many “top-of-the-line” products or services which could be advocated in a persuasive speech.
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8. Review the lists you have generated and select the most intriguing ideas you have generated. Share these with a small group of classmates to gain a sense of what ideas your audience is likely to be most receptive to, or to gain a sense of resistance which your speech topic must address.
Ideas likely to be favorably received:

Ideas likely to be resisted:

Ideas likely to meet with neutral, uninformed, or apathetic responses:

Name __________________________________


Activity 16.3 – Analyzing Persuasive Speeches
Purpose: To provide you with experience at analyzing effective models of persuasive speaking.
Instructions: Locate the transcript of an effective persuasive speech. Good sources for this search are InfoTrac (browse the indexed journal Vital Speeches of the Day), and websites which provide the texts of famous speeches. (You can visit http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/previous.htm or search Google for examples.)
Once you have identified a persuasive speech that you wish to work with, read it through once, and then reread it as needed to complete this worksheet.
1. What is the topic of the speech?
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2. What is the speech goal or proposition?


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3. What are the reasons given in support of this goal?


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4. In your opinion, where has the strongest supporting reason been placed?
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5. How have the supporting reasons been organized? (Logical reasons pattern, problem-solution pattern, comparative advantages patterns, criteria satisfaction pattern, Monroe’s motivational pattern, or some hybrid of these?) As clearly as possible, outline or describe the organization of this persuasive speech.
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6. Identify and list at least three pieces of evidence that you feel are effective in supporting the reasons and the speech goal.
a.

b.


c.

7. Identify and list at least three instances in which the speaker uses emotional appeals or pathos to motivate and persuade the audience.


a.

b.


c.

8. In your opinion, what is the key aspect of this speech that makes it effectively persuasive?


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Name __________________________________


Activity 16.4 – Writing a Persuasive Thesis Statement
Purpose: The goal of this activity is to develop an effective persuasive speech specific goal and thesis statement.
Instructions: Complete the questions below.
1. Check the type of persuasive goal you have for this speech:

____ change or strengthen a belief

____ move to action
2. Write a first draft of your speech goal using a complete sentence that specifies the type response you want from the audience:
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3. Review what you have written. Underline the infinitive phrase. Does the infinitive phrase express precisely the specific audience reaction desired? If not, revise the infinitive phrase:
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4. Review what you have written. Does the statement clearly express the complete response you want from your audience? If not, revise the infinitive phrase until it has this clarity, and write your final draft of your speech goal:
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5. Identify and list the specific issues you will cover in order to reach your speech goal:
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6. After reviewing the issues, write a thesis statement that incorporates these issues:
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Name __________________________________
Activity 16.5 – Selecting Reasons
Purpose: To plan your reasoning strategy for a persuasive speech.
Instructions: Respond to the questions below.


          1. Write the specific goal that you will use for this persuasive speech.

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          1. Write at least six reasons that support your specific goal:

a.


b.

c.


d.

e.


f.



      1. Place stars next to the three or four reasons that you believe are the best.

Name __________________________________
Activity 16.6 – Creating a Keyword Outline
Purpose: To give you practice at revising full sentence outlines into keyword outlines that can be used as note card prompts while delivering a speech.
Instructions: In your textbook, locate the full sentence outline for the speech “No Child Left Behind: Addressing the School Dropout Rate among Latinos” by Dana Barker (text pages 379-382). Convert this speech to a keyword outline that would be suitable for note cards during the delivery of the speech. (Review pages 220-222 in the text if you need more guidance on preparing speech notes and sample note cards.)

Name __________________________________


Evaluation Form for Persuasive Speech

(Based on Monroe’s Motivational Pattern)




Task

Excellent

Good

Competent

Must improve

Introduction: Captures audience attention (Step 1)













Establishes credibility













Body: Identifies and clearly explains authentic audience need (Step 2)













Proposes a clear and specific solution to the need (Step 3)













Visualizes the solution and relates it to the audience needs (Step 4)













Reasons are supported by at least three varieties of support: facts, statistics, definitions, examples, descriptions, analogies, narratives, or expert opinions.













Anticipates and responds to possible audience objections













Conclusion: Specifically describes how to act on the solution (Step 5)













Provides a sense of closure













Delivery: Uses standard language and avoids vocal interferences













Uses gestures purposefully to emphasize main points













Eye contact and facial gestures relate to audience with confidence













Volume and pace of speech are suited to audience needs













Name __________________________________


Chapter 16 – Persuasive Speaking
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. Which type of persuasive speech is suggested by the following? “From the library to the farthest parking lot, the lighting on campus is not adequate to ensure safety after dark.”

    1. question of fact

    2. question of value

    3. question of policy

    4. question of purpose




  1. Which type of persuasive speech is suggested by the following? “A more rigorous high school curriculum is of benefit to everyone..”

    1. question of fact

    2. question of value

    3. question of policy

    4. question of purpose




  1. Which type of persuasive speech is suggested by the following? “We must act now to ensure a safe supply of water for future citizens.”

    1. question of fact

    2. question of value

    3. question of policy

    4. question of purpose




  1. Which of the following is the best example of a position statement of fact for a persuasive speech?

    1. Affirmative action does not have any effect on improving the status of minorities.

    2. Affirmative action is unfair.

    3. Affirmative action laws should be repealed.

    4. All of the above could be statements of fact.




  1. Which of the following is the best example of a position statement of value for a persuasive speech?

    1. Pornography should be banned from the Internet.

    2. Pornography on the Internet is not as serious a problem as the media portrays it to be.

    3. It is more important to preserve freedom of expression than to protect children from pornography.

    4. All of the above could be statements of value.




  1. A statement of _____________ indicates that the speaker will persuade listeners that something should or should not be done.

    1. value

    2. position

    3. fact

    4. policy




  1. A speaker’s main points are:

I. Traffic accidents have increased.



  1. The chief reason for increase in accidents is the increase in the speed limit.

  2. The speed limit should be reduced immediate in this affected area.

This is an example of what organizational pattern?



    1. problem-cause-solution

    2. problem-solution

    3. comparative advantages

    4. Monroe’s motivated sequence




  1. Jim is planning to give a speech on the topic of recycling. He wants his audience to take immediate action and start recycling in order to reduce the community’s waste management problems. Which organizational pattern would be most appropriate given the information provided?

    1. problem-solution

    2. problem-cause-solution

    3. comparative advantages

    4. Monroe’s motivated sequence




  1. Kari is concerned about the impact of hormones in the food supply. Which organizational pattern would be most appropriate given the information provided?

    1. problem-solution

    2. problem-cause-solution

    3. comparative advantages

    4. Monroe’s motivated sequence




  1. Josh feels he wants to persuade his audience to participate in the campus’s alternative Spring Break service activity rather than go on their traditional trip to Daytona Beach, Florida. Which organizational pattern would be most appropriate given the information provided?

    1. problem-solution

    2. problem-cause-solution

    3. comparative advantages

    4. Monroe’s motivated sequence




  1. Acknowledging ______________ is an effective way of enhancing a speaker's own position.

    1. two-sided messages

    2. counterarguments

    3. fear appeals

    4. credibility




  1. ______________ is/are most effective when the speaker refutes one issue to prove the other.

    1. Two-sided messages

    2. Counterarguments

    3. Fear appeals

    4. Credibility




  1. ______________ cause(s) audience members to take notice of an issue.

    1. Two-sided messages

    2. Counterarguments

    3. Fear appeals

    4. Credibility

True/False


T F 14. Ethical persuasion involves telling the truth, not manipulating evidence, and presenting information accurately and completely.
T F 15. Comparative advantages organization is typically used with speeches addressing a problem of value.
T F 16. Monroe’s motivated sequence is only effective if your audience is already motivated to support your position.
T F 17. It is unethical to use emotional language in a speech.
T F 18. Fear appeals should never be used if a speaker wishes to remain ethical in his or her persuasion.

Essay



  1. For a speech on the topic of air pollution, prepare a specific purpose statement as a question of fact, a question of value, and a question of policy.




  1. Prepare a thesis statement for a speech using problem-cause-solution organization.




  1. Compose a thesis statement for a speech using comparative advantages organization.




  1. Design a thesis statement for a speech using Monroe’s motivated sequence.




  1. Explain how you might organize a speech to gain immediate action differently from a speech to gain passive agreement.

Chapter Seventeen: Persuasion and Reasoning


Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • use evidence effectively in a persuasive speech,

  • enhance your credibility before, during, and at the end of your speech,

  • use emotional appeals effectively and ethically to persuade your audience,

  • appeal to mythos effectively and ethically to persuade your audience,

  • avoid five of the most common fallacies in persuasive arguments.

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:
Ad hominem fallacy (401) An argument in which a speaker attacks a person rather than the person’s argument.

Bandwagon fallacy (401) An argument that something is correct or good because everyone else agrees with it or is doing it.

Character (390) The audience’s view of a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well being of the audience.

Common ground (392) The similarities, shared interests, and mutual perspectives a speaker has with an audience.

Competence (390) The audience’s view of a speaker’s intellegence, expertise, and knowledge of a subject.

Credibility (390) The audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence and character.

Derived credibility (391) The credibility a speaker develops during a speech.

Either-or fallacy (402) An argument in which a speaker claims our options are “either A or B” when actually more than two options exist. Sometimes called false dilemma.

Ethos (388) The word Aristotle used to refer to the speaker’s credibility.

Fallacy (400) An argument that seems valid, but is flawed because of unsound evidence or reasoning.

Initial credibility (391) The credibility a speaker has before giving a speech.

Logos (388) The word Aristotle used to refer to logical arrangement of evidence in a speech.

Mythos (397) The interrelated set of beliefs, attitudes,values, and feelings held by members of a particular society or culture.

Pathos (388) The word Aristotle used to refer to emotional appeals made by a speaker.

Red herring fallacy (403) An argument that introduces irrelevant information into an argument in order to distract an audience from the real issue.

Slippery slope fallacy (404) An argument in which a speaker claims that taking a first step in one direction will lead to inevitable and undesirable further steps.

Terminal credibility (391) The credibility given to a speaker at the end of a speech.
Name __________________________________
Activity 17.1 – The Toulmin Model of Argument
Purpose: To give you practice at identifying the essentials of an argument: the claim, the reason, the evidence, and the warrant.
Instructions: Either on your own, or in a discussion group of two to three people, complete the following worksheet:
1. In your own words, what is the claim of an argument?
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2. In your own words, what are the reasons of an argument?
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3. In your own words, what is the evidence of an argument?
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4. In your own words, what is the warrant of an argument?
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5. Read the following brief argument, then identify its essential parts.
E-mail should be banned from all campus computers because it is simply a channel for time-wasting junk messages. Over 75% of all messages sent on e-mail are nonsensical distractions: poor attempts at humor, chain letter scams to earn money or discounts, and frivolous communications that add nothing to the quality of life or of learning.
The claim is: ______________________________________________________________________
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The reason is: _____________________________________________________________________
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The evidence is:____________________________________________________________________


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The warrant is:_____________________________________________________________________
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6. Again, read the following brief argument, then identify its essential parts.

President Clinton should have been impeached because he lied about having sex with a woman. The testimony in the Starr report, tapes of the grand jury proceedings, and Clinton’s own testimony in the grand jury clearly indicate that a sexual relationship occurred and that Clinton tried to cover it up.
The claim is: ______________________________________________________________________
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The reason is: _____________________________________________________________________
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The evidence is:____________________________________________________________________
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The warrant is:_____________________________________________________________________
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7. Now, create your own argument, and label the claim, the reason, the evidence, and the warrant:
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Name __________________________________
Activity 17.2 – Identifying Cultural Beliefs
Purpose: To understand how speakers use mythos to appeal to a culture’s beliefs and values

Instructions: Visit the “Martha Stewart Living” website at http://www.marthastewart.com/.

1. What are some of the values apparent on this site?


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2. What is the story these values tell?
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3. What is the logic contained in these stories?


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4. To what extent do you think the values and stories from the Martha Stewart Living site are representative of American culture in general?


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5. How do you think the use of these stories affects Martha Stewart’s credibility?


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Name __________________________________
Activity 17.3 – Drawing on Mythos
Purpose: To understand how speakers use mythos to appeal to a culture’s logic.
Instructions: Use InfoTrac to locate "Excerpts From Speeches on Broad Variety of Issues at the Convention in Boston" . from The New York Times, July 28, 2004 pP8 col 01 (37 col in) Answer the following questions with respect to any one of the speakers included.


  1. Which cultural beliefs does the speaker appeal to?

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  1. What is the logic of those beliefs?

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  1. Would this speech be effective if given to audiences who belonged to other cultures? Explain

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  1. Are there members of the U.S. culture who may not be persuaded by this speech? Why or why not?

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Name __________________________________
Activity 17.4 – Identifying Fallacies
Purpose: To learn the basic fallacies of reasoning and how to identify them in a speaker’s argument
Instructions: Locate Tim Holt's web page on logical fallacies at his website http://www.logicalfallacies.info/. He explains some of the more common fallacies of reasoning. Choose three of the fallacies, click on their links, and read more about them.


  1. Locate a newspaper article and within the "speak up" or editorial section identify an example of one of these fallacies..




  1. Underline the problem area in the article and label the fallacy.




  1. Where have you heard speakers make similar mistakes in reasoning?

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  1. Why do audiences sometimes fall victim to a speaker’s use of fallacies?

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Consider using your classroom discussion forum or chat feature to share your insights.

Name __________________________________


Activity 17.5 – Using Your Research Persuasively
Purpose: To learn from research on persuasion what effective speakers can do to make their appeals more effective.
Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read “Making the Research Work for You,” by John A. Call. (Hint: Use “jury persuasion” as your search term.)
1. What does research suggest about jury members’ abilities to recall facts of the trial?
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2. How is this information relevant to you as you prepare your next persuasive speech?


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3. In your own words, describe the concept of a “story model.”


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4. List at least one story or version of a story that audience members might construct as they listen to your next persuasive speech.


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5. In your own words, describe how the article’s advice about trial opening statements can be used by any persuasive speaker to improve the introduction of a speech.


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6. In your own words, define the terms “forewarning” and “inoculation.”


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7. Using your next persuasive speech as an example, describe how you can use either forewarning or inoculation to insure the successful communication of your message.
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8. What advice does this article give about the use of pathos or emotional appeals?
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9. Using your next persuasive speech as an example, explain how you can apply this advice to the delivery of your persuasive message.
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  1. Identify and briefly describe another research finding discussed in this article that you can use to increase the effectiveness of your next persuasive speech.

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Activity 17.6 – Analyze persuasive speech strategies
Purpose: To practice analyzing the persuasive strategies used in speech making.
Instructions: Locate the transcript of the speech by Robert L. Dilenschneider “Television's crises: No way to run a business,” using InfoTrac or as published in Executive Speeches, June-July 2005 v19 i6 p6(3).
1. What does the speaker suggest is “wrong” with television?
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2. What explanation does the speaker offer for this problem?

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3. What evidence does the speaker offer self-regulation works? How effective is this strategy?

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4. Identify one idea that this article offers which you might utilize in a persuasive speech.
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Critique Sheet: Persuasive Speech

Name _______________________________________ Time ____________ Points ____________


Key: + = Excellent;  = Satisfactory; – = Needs improvement; 0 = Failed to complete



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