Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1 Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14



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Contents

Preface iv

Chapter 1 Why Speak in Public? 1

Chapter 2 Your First Speech 14

Chapter 3 Effective Listening 30

Chapter 4 Developing Your Speech Topic and Purpose 41

Chapter 5 Your Audience and Speaking Environment 52

Chapter 6 Gathering Supporting Materials 67

Chapter 7 Developing and Supporting Your Ideas 82

Chapter 8 Reasoning 92

Chapter 9 Organizing and Outlining Your Speech 103

Chapter 10 Introductions and Conclusions 122

Chapter 11 Language 131

Chapter 12 Delivering Your Speech 144

Chapter 13 Visual Aids 154

Chapter 14 Informative Speaking 168

Chapter 15 Invitational Speaking 180

Chapter 16 Persuasive Speaking 190

Chapter 17 Persuasion and Reasoning 203

Chapter 18 Speaking on Special Occasions 216

Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 225

Answer Key 238

Preface

Congratulations! You have made a great choice to purchase and use the Student Workbook for Cindy Griffin’s Invitation to Public Speaking, 3rd Edition. Your ability to speak clearly, confidently, and persuasively will have a lasting impact on your life and the lives of those around you. Through the materials provided in this workbook and the Invitation to Public Speaking textbook, you will be taken on a journey that can forever change you. I invite you to begin that journey, a journey that may take you to places you never imagined; a journey that will at times be difficult and scary but will ultimately be rewarding. I invite you to challenge yourself to become better public speaker than you are today: to open yourself to new ideas, new ways of thinking, new ways of learning, and new ways of speaking.


This workbook will provide additional support and useful activities to assist you in learning the key concepts and life skills of public speaking. Whether your instructor assigns these activities or completed out of your own self-interest, you will find they directly address issues important to communicating your message effectively. As you approach the activities in this workbook you should plan to keep the Invitation to Public Speaking, 3rd Edition text close by as it will be essential to your successful completion and comprehensive understanding. Each chapter in the workbook is organized to help you quickly and easily review key concepts while reaching a deeper understanding of those concepts. Each chapter in this workbook includes the following elements.
Goals

A brief preview of each chapter including the learning goals you can anticipate.


Key Concepts for Review

A review of the key terms found in that chapter of Invitation to Public Speaking.


Activities

Activities vary from responding to critical thinking questions to a review and analysis of multimedia resources available through Invitation to Public Speaking’s Premium Companion Website, and CengageNOW including Speech Builder Express ™, InfoTrac College Edition©.and vMentor. To login to CengageNOW, go to CengageNOW.com. For technical assistance, email tl.support@cengage.com

Chat or online forum discussion starters

Numerous activities in this workbook include opportunities to share insights or respond to prompts utilizing chat or online discussion features available through your course management software or institution. Discuss with your instructor and classmates available opportunities to augment your learning with this type of discussion tool.

Self-Tests

Use these self-test questions to review your understanding of key concepts after reading Invitation to Public Speaking and completing the activities. Questions include multiple-choice, True/False, and essay options. Answers and page locations for the multiple-choice and True/False questions are provided in the Answer Key provided at the back of this text.


Assessment tools

Some chapters include self-assessment materials. These tools help you to critique your work and the work of others following guides designed to include the essential elements of effective public speaking. Use these tools to assess your own or others’ work.

If you have any questions or comments, I would like to hear from you. Enjoy the journey.
David L. Bodary, Ph.D.

Kettering, OH

Bodary@Dayton.net

Chapter One: Why Speak in Public?


Goals

In this chapter you will learn:



  • about the power of ethical public speaking

  • about the importance of acting ethically as a public speaker

  • about the influence of culture on speaking styles

  • what makes public speaking different from other kinds of communication

  • why people speak publicly

Key Concepts for Review

The following key terms are essential to your understanding and ability to apply public speaking skills:
Audience (13) The complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses.

Audience centered (11) Considerate of the positions, beliefs, values, and needs of an audience.

Channel (13) The means by which the message is conveyed.

Civility (5) Care and concern for others, the thoughtful use of words and language, and the flexibility to see the many sides of an issue.

Context (14) The environment or situation in which a speech occurs.

Decoding (13) Translating words, sounds, and gestures into ideas and feelings in an attempt to understand the message.

Encoding (13) Translating ideas and feelings into words, sounds, and gestures.

Ethical public speaker (6) Speaker who consideres the moral imnpact of his or her ideas and arguments on others when involved in the public dialogue.

Feedback (11) The verbal and nonverbal signals an audience gives a speaker.

Group communication (9) Communication among members of a team about topics such as goals, strategies and conflicts.

Interpersonal communication (9) Communication with other people that ranges from the highly personal to the highly impersonal.

Intrapersonal communication (9) Communication within ourselves via the dialogue that goes on in our heads.

Mass communication (9) Communication generated by media organizations that is designed to reach large audiences.

Message (13) Information conveyed by the speaker to the audience.

Noise (13) Anything that interferes with understanding the message being communicated.

Public communication (9) Communication in which one person give a speech to other people, most often in a public setting.

Public dialogue (5) The civil exchange of ideas and opinions among communities about topics that affect the public.

Speaker (13) A person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral message.
Name __________________________________
Activity 1.1 – Comparing Public Speaking, Dialogue and Civility
Purpose: To understand the similarities between the act of speaking in public, the process of dialogue and the expression of civility.
Instructions: Review the web page http://www.publicdialogue.org/working/index.html. The Public Dialogue Consortium offers seven principles of public dialogue (detailed below).

Seven Principles for Developing Public Dialogue in Communities


1. We view the community as a system comprised of a complex tapestry of interconnected conversations. Thinking systemically will help us to identify the various “stakeholder” groups in the community and involve them in our project. Additionally, it enables us to see each step of the project as a series of “conversational turns” in which what occurs in one series of meetings is incorporated into the next round of discussions; each discussion growing out of one context and affecting the next context.
2. We view the community as a “multiverse” containing many social worlds. In addition to interconnected conversations, the community is comprised of stakeholder groups with different, and sometimes conflicting, ideas of what their community should be. We see these differences as enriching rather than problematic.
3. We involve the public in the project from the beginning. We think if community building is to take place, residents need to be involved throughout the project.
4. We believe there should be support from the top for initiatives from the bottom. Most residents are not interested in “just talk,” instead they want to see the connection between their ideas and community initiatives and action steps. We think it’s crucial for city government to recognize and support resident involvement and for residents to feel heard. This often requires creating new places for quality communication to occur between residents and community leaders.
5. We treat language as “fateful” and recognize that the way issues are framed and discussed affect the “outcomes as well as the level of trust and respect among the various stakeholders. Therefore, we always work collaboratively with the community.
6. We see the entire community process as a series of dialogic conversations. We think of dialogue as the ability to state your perspectives, values, and desires while remaining open to the perspectives, values, and desires of others. We think that engaging in this form of communication creates the conditions for trust and respect and opens up possibilities for enriched actions.
7. We recognize our own role in the “system.” Although we are not members of the community, we realize that whenever we facilitate a discussion or attend meetings of community stakeholders, our presence makes a difference. We need to continually remind ourselves that as facilitators we must remain neutral with regard to the outcome of community decisions, but we are passionate about the process in which those decisions are made. The process is one in which our role is to be on everybody’s side and in which all parties feel heard.
The first principle describes community as a complex tapestry.
1. In what way is a tapestry an appropriate metaphor to describe this process?
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2. What metaphor would you use to describe communication in your community?


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3. What metaphor would you use to describe communication in your family?
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4. The last principle discusses the idea of “feeling” heard. What do you think it means to “feel” heard?
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5. Why would a speaker be concerned with whether the audience “felt” heard or not?


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Name __________________________________


Activity 1.2 – Public Dialogue and the Argument Culture
Purpose: To review the difference between dialogic and combative public exchanges.
Instructions: Review the text discussion of public dialogue and the idea of an argument culture on pages 5-6. Enhance your understanding by reading Deborah Tannen’s work at: http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/tannend/argsake.htm. Respond to the following questions:


  1. Imagine you are given a chance to address the problem of accessible, convenient parking at your institution. How would a speaker using a combative style approach the speech?

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  1. How might a speaker approach the speech from a dialogic style?

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  1. When and why might you use a dialogic or combative approach?

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Consider sharing your preferences and observations from this activity with your classmates through discussion in class or via an online discussion forum if available.
Name __________________________________
Activity 1.3 – Culture and Speaking Style
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between culture and speaking style in our lives.
Instructions: The text discusses cultural speaking style differences on page 7. List the names of great speakers you have heard living or deceased. Next to each name, indicate what qualities you like about the speaker. Share your list with classmates or create a class list. Review the list for cultural differences. What do you notice?
How might your cultural origin, gender or age influence what you prefer regarding a person’s public speaking style?
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Consider sharing your preferences and observations from this activity with your classmates through discussion in class or via an online discussion forum if available.
Activity 1.4 – Topic Brainstorm
Purpose: To develop a list of possible topics you might use in this course.
Instructions: Create a list of topics or issues that affect you or that you feel strongly about. Take the list with you to class. Be prepared to share elements of the list with your classmates and instructor. If you have difficulty creating the list think about privileges, things, and people you would really miss if they were lost or taken from you.
























Name __________________________________
Activity 1.5 – Convening Public Dialogue
Purpose: To think about how you can help start a public dialogue in your community.
Instructions: Review the discussion of how public speaking creates a community on page 10 of your text or go to http://www.islandcounty.net/health/convene.htm, the Community Building through Convening web page, to explore the link between public speaking and community. Answer the following questions:


  1. What are the community benefits of public dialogue?

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  1. What issue in your area would benefit by being addressed through public dialogue?

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  1. How might you organize a meeting to address this issue?

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Name __________________________________


Activity 1.6 – Deciding to Speak on Matters of Importance
Purpose: To consider what motivates people to speak in public.
Instructions: Think about what people are speaking out about in your community. You may wish to pay particular attention to the television news or review the “local” sections of your hometown newspaper from the past week.
1. What is motivating these people to speak?
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2. The text suggests (page 14-15) that some people, like Lois Gibbs, speak in public on matters of importance. What issue or topic would compel you to speak publicly? Your child’s health? The loss of a friend? An injustice in your community? Would you speak on behalf of an organization that helped you or your family? Why or why not?


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Consider sharing your preferences and observations from this activity with your classmates through discussion in class or via an online discussion forum if available.

Name __________________________________


Activity 1.7 – Conversation and Public Speaking
Purpose: To understand the similarities and the differences between conversation and public speaking so that you can build on conversational skills and experiences to develop as a public speaker.
Instructions: In groups of two or three, have a three- to five-minute conversation on one of the following topics:
a. What is the best movie you have seen recently?

b. What is the best show currently on television?

c. What is the one change you would like to see made at your institution?
At the end of your conversation, take a few minutes to record the results of your conversation:
1. The main idea(s) discussed were:
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2. The reasons given for these ideas were:


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3. Speakers attempted to persuade or relate to the audience by saying things like:


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Now, as a group, consider how this conversation would have to be adapted and altered if it were to be shaped into an informal public speech to be presented to the class.


4. Changes that would be necessary to convert the conversation to a speech are:
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b. ______________________________________________________________________________

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c. ______________________________________________________________________________

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d. ______________________________________________________________________________

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5. What elements of the conversation could be effectively incorporated into a speech?
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6. What can you say about the similarities between conversation and public speaking?


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7. What can you say about the differences between conversation and public speaking?


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Name __________________________________


Activity 1.8 – Culture and Language
Purpose: To help you explore the impact of semantic noise and cultural diversity on public speaking situations.
Instructions: Locate using InfoTrac and read the following article: “The Year in Buzzwords” located in Time, Dec 25, 2006 v168 i26 p33

(Hint: Use the keyword “slang” as your search term.)
1. What examples of slang identified in the article have you heard before?
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2. What examples of slang used in the article do you find amusing, worth remembering, or worth using yourself?


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3. Provide at least three examples of slang or jargon that you use. Give the expression, an example, and where you heard it.


Example 1:
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Example 2:
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Example 3:
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4. Thinking about these examples, as you see it, why do speakers use slang?
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5. Thinking about these examples, as you see it, what is the impact of slang on listeners?
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Name __________________________________
Chapter 1 – Why Speak in Public?
Self-Test

Use the following questions to self-assess your understanding of the material in this chapter.


Multiple Choice


  1. A person that is unwilling to take responsibility for the effect of his or her words, language, and behavior on others lacks

    1. civility.

    2. competence.

    3. dialogue.

    4. intelligence.




  1. Communication that is specifically designed to reach large audiences is known as

    1. intrapersonal communication.

    2. interpersonal communication.

    3. group communication.

    4. mass communication.




  1. Public speaking differs from casual conversation with friends because

    1. it is typically more structured than every day conversations.

    2. it is less personal than casual communication.

    3. it takes less time to prepare a public speech than a personal conversation.

    4. our language must be much more exact than when we speak with friends.




  1. To say that public speaking is audience centered means that the speaker must

    1. select a topic of interest to his or her audience.

    2. be considerate of the positions, beliefs, values and needs of the audience.

    3. speak no longer than the audience can center their attention on the speaker.

    4. walk around the audience such that they remain in the middle of the room throughout the speech.




  1. The public speaking model described on page 13 of the text includes the following elements:

    1. speaker, audience, message, meaning, noise, channel, content

    2. speaker, receiver, meaning noise, channel, content, culture

    3. speaker, message, audience, channel, noise, feedback, context

    4. speaker, audience, context, message, noise, listeners, feedback




  1. Joe finds himself before a crowd of 3,000 people during the intermission of a minor league hockey game in his hometown. He implores them to assist him in the search for his daughter throughout the country. Which reason for speaking publicly best explains Joe’s motivation for addressing this audience?

    1. We decide to speak on matters of importance.

    2. We are asked to speak about our experiences and expertise.

    3. We are required to speak in class or at work.

    4. We have no way of knowing why Joe would subject himself to this torture.




  1. Interpersonal communication is best characterized by which of the following?

    1. communication that goes on in our heads

    2. communication that occurs between two people

    3. communication that occurs among small groups

    4. communication that occurs between people in a public setting




  1. Group communication is best characterized by which of the following?

    1. communication that goes on in our heads

    2. communication that occurs between two people

    3. communication that occurs among small groups

    4. communication that occurs between people in a public setting




  1. Public communication is best characterized by which of the following?

    1. communication that goes on in our heads

    2. communication that occurs between two people

    3. communication that occurs among small groups

    4. communication that occurs between people in a public setting




  1. Jeremy is on a date with a new friend he met through his volunteer work. This type of communication is best characterized as?

    1. intrapersonal communication

    2. interpersonal communication

    3. group communication

    4. mass communication

    5. public communication




  1. Jessica has decided to speak out against the development of a new mall in her community at the next city hearing. This type of communication is best characterized as?

    1. intrapersonal communication

    2. interpersonal communication

    3. group communication

    4. mass communication

    5. public communication

True/False


T F 12. Listening is an important aspect of civility.
T F 13. What we say and how we say it rarely has much lasting impact on others.
T F 14. Having to give a speech in a speech class is nothing like giving a speech in real life, because never again will a person “have” to give a speech.
T F 15. Culture and gender have little to no effect on the style of speech a person uses or prefers.
T F 16. To be audience centered, one must keep the audience in one’s mind with every step of the public speaking process, including research, organization, and presentation.
T F 17. Because public speaking typically involves one person doing most of the talking it does little to encourage public dialogue.
T F 18. Noise, in terms of the public speaking model, can be either internal or external.
T F 19. A message conveyed by the speaker includes only the verbal utterances used to convey information.
T F 20. Public speaking creates community, is audience centered, and encourages dialogue.
Essay


  1. Explain what it means to be an ethical public speaker.




  1. What examples of an argument culture, as described by Deborah Tannen, have you experienced? How would you recommend those forces be changed?




  1. According to the text, explain what influences your speaking style.




  1. Explain what distinguishes public speaking from other types of communication.




  1. Explain fully the need for a speaker to be audience centered.




  1. Describe the meaning of public dialogue and how a public speaker can add encourage this dialogue.




  1. Describe a failed communication effort you have been involved in and using the model of communication from your text explain why your communication was unsuccessful.




  1. Describe a time you spoke in a public setting, and then explain why you spoke based on the three reasons people generally speak in public offered in the text.

Chapter Two: Entering the Public Dialogue with Confidence: Your First Speech
Goals

In this chapter you will learn to:



  • identify the types of speeches most commonly given in the public dialogue,

  • explain the five basic steps of preparing a speech: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery,

  • understand the most common reasons speakers are nervous about giving speeches,

  • apply six techniques for reducing speech-related nervousness,

  • give your first speech.

Key Concepts for Review



The following key terms are essential to your understanding the concepts covered in this chapter:

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