However, the __________________________________________________________ are the first steps toward addressing an environmental problem.
First Impact: Hunter-Gatherers
________________________________________________ are people who obtain food by collecting plants and by hunting wild animals or scavenging their remains.
Hunter-gatherers affect their environment in many ways:
Native American tribes ______________________________________________.
The tribes also set _________________________________________________________________. This left the prairie as an open grassland ideal for hunting bison.
In North America, a combination of rapid climate changes and overhunting by hunter-gatherers may have led to the disappearance of some large mammal species, including:
The Agricultural Revolution
_________________________________________ is the raising of crops and livestock for food or for other products that are useful to humans.
The practice of agriculture started in many different parts of the world over _______________________________________ ago.
The change had such a dramatic impact on human societies and their environment that it is often called the ________________________________________________________.
As populations grew, they began to __________________________________________ on the local environments.
The plants we grow and eat today are descended from ________________________________.
However, during harvest season farmers collected seeds from plants that exhibited the qualities they desired, such as ________________________________________.
Replacing forest with farmland on a large scale can cause ____________________________________________.
The ________________________________________________ technique was one of the earliest ways that land was converted to farmland.
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution involved a shift from energy sources such as ______________________________________________________________________.
This increased use of fossil fuels changed society and greatly increased the efficiency of ______________________________________________________________________.
Chapter 1 Science and the Environment
Section 2: The Environment and Society “The Tragedy of the Commons”
In his essay, ecologist ________________________________________ argued that the main difficulty in solving environmental problems is the conflict between the short-term interests of the individual and the long-term welfare of society.
The example he used was the __________________________________, or the areas of land that belonged to the whole village.
“The Tragedy of the Commons”
The commons were eventually replaced by _______________________________________________________.
Hardin’s point being that ______________________________________________________________________.
“The Tragedy of the Commons”
Humans live in societies, and in societies, we can solve environmental problems by ______________________________________________________________________.
___________________________________________ is the condition in which human needs are met in such a way that a human population can survive indefinitely.
Chapter 1 Science and the Environment
Section 1: Understanding Our Environment Our Environment through Time Continued: Improving the Quality of Life
The ______________________________________________________ introduced many positive changes such as the light bulb.
Agricultural productivity _____________________________, and sanitation, nutrition, and medical care vastly ______________________________.
Improving the Quality of Life
However, the Industrial Revolution also introduced many new environmental problems such as _____________________________________________.
In the 1900s, modern societies began to use ___________________________________ in place of raw animals and plant products.
As a result, we know have materials such as ______________________________________________________________________.
Earth is essentially a ______________________________________.
This means that the only thing that enters the Earth’s atmosphere in large amounts is _____________________________________________, and the only thing that leaves in large amounts is ________________________________.
Environmental problems can occur on different scales: _____________________________________________________________________.
A local example would be your community discussing where to build a new _______________________________________.
A regional example would be a polluted river ______________________________________________________________.
A global example would be the ______________________________________________________________.
The Industrial Revolution, modern medicine, and sanitation all allowed the human population to ______________________________________ than it ever had before.
Producing enough food for large populations has environmental consequences such as __________________________________________________.
What are our Main Environmental Problems?
Environmental problems can generally be grouped into three categories:
__________________________________________ are any natural materials that are used by humans, such as, water, petroleum, minerals, forests, and animals.
Natural resources are classified as either a _____________________________________________________.
_______________________________________________ can be replaced relatively quickly by natural process.
_______________________________________________ form at a much slower rate than they are consumed.
Resources are said to be __________________________ when a large fraction of the resource has been used up.
Once the supply of a nonrenewable resource has been used up, it may take millions of years to replenish it.
______________________________________ is an undesirable change in the natural environment that is caused by the introduction of substances that are harmful to living organisms or by excessive wastes, heat, noise, or radiation
Much of the pollution that troubles us today is produced by _____________________________________________________________________.
There are two main types of pollutants:
_______________________________________________, which can be broken down by natural processes and include materials such as newspaper.
_______________________________________________, which cannot be broken down by natural processes and include materials such as mercury.
Degradable pollutants are a problem only when they ____________________________________________ than they can be broken down.
Loss of Biodiversity
__________________________________________ is the variety of organisms in a given area, the genetic variation within a population, the variety of species in a community, or the variety of communities in an ecosystem.