Chapter 1--the Mission and the Method



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B. field experiments.
C. quasi-experiments.
D. applied research.

 

128. Can correlational studies or experiments ever be conducted outside of the laboratory? 


A. No, both of these types of studies are always performed in the lab.
B. Correlational studies can be conducted inside the laboratory or out in the "real world," but experiments are always conducted in the lab.
C. Correlational studies are always conducted in the "real world" (not the lab) and experiments are always conducted in the lab (not the "real world").
D. Both correlational studies and experiments can be performed in the lab or in the "real world;" when experiments are performed in the "real world" they are called field experiments.

 

129. Suppose that a researcher decided to study everyday altruism towards men versus women by leaving (fake) fully addressed college applications in airport lobbies (identical except with male versus female applicant names), and then tracking the number of people who send in the application. What kind of study of this? 


A. A laboratory study
B. A field experiment
C. A correlational study
D. A quasi-experiment

 

130. Researchers often attempt to design studies that will be high in both experimental realism and mundane realism. However, 


A. experimental realism is generally considered to be far more important.
B. mundane realism is generally considered to be far more important.
C. most researchers acknowledge that experimental realism is really only important when one is conducting a true experiment.
D. most researchers acknowledge that mundane realism is almost impossible to achieve.

 

131. If an experiment gets participants psychologically involved and engaged, but the setting does not resemble the real world, then the experiment would be said to be 


A. low in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
B. low in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.
C. high in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
D. high in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.

 

132. If an experiment does NOT get participants psychologically involved and engaged, even though the setting of the experiment closely resembles the real world physically, then the experiment would be said to be 


A. low in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
B. low in experimental realism but high in mundane realism.
C. high in experimental realism but low in mundane realism.
D. high in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.

 

133. Suppose that you are a research participant in a laboratory study that is looking at fear and social support. The researcher shows you an extremely scary movie and then asks you whether you feel like talking to anyone (and who) once the movie is over. Although you are in a laboratory setting the whole time, which does not resemble "real life" at all, you get very caught up in the procedures of the study and almost forget that you are in a study. Thus, in your experience, this study is 


A. low in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
B. low in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.
C. high in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
D. high in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.

 

134. Compared to laboratory experiments, field experiments tend to be 


A. low in internal validity and low in external validity.
B. low in internal validity and high in external validity.
C. high in internal validity and low in external validity.
D. high in internal validity and high in external validity.

 

135. When findings from a study are likely to generalize to other people and other settings, the study is said to have 


A. external validity.
B. internal validity.
C. construct validity.
D. mundane realism.

 

136. If a study is high in external validity, then 


A. the findings are likely to generalize to other people and other settings.
B. the researcher can confidently conclude that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the variables in the study.
C. participants in the study are highly engaged and involved in the study.
D. the research situation physically resembles a real-world situation.

 

137. Zhao’s research interest is to determine if poverty causes one to be more politically liberal.  However, he cannot randomly assign people to conditions of poverty versus wealth because (aside from the practical difficulty) it would be unethical to do so.  Zhao will have to  


A. conduct a field experiment.
B. take a correlational approach.
C. do a meta-analysis.
D. develop a factorial design.

 

138. Dr. Hurtado and Dr. Yashari have recently conducted a study and found a positive correlation between music-listening and dancing ability: People who listen to lots of music tend to be excellent dancers. The correlation is statistically significant. Can they conclude that listening to music causes people to be better dancers? Why or why not? 


A. Yes, because there is a positive correlation.
B. Yes, because there is a statistically significant correlation.
C. No, because the evidence is correlational, not experimental.
D. No, because the correlation probably does not hold true for deaf people.

 

139. If you know that achievement is positively correlated with life satisfaction, then you can conclude that 


A. one of two things MUST be true: Either achievement causes life satisfaction OR life satisfaction causes achievement.
B. a third variable (such as commitment or passion) MUST cause both achievement and life satisfaction.
C. as achievement increases, happiness also increases.
D. the relationship between the two variables must be statistically significant.

 

140. There is a moderately strong, positive relationship between different forms of prejudice: People who are prejudiced against Group X also tend to be prejudiced against Group Y. Given this information, we should expect the correlation between anti-Jewish prejudice and anti-Asian prejudice to be about 


A. .04
B. 0.4
C. 4.0
D. 40

 

141. Psychologists typically use a statistic called _____ to denote the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. 


A. a p-value
B. lambda
C. coefficient alpha
D. a correlation coefficient

 

142. Correlation coefficients are statistics used to denote 


A. the amount of variability in a dataset.
B. the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables.
C. the degree to which the difference between two arithmetic means is likely to have been due to chance.
D. the strength of the relationship among three or more variables.

 

143. Suppose that there is a perfect negative correlation between the amount of money that Jane spends and the amount of money that she has in her bank account: for every dollar that she spends, she has exactly one less dollar in her bank account (assuming no interest, fees, or credits). Thus the correlation between Jane's spending and savings can be represented as 


A. r = 0.00
B. r = -100
C. r = -1.00
D. r = 100

 

144. When there is no relationship between two variables, the correlation coefficient is 


A. -100
B. -1
C. 0
D. +1.0

 

145. Correlation coefficients are used to describe the relationship between two variables. They are usually denoted using the letter 


A. n
B. p
C. r
D. q

 

146. A correlation coefficient communicates two pieces of information about the relationship between two variables: The _____ communicates the direction of the relationship, and the _____ communicates the strength of the relationship. 


A. value, sign
B. sign, value
C. slope, value
D. sign, slope

 

147. The main weakness with correlational research (as opposed to experimental research) is that 


A. researchers cannot conduct tests of statistical significance.
B. researchers cannot draw conclusions about cause and effect.
C. correlational research tends to have low external validity.
D. correlational research tends to be low in mundane realism.

 

148. Compared to true experiments, MOST correlational studies are low in 


A. internal validity.
B. external validity.
C. construct validity of the cause.
D. construct validity of the effect.

 

149. Suppose that you are interested in knowing whether there are gender differences in suicide (i.e., whether one gender commits suicide more frequently than the other). The only way to study this precise question would be to conduct 


A. a true experiment, using random assignment.
B. a quasi-experiment, using no random assignment.
C. a field experiment, using random assignment.
D. correlational research looking at archival data (existing data).

 

150. A literature review that averages together the statistical results from different studies conducted on the same topic is called a 


A. factorial design.
B. meta-analysis.
C. replication.
D. correlational approach.

 

151. Mirena wants is interested in the effects of gender on aggression. She collects all the studies she can find that have been conducted on this topic, and averages their results to generate a big picture of what the findings in that area reveal. Mirena has conducted a 


A. correlational study.
B. field experiment.
C. quasi-experiment.
D. meta-analysis.

 

152. The textbook discusses the "self-correcting nature of science" as it applies to social psychology. The idea here is that, over time, erroneous conclusions are revised appropriately, because 


A. most research in social psychology builds off of prior research relatively slowly and systematically.
B. common sense will override conclusions that are obviously incorrect.
C. most psychologists study just one topic for their entire careers, and will eventually notice if they made an error earlier in their careers.
D. every 20-30 years, researchers revisit old topics and replicate all of the old research.

 

153. Replication refers to 


A. the joint effects of two or more independent variables.
B. the technique of meta-analysis.
C. repeating an experiment to see if the same results can be obtained..
D. an experimental setting seeming like the real-world.

 

154. Replication is an important part of  


A. the self-correcting nature of science.
B. experimental design.
C. measuring a correlation.
D. experimental realism.

 

155. MOST research in social psychology is based on 


A. prison inmates and the elderly.
B. adult samples from the general population.
C. high school student samples.
D. college student samples.

 

156. Most social psychologists 


A. study prison inmates but are interested in normal adults in general.
B. study prison inmates but are interested in abnormal (mentally ill) adults in general.
C. study college students but are interested in normal adults in general.
D. study college students but are interested in abnormal (mentally ill) adults in general.

 

157. According to the textbook, social psychology's reliance on college student samples 


A. is a serious problem—although it has not been discussed much among social psychologists.
B. is a serious problem—such that most social psychologists are now collaborating with anthropologists and sociologists in order to gain access to data from more diverse populations.
C. is a serious problem—so serious that many social psychology journals now refuse to publish papers that are solely based on college student samples.
D. is an issue that deserves continued attention, but not necessarily a serious problem for most social psychological research.

 

158. Suppose that you are conducting a research project for a social psychology class. Due to the fact that you have no budget for the research, you are forced to rely on a college student population. How big of a problem is this in terms of your ability to later generalize your findings to other groups of people? 


A. It is a very serious problem, for pretty much anything you are studying.
B. It is a very serious problem for most topics within social psychology (though not all).
C. It is a very serious problem if your sample size is under 1000; if your sample size is over 1000, however, it is not a serious problem.
D. It is an issue to pay attention to and take into consideration, but it is generally not a very serious problem unless you are studying certain topics (e.g., attitudes about aging or education).

 

159. Most research in social psychology is based on Western European and Northern American samples, though some research has also been conducted in other areas of the world. Based on what is known to date, it appears to be reasonably safe to generalize social psychological research findings to the vast majority of 


A. people living in the U.S. who are Caucasian.
B. people living in the U.S.
C. people living in Western nations.
D. people from all cultures in the world.

 

160. Most social psychological research has been conducted in the U.S. and a few very similar nations. According to the textbook, how well do findings generalize to other cultures? 


A. With only one notable exception, no cross-cultural differences have been found in any area of social psychology.
B. In general, there appear to be many large and important cross-cultural differences across areas of social psychology.
C. In general, there appear to be many large and important cross-cultural differences for women, but very few cross-cultural differences for men.
D. It is not yet known; not enough research has been replicated cross-culturally.

 

161. MOST social psychological research has been conducted in 


A. the U.S. and a few similar western European nations.
B. the U.S. and China.
C. England.
D. Austria and France.

 

162. When people work on a task jointly with someone else (e.g., putting together a large bookcase), each person tends to put in less effort than he or she would if working alone. 


TRUE

 

163. Social psychology was in existence as a field roughly 100 years before Freudian psychoanalysis. 


FALSE

 

164. Social psychology primarily relies on the experimental method. 


TRUE

 

165. The "ABC triad" in social psychology refers to social psychology's focus on attribution, behavior, and culture, respectively. 


FALSE

 

166. Social psychology has been more influenced by history than by any other social science. 


FALSE

 

167. Neuroscience is the field that integrates the study of social psychology and biological psychology. 


FALSE

 

168. According to the textbook, human intuition is typically an excellent guide to understanding human behavior. 


FALSE

 

169. Social psychologists usually derive their hypotheses from existing theories. 


TRUE

 

170. Researchers usually test their hypotheses at the .05 level of significance. 


TRUE

 

171. Random assignment is one of the defining features of correlational research. 


FALSE

 

172. The two defining features of an experiment are control and random assignment. 


TRUE

 

173. Consider the following study: Participants either perform a complex task in front of others or a simple task alone. The experimenter plans to examine the effects of task complexity and the presence of others on performance. 



This study is confounded. 
TRUE

 

174. The term "experimental realism" refers to whether the physical setting of a research study resembles the "real world." 


FALSE

 

175. Replication is essential to the self-correcting nature of science. 


TRUE

 

176. Most contemporary research in social psychology is based on college student samples. 


TRUE

 

177. When people work on a task jointly with someone else (e.g., putting together a large bookcase), each person tends to put in ____________________ effort than he or she would if working alone. 


less

 

178. The school of thought known as ____________________ seeks to explain human behavior in terms of learning principles such as rewards and punishments. 


behaviorism

 

179. In social psychology, the "ABC triad" refers to ____________________, ____________________, and____________________. 


affects, behaviors, cognitions

 

180. The study of human culture—the shared values, beliefs, and practices of a group of people—is known as ____________________. 


anthropology

 

181. Social psychology has been least influenced by____________________psychology, until recently. 


developmental

 

182. What separates psychology from philosophy is psychology’s emphasis on____________________.. 


the scientific method

 

183. In social psychology, the notation "p <.05" signifies ____________________. 


statistical significance

 

184. If you conduct a study and predict that excessive computer use causes social awkwardness, then social awkwardness is the ____________________ variable. 


dependent

 

185. A person who is secretly working for an experimenter to help create a particular situation is called a(n) ____________________. 


confederate

 

186. When an experimenter wants to investigate the impact of two independent variables at the same time they will need to use a(n)____________________. 


factorial design

 

187. Suppose that you participate in an experiment that is designed to examine the effects of sadness on creativity. Even though the sadness manipulation used by the experimenters is very artificial, you nonetheless experience deep sadness during the study. Thus, the study was apparently high in ____________________. 


experimental realism

 

188. When a researcher conducts an experiment, and is fairly certain that changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable, that experiment is said to be high in ____________________. 


internal validity

 

189. True experiments have two key features that make them different from other studies. First, in a true experiment, the researcher manipulates (varies) one or more independent variables. Second, the researcher makes use of ____________________. 


random assignment

 

190. As discussed in the textbook, the main weakness with correlational research (as opposed to experimental research) is that the researcher cannot ____________________. 


draw conclusions about cause and effect

 

191. When you combine statistical results across a number of studies all on a similar topic you have conducted a(n)____________________. 


meta-analysis  or  
meta analysis

 

192. During the era in which social psychology was emerging as a discipline, it was caught between two opposing camps: behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis. Explain how social psychology did not fit neatly into either of those camps, and how it ultimately integrated features from both as it emerged as an independent field. 



a. 

Behaviorism sought to explain all human behavior in terms of learning principles and reinforcement contingencies (i.e., rewards and punishments). Behaviorists were opposed to talking about inner processes such as thoughts and feelings as they felt such processes were unobservable and thus “unscientific.” They preferred to study human behavior using observation and the scientific method. Social psychology, however, was interested in how thoughts and feelings influenced, and were influenced by, social context. 

b. 

Freudian psychoanalysis sought to generate elaborate interpretations of individuals’ subjective experiences. In contrast to behaviorists, psychoanalysts were very interested in examining inner processes. However, scholars from this camp rarely engaged in scientific study of these processes; rather, they relied on case analyses from clinical patients. Social psychology appreciated the emphasis on inner processes, but was not aligned to the more subjective methodologies the Freudian psychoanalysts tended towards.

c. 

As social psychology came into its own in the 1970s, it was able to integrate the Freudian interest in inner processes with the behaviorist commitment to the scientific method. Social psychologists found ways to study thoughts, feelings and behaviors using the scientific method rather than case studies.








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