Chapter 1--the Mission and the Method

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B. ideals and political beliefs may cloud scientific judgment.
C. the research is hard to replicate.
D. the research will be flawed. 


73. When social psychologist Kurt Lewin said that "there is nothing so practical as a good theory," he meant that 

A. many theories are overly abstract; a good theory should be based on directly observable facts.
B. many theories are overly abstract; a good theory should make predictions about directly observable phenomena.
C. although they may seem impractical, theories can be very important in helping to stimulate practical ideas and practical research.
D. he was being facetious (not serious); he was opposed to overly theoretical work, and a major proponent of applied research.


74. Kurt Lewin, a prominent early social psychologist, is famous for arguing that scientific theories—while they may seem impractical—can be extremely useful in helping to stimulate practical ideas and practical research. Lewin's famous quote to this effect is 

A. "there is nothing so practical as a good theory."
B. "theories pass; the frog remains."
C. "in theory, practically every theory is practical."
D. " to be theoretical is to be concrete."


75. Consider the following two American adages, which seem to contradict one another: "Birds of a feather flock together" and "opposites attract." The authors of the textbook would probably say that 

A. this contradiction is a strange exception—since Americans tend to be extremely single-minded in their "common sense" views about social psychology.
B. most people in the US probably believe just one of these adages to be true, and not both—since most people have very clear personal theories about social psychology.
C. the contradiction is not surprising at all, since "common sense" theories are often poorly defined, and that most people would probably say that both of these things are true (if you asked them at different times).
D. most people would not even see the contradiction if it were pointed out to them, since most people are not strong logical thinkers.


76. According to the textbook, "common sense" theories about social psychology are 

A. almost always wrong.
B. often misleading or contradictory.
C. very often correct.
D. very often correct when they have to do with dyadic (2-person) relationships, but usually wrong when they have to do with group behavior.


77. The scientific method used by social psychologists is 

A. conceptually the same as the scientific method used by clinical psychologists, biologists, and chemists.
B. conceptually the same as the scientific method used by clinical psychologists, but completely different from the scientific method used by biologists, chemists, and other "hard scientists."
C. completely different from the scientific method used in other fields.
D. conceptually the same as the scientific method used by clinical psychologists, biologists, and chemists—except for the fact that social psychologists do not usually use statistical significance testing.


78. The first step in the scientific method is to 

A. state a problem for study.
B. state a hypothesis.
C. determine who the research sample will be.
D. collect data.


79. The scientific method consists of approximately _____ basic steps. 

A. 3
B. 5
C. 9
D. 12


80. "An idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but not yet proven" is known as 

A. a hypothesis.
B. a theory.
C. an ad hoc test.
D. an independent variable.


81. A hypothesis is BEST described as 

A. a worldview.
B. an educated guess.
C. a random guess.
D. a post-hoc explanation (an explanation that has the benefit of hindsight knowledge).


82. What is a hypothesis? 

A. A statistical procedure
B. An established scientific fact
C. A testable prediction
D. A kind of sample


83. Suppose that Dr. Brown conducts an experiment to examine the effects of mentorship programs on children's academic achievement. She finds that children who are given mentors receive significantly higher grades than children who aren't. The result is statistically significant at the .05 level. What does this mean? 

A. The finding probably occurred by chance; mentorship programs probably DON'T really improve academic achievement.
B. The finding probably did NOT occur by chance; mentorship programs probably DO really boost academic achievement.
C. The finding was larger than expected; mentorship programs appear to be even more effective than Dr. Brown thought they were.
D. The finding was smaller than expected; mentorship programs appear to be less effective than Dr. Brown thought they were.


84. In social psychology, researchers typically test hypotheses using the _____ confidence level. 

A. 80%
B. 85%
C. 90%
D. 95%


85. In social psychology, a "statistically significant" result is denoted by 

A. p <.05
B. N > 100
C. F = 1
D. µ > 0


86. Social psychologists routinely test research hypotheses using the .05 level of significance. This means that so-called "significant" findings are actually "flukes" about _____ of the time. 

A. .05%
B. 1%
C. 5%
D. 20%


87. If a researcher tested 1000 people and found that women received significantly higher scores on the verbal portion of the SAT than did men, this would mean that 

A. among the sample that was tested, women's scores were definitely higher than men's (even if the difference is tiny)—though there might not be a difference in the population at large.
B. among the sample that was tested, women's scores were at least 5% higher than men's—though there might not be a difference in the population at large.
C. in the population at large, women's scores probably really are higher than men's (even if the difference is tiny).
D. in the population at large, women's scores probably really are higher than men's—by a score difference of at least 5%


88. According to the textbook, if you conduct a research study, write up all of the results in a paper, and submit the paper to a top academic journal, you have a _____ chance of getting your paper published. 

A. 0-1%
B. 10-20%
C. 50%
D. 60-70%


89. Social psychologists typically derive _____ based on _____. 

A. hypotheses, theories
B. hypotheses, observations
C. observations, hypotheses
D. observations, theories


90. If you conduct a study and predict that X causes Y, then X is the 

A. internal variable.
B. external variable.
C. independent variable.
D. dependent variable.


91. If you conduct a study and predict that A causes B, then B is the 

A. internal variable.
B. external variable.
C. independent variable.
D. dependent variable.


92. Dr. Khanmohamed is conducting a research project with young children to examine the effect of exposure to different cultural groups on the development of empathy. The independent variable in this research is 

A. young children.
B. exposure to different cultural groups.
C. empathy.
D. how empathy develops.


93. Dr. Tsuei is studying the effects of sleep deprivation on interpersonal skills. He is testing the interpersonal skills of 20-25 year-old males who have been sleep deprived for 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours. In this study the dependent variable is 

A. the age of the research participants.
B. the interpersonal skills of the research participants.
C. the length of time that the research participants are deprived of sleep.
D. the type of interpersonal skills test used in the study.


94. Suppose that you conducted an experiment to test the effects of violence in TV shows on aggressiveness in children. The dependent variable in this study would be 

A. how violent the TV shows were.
B. how many hours of violent shows the children needed to watch before they became violent.
C. whether or not the children should be exposed to violence.
D. how aggressive the children were.


95. Which of the following would be the BEST operational definition for tiredness? 

A. An increase in fantasies about sleeping
B. The number of hours since one has last slept
C. Irritability, poor motor skills, and weak concentration
D. How tired someone looks


96. In the context of research, an operational definition of a variable is a precise description of 

A. how the variable will be defined (i.e., how it will be manipulated or measured).
B. how data from the variable will be statistically analyzed.
C. what the variable is expected to "do" according to the research hypothesis (i.e., what results are expected from the variable).
D. how the variable has been defined by researchers in past studies.


97. Suppose that you are conducting an experiment to see whether receiving negative feedback from an authority figure will increase eating behavior. After writing an essay, half of your research participants are given negative feedback from a professor, and half are given encouraging feedback. All participants are then placed in a room with a large container of cookies and their eating behavior is observed. In this study, an operational definition for the dependent variable might be 

A. whether participants received critical or encouraging feedback.
B. the number of words in each participant's essay.
C. the number of cookies each participant ate.
D. how many minutes the professor spent giving each participant feedback.


98. A(n) _____ is someone who works for a researcher by serving as an "actor" in the research (e.g., pretending to be another research participant, and being mean to other research participants in order to see how participants respond to meanness). 

A. confederate
B. allied respondent
C. infiltrator
D. behaviorist


99. In psychology, the word "confederate" is used to refer to 

A. a research assistant who poses as a participant during the course of a research study, in order to help create a certain situation.
B. a research participant who is purposely disruptive during a study (e.g., a participant who lies on questionnaires or refuses to complete an experimental task).
C. a statistician or data analyst.
D. a prototypic research participant (i.e., the "confederate response" is a term used to refer to the "average response" or "mean response").


100. In one well-known social psychological study, research participants were asked to make very easy perceptual judgments ("Is Line A longer than Line B?"). The catch was that they were asked to do this while sitting around a table with people who continually gave incorrect responses—people who appeared to be other regular research participants. In reality, however, the other people at the table were not real participants at all; they were actually actors who were working for the experimenter and just posing as participants. The question in this research was whether or not the real research participant would conform to the group's opinion (even though the group's opinion was obviously wrong) or whether the real participant would stick to the right answer. In psychological jargon, the "actors" in this study would be referred to as 

A. confederates.
B. participant players.
C. mundane situationalists.
D. research caretakers.


101. Suppose that you are working as a research assistant for a social psychologist. To help her with a research study, the social psychologist asks you to stand in a laboratory waiting room with research participants, act as though you are a research participant yourself, and then pretend to have an epileptic seizure. (The social psychologist is interested in how many people will try to help you.) In other words, your task is to be a _____ in the research. 

A. confederate
B. mundane situationalist
C. reactant
D. dependent variable


102. Dr. Zink and Dr. Vasquez are designing a new study. They have come up with a good hypothesis for the study, but they are having trouble thinking of operational definitions for their variables. In other words, they are concerned that their research might be low in 

A. internal validity.
B. external validity.
C. construct validity.
D. face validity.


103. Suppose that you are planning to conduct a study to look at the effect of pet ownership on empathy, but that you cannot find any good measures of empathy (all of the measures that you find seem to fall short of your understanding of what empathy is, or to miss the mark completely). Unless you can find a measure that you are satisfied with, your research may end up being low in 

A. internal validity.
B. external validity.
C. construct validity of the cause.
D. construct validity of the effect.


104. If a researcher conducts an experiment in which the independent variable is poorly defined (i.e., has a poor operational definition), then the experiment can be said to have 

A. low internal validity.
B. low external validity.
C. low construct validity of the cause.
D. low construct validity of the effect.


105. True experiments have two key features that make them different from other studies. First, in a true experiment, the researcher manipulates (varies) one or more independent variables. Second, the researcher makes use of 

A. statistical testing.
B. random assignment.
C. interactions.
D. priming.


106. Dr. Taylor is conducting a study to test the effect of a new drug on people's ability to concentrate at work. His research sample consists of 100 US adults. During a 14-week period, half of the sample is administered the drug and the other half is administered a placebo, and participants' concentration abilities are continually tracked. In the context of this study, if Dr. Taylor uses random assignment, it means that 

A. his study will be high in external validity.
B. the 100 adults in his study are likely to be representative of the larger population of interest.
C. each research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each level of the independent variable (e.g., the placebo group or the drug group).
D. his research findings are likely to be statistically significant.


107. Dr. Pow is interested in whether exposure to TV advertisements has a different impact on girls' self-image than it does on boys' self-image. To examine this question, she conducts a quasi-experiment. Why doesn't Dr. Pow conduct a true experiment instead? 

A. She cannot conduct a true experiment, because people cannot be randomly assigned to be "girls" or "boys."
B. She cannot conduct a true experiment, because self-image is not directly observable.
C. She could conduct a true experiment if she wanted to, but she probably has a very small sample size, so in this case a quasi-experiment is better.
D. She could conduct a true experiment if she wanted to, but she is probably interested in "real-life" TV exposure (and probably doesn't want to manipulate this variable).


108. Researchers tend to use quasi-experimental research designs when they are able to manipulate an independent variable but NOT able to 

A. use random sampling.
B. use random assignment.
C. perform statistical tests on their results.
D. use more than 20 research participants.


109. A study is said to have internal validity if the researcher can be relatively confident that 

A. the same results would occur if the experiment were replicated.
B. changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable.
C. the operational definitions used in the study were good ones.
D. the sample was representative of the broader population of interest.


110. In a _____, the researcher is able to manipulate an independent variable but NOT able to use random assignment. 

A. field experiment
B. quasi-experiment
C. correlational study
D. case study


111. What is the main advantage of an experiment over a correlational study? 

A. Research participants are always representative of the population.
B. The researcher is better able to draw conclusions about cause and effect.
C. The researcher is able to study phenomena within their natural context.
D. The researcher can use a much smaller sample size and still find a statistically significant result.


112. Which of the following research designs allows researchers the MOST control over the variables they are studying? 

A. Quasi-experiments
B. Laboratory experiments
C. Field experiments
D. Correlational studies


113. If a study is high in internal validity, then the researcher can be fairly certain that changes in _____ were indeed due to changes in the _____. 

A. construct validity of the cause, construct validity of the effect
B. independent variable, dependent variable
C. external variable, internal variable
D. hypothesis, theory


114. When a researcher conducts an experiment and is fairly certain that changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable, that experiment is said to be high in 

A. construct validity.
B. construct validity of the effect.
C. internal validity.
D. external validity.


115. Suppose that a cereal manufacturer tried out a new cereal box design for a few months, and—during the same time period—notices that its sales have tripled. One of the cereal executives, Mr. Correl, boasts that the new cereal box must have sparked the increase in sales. But another executive, Mr. Scien, points out that the increase could be due to the new advertising campaign that the company is using, or to new distribution practices that have taken hold, or to the fact that more and more people are eating cereal these days. That is, Mr. Scien suggests that the company's "test" of the new cereal box design is low in 

A. operationality.
B. generalizability.
C. internal validity.
D. external validity.


116. Jackson is interested in the effects of violent movies on aggressive behavior.  He has some participants in his study watch Grand Torino (his “violent” movie) and others watch Marley and Me (his “nonviolent”movie).  Unfortunately, in addition to these movies being very different in their violence level, they also differ in a lot of other ways (one is a comedy, the other isn’t, and so forth).  This means that Jackson’s study has a 

A. factorial design.
B. confound.
C. nonrandom assignment.
D. random assignment.


117. When the effects of two variables cannot be separated,_____has been said to occur.   

A. confounding
B. random assignment
C. an interaction
D. a main effect


118. Mariah wants to study the effects of arousal and cost on helping behavior.  She has two experimental conditions of high versus low arousal, and combines that with two experimental conditions with high and low cost of helping.  This creates four possible conditions:  high arousal/high cost, high arousal/low cost, low arousal/high cost, and low arousal/low cost.  She then measures which condition results in the highest rate of helping behavior.  Mariah has employed 

A. a factorial design.
B. a meta-analysis.
C. a correlational approach.
D. mundane realism.


119. When an experiment includes more than one independent variable, it is a(n) 

A. meta-analysis.
B. factorial design.
C. main effect.
D. interaction effect.


120. In an experiment on the effects of communication on cooperation, researchers observed higher rates of cooperation if members got to communicate with each other prior to doing the cooperative task than if they were not allowed prior communication.  This illustrates a(n)_____effect of communication on cooperation. 

A. meta-analytic
B. correlational
C. main
D. interaction


121. The effect of a single independent variable by itself, ignoring the effects of other independent variables, is called a(n) 

A. correlation coefficient.
B. confound.
C. interaction effect.
D. main effect.


122. An interaction effect refers to 

A. the joint effects of more than one independent variable.
B. the effect of a single independent variable by itself.
C. the linear relationship between two variables.
D. the probability that the difference was just a statistical fluke.


123. Xavier does a study in which he compares group brainstorming to individual brainstorming in face-to-face versus computer-mediated (i.e., chat room) communication conditions.  He finds that groups are generally less productive at brainstorming than individuals, but that in chat room conditions that the difference is a lot less.  The fact that the effect of group versus individual condition depends on which communication medium was used illustrates a(n) 

A. statistically significant result.
B. correlation coefficient.
C. main effect.
D. interaction effect.


124. Suppose that a researcher asked you to answer a series of incredibly personal questions about your sexual life. You might (justifiably) feel annoyed and intruded upon, and find yourself being rude to the researcher, or even purposely giving the researcher incorrect information. Your response would be an example of 

A. experimental realism.
B. confederate behavior.
C. mundane realism.
D. reactance.


125. The term "reactance" is used to refer to the tendency for people to 

A. revert to simplistic, childlike ways of dealing with situations when they are under stress.
B. try to "look good" or say the "right" thing when their behavior is being observed.
C. pretend to feel the opposite of how they are really feeling when they are ashamed or embarrassed about their true feelings.
D. have an unpleasant emotional response when others are trying to restrict their freedom.


126. In which of the following situations would Igor be MOST likely to experience reactance? 

A. He is out on a first date with an attractive person and trying to make a good impression.
B. He comes home and finds his older brother reading his journal—where he has written deep, dark secrets that he does not want anyone to see.
C. He sleeps through an important job interview, and only has himself to blame.
D. He finds out that his mother has cancer, but that she has been hiding it from him for several years because she didn't want him to worry about her.


127. When experiments are conducted outside of the laboratory, in real-world settings, they are called 

A. correlational studies.

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