Chapter 1--the Mission and the Method



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Chapter 1--The Mission and the Method

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. In one of the first social psychological experiments ever conducted, researcher Norman Triplett examined the records of teams of cyclists. He found that cyclists who raced against each other _____ than those who raced alone (against the clock). 


A. were more aggressive after the race
B. got into more accidents
C. cycled more quickly
D. enjoyed the race less

 

2. In one of the first social psychological experiments ever conducted, researcher Norman Triplett built a fishing reel "competition machine," and asked children to wind up a fishing reel. He found that the children were able to wind more quickly when _____ than when _____. 


A. they worked as a group, side by side, they worked alone
B. they worked alone, they worked as a group, side by side
C. they were explicitly asked to work as fast as possible, they weren't
D. they were NOT explicitly asked to work as fast as possible, they were

 

3. Based on early research by Norman Triplett, we should expect that children who work on math problems alone will _____ than children who work on math problems side by side in a big group of other children. 


A. work more slowly
B. work more quickly
C. second-guess themselves less
D. second-guess themselves more

 

4. Based on early research by Norman Triplett with racing cyclists, we should expect that people who exercise on rowing machines at gyms, among other people, would be more likely to _____ than people who exercise on the same machines in the privacy of their homes. 


A. burn more calories
B. burn less calories
C. feel a sense of accomplishment
D. feel a sense of failure

 

5. In one of the first social psychological experiments ever conducted, researcher Max Ringlemann observed men as they pulled on a rope either alone, as part of a small group, or as part of a large group. He found that as the size of the group increased, 


A. each individual put in more effort.
B. each individual put in less effort.
C. the task seemed increasingly difficult.
D. the task seemed increasingly easy.

 

6. Suppose that you own a rowboat and sometimes go rowing out on the lake. In June you are planning to go rowing with two of your friends (three people total in the boat), and in July you are planning to go rowing with just one friend (two people total in the boat). Will you put in more effort (row harder) on the three-person trip or on the two-person trip? 


A. You will put in more effort on the three-person trip.
B. You will put in more effort on the two-person trip.
C. You will put in the same amount of effort on both trips.
D. It is impossible to say—no research has examined this question.

 

7. Given Max Ringlemann's early research looking at group size and individual effort, should we expect Student X to put in a different amount of effort depending on whether she worked on a history project in a 5-person group rather than a 2-person group? 


A. Yes, we should expect her to work harder in the 5-person group.
B. Yes, we should expect her to work harder in the 2-person group.
C. No, we should expect her to work equally hard in both groups.
D. It is impossible to say; it appears that there are no predictable patterns regarding group size and individual effort.

 

8. Early research in social psychology conducted by Max Ringlemann revealed that people _____ when they work as part of a group (e.g., pushing a car off of the road with two other people) compared to when they work alone at the same task. 


A. do not work as hard
B. work harder
C. feel like they are doing more work
D. feel like they are doing less work

 

9. The first social psychological experiments and the publication of the first book to bear the title Social Psychology both occurred around 


A. 400 A.D.
B. 1750
C. 1900
D. 1965

 

10. During the first half of the 20th century,_____argued that attitudes were the most important and useful concept in social psychology.   


A. Kurt Lewin
B. Max Ringlemann
C. Norman Triplett
D. Gordon Allport

 

11. The idea that behavior is a function of both the person and the situation was proposed by_____in the first half of the 20th century.   


A. Max Ringlemann
B. Norman Triplett
C. Kurt Lewin
D. Gordon Allport

 

12. You want to ask a friend to help you with the homecoming float your sorority is supposed to put together for a competition in the upcoming homecoming parade. You know that your friend is really reliable and trustworthy, but you also know that this next week (when the work has to be done) she is extremely swamped with the start of her internship and midterm exams. You decide not to ask her since she might be too busy to follow through. Knowing that your friend is reliable is an example of_____information, and knowing she is busy is an example of_____information, according to Kurt Lewin’s analysis of human behavior.   


A. person, situation
B. situation, person
C. social, nonsocial
D. nonsocial, social

 

13. In the history of psychology and social psychology, the late 1800s and early 1900s marked 


A. the very first social psychological experiments.
B. the era in which social psychology came into its own—breaking away from behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis.
C. the beginnings of research in social cognition.
D. the beginnings of research in social neuroscience.

 

14. Although the first social psychological experiments took place around 1900, social psychology did not begin to come into its own as a field until 


A. the 1950s and 1960s.
B. the 1970s and 1980s.
C. the 1990s.
D. the early 2000s.

 

15. Milgram’s famous studies of obedience to authority were motivated by which historical event? 


A. The Holocaust
B. The fall of Communism
C. Psychological problems of soldiers during Desert Storm
D. The Great Depression

 

16. When social psychology began to come into its own as a field in the 1950s and 1960s, mainstream psychology was divided between two main theoretical camps. These were 


A. trait theory and behaviorism.
B. Freudian psychoanalysis and humanism.
C. humanism and trait theory.
D. behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis.

 

17. When social psychology began to come into its own as a field in the 1950s and 1960s, mainstream psychology was divided between 


A. behaviorism and existentialism.
B. Freudian psychoanalysis and existentialism.
C. behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis.
D. existentialism and the phenomenological approach.

 

18. Behaviorism seeks to explain human behavior in terms of 


A. basic biological drives such as hunger and thirst.
B. broad environmental influences such as historical time period and geography.
C. culture.
D. learning principles such as rewards and punishments.

 

19. How are social psychologists generally similar to behaviorists? 


A. They both tend to favor experiments and the scientific method.
B. They are both interested in the mind, thoughts, and emotions.
C. They are both originally rooted in psychoanalytic theory.
D. They are both interested in the unconscious mind.

 

20. Social psychologists are generally similar to Freudian psychoanalysts in that they both 


A. are more interested in abnormal behavior than in normal behavior.
B. tend to favor experiments and the scientific method.
C. are primarily interested in external behaviors rather than the internal workings of the mind.
D. have an interest in thoughts and feelings as well as behaviors.

 

21. While social psychologists are interested in a wide variety of topics, three themes that have become increasingly important during the last 30 years are 


A. psychoanalysis, meditation, and hypnosis.
B. economic behavior, political behavior, and criminal behavior.
C. social cognition, biological influences on behavior, and the self.
D. personality measurement, organizational behavior, and spirituality.

 

22. One of the topics that has been of key interest to social psychologists during the last 30 years has been 


A. social cognition—concerned with how people think about other people and how people think about the social world in general.
B. behaviorism—concerned with basic principles of learning such as reward and punishment.
C. the idea that modern life makes people vulnerable to alienation and exploitation.
D. the idea that people act less on the basis of firm moral principles than they do on the basis of conformity, or "following the crowd."

 

23. Following the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989, social psychology’s focus on conflict 


A. remained unchanged.
B. emphasized racial/ethnic conflict.
C. lessened.
D. increased. 

 

24. Social psychology is best defined as the study of 


A. how we learn to behave in accordance with the rules of society.
B. how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by other people.
C. how cultures are created.
D. how societies and social groups work.

 

25. As a rule, social psychologists are primarily interested in 


A. normal adult human beings.
B. abnormal (mentally ill) adult human beings.
C. normal human children (rather than adults).
D. nonhuman animals.

 

26. In social psychology, the "ABC triad" consists of 


A. attitudes, beliefs and commitments.
B. ambiances, biology, and culture.
C. affects, behaviors and cognitions.
D. attributions, boundaries, and corrections.

 

27. In psychology, an "affect" is most similar to 


A. an emotion or mood.
B. a belief or attitude.
C. a behavior or reaction.
D. a motivating force or drive.

 

28. Which of the following is an example of an "affect"? 


A. A case study
B. A nervous twitch
C. Happiness
D. Wanting to help pass legislation that will protect the environment

 

29. When psychologists talk about "cognitions," they are typically referring to 


A. unconscious motivations.
B. thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes.
C. abnormal thoughts or experiences (e.g., delusions).
D. emotions or feelings.

 

30. Which of the following is the best example of "cognition"? 


A. An auditory hallucination
B. A hunger pang
C. Thinking that it is a good day to go to the beach.
D. A nervous twitch

 

31. Martin believes that his blue coat is warmer than his red coat. Ted thinks that he might want to have kids sometime in the next few years. Yesi remembers playing baseball with her friends as a child. These are all examples of 


A. delusions.
B. schemas.
C. affects.
D. cognitions.

 

32. When trying to explain a person's behavior, the first place social psychologists tend to look is to 


A. the person's unconscious motivations.
B. the person's personality.
C. the situation the person is in.
D. the person's relationships with family members as a child.

 

33. Compared to personality psychologists, clinical psychologists, and even behaviorists, social psychologists are more likely to attempt to explain a person's behavior by looking to 


A. the person's unconscious motivations
B. the person's personality
C. the immediate situation that the person is in
D. the person's childhood

 

34. Suppose that Ed just stole $50 from his parents. In trying to understand why Ed did this, which of the following questions would a social psychologist be MOST likely to ask? 


A. Is Ed unconsciously motivated to hurt his parents?
B. Is Ed simply a person with a weak moral character?
C. Does Ed have friends or other role models who are also stealing?
D. Is Ed mentally healthy enough to even know what he has done?

 

35. Suppose that Roger holds a number of negative stereotypes about women; he thinks that most women are manipulative, vain, and lazy. In trying to understand why Roger holds these stereotypes, which of the following questions would a social psychologist be MOST likely to ask? 


A. Does Roger actually feel intimidated by women, and only harbor negative stereotyped so that he can "cover up" this feeling of intimidation?
B. Did Roger have a difficult relationship with his mother as an infant and young child that might have fostered negative attitudes toward all women?
C. Does Roger have a physical brain abnormality?
D. Has Roger been exposed to these stereotypes in the media, or has he perhaps had a few limited (but negative) interactions with women that might have helped to perpetuate these stereotypes?

 

36. Most social psychologists perform research by 


A. engaging in historical analyses.
B. conducting case studies (individual interviews).
C. conducting experiments.
D. using nonexperimental observational methods.

 

37. Which of the following fields is best defined as "the study of human culture—the shared values, beliefs, and practices of a group of people"? 


A. History
B. Political science
C. Social psychology
D. Anthropology

 

38. Which of the following fields is MOST concerned with understanding different human cultures? 


A. Economics
B. Political science
C. Social psychology
D. Anthropology

 

39. Anthropology is BEST defined as 


A. "the study of ethnicity and race."
B. "the cross-cultural study of humans and primates."
C. "the study of human societies and the groups that form those societies."
D. "the study of human culture—the shared values, beliefs, and practices of a group of people."

 

40. The social psychological theory known as “social exchange theory” is based MOST obviously on which of the following other social sciences? 


A. Economics
B. History
C. Political science
D. Anthropology

 

41. Which of the following fields is concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services?   


A. Anthropology
B. History
C. Economics
D. Political science

 

42. With which of the following social sciences has social psychology had the LEAST interaction until recently? 


A. Sociology
B. Anthropology
C. Economics
D. History

 

43. Laela is interested in studying how groups of which we are members influence our thinking and behavior.  Which other social science (besides social psychology) will Laela’s work MOST closely intersect? 


A. Economics
B. Sociology
C. Neuroscience
D. History

 

44. Johnna wants to understand how attitudes predict voting behavior.  Her research will MOST likely intersect social psychology and which other social science? 


A. Anthropology
B. Sociology
C. Political science
D. Economics

 

45. Political science is BEST described as the study of 


A. organizations and institutions, especially governments.
B. human societies and groups that form those societies. 
C. past events.
D. human culture.

 

46. Which of the following fields is BEST defined as "the study of human societies and the groups that form those societies"? 


A. Anthropology
B. Political Science
C. Sociology
D. Psychology

 

47. Dr. Otten studies the relationship between crime rates and childrearing practices. Dr. Otten is MOST likely 


A. an anthropologist.
B. an economist.
C. a sociologist.
D. a social psychologist.

 

48. Although sociologists and social psychologists are both interested in group behavior, sociologists tend to focus on _____, whereas social psychologists tend to focus on _____. 


A. individual members within the group, the group as a single unit
B. the group as a single unit, individual members within the group
C. how group are unique, how various groups are similar to one another
D. how various groups are similar to one another, how groups are unique

 

49. According to the simile in your text, if psychology is like a tree, then social psychology is like 


A. the stump.
B. one of the branches.
C. a leaf.
D. a root. 

 

50. What do we call the field that combines the interests of social and biological psychology? 


A. Neuroscience
B. Physiological psychology
C. Social neuroscience
D. Social cognition

 

51. Which of the following fields is NOT focused solely on what happens in the brain, nervous system, and other bodily processes?   


A. Biological psychology
B. Physiological psychology
C. Neuroscience
D. Social neuroscience

 

52. At what point in the history of social psychology did social psychologists become interested in the biological aspects of social behavior? 


A. 1960s
B. 1970s
C. 1980s
D. 1990s

 

53. According to the textbook, what has the relationship between clinical psychology and social psychology been like historically? 


A. Clinical psychology grew out of social psychology.
B. Both clinical psychology and social psychology grew out of cognitive psychology.
C. The two fields have historically been at odds and argued with one another.
D. The two fields have historically exchanged ideas and viewpoints.

 

54. Within psychology, _____ typically focus on "abnormal" behavior (e.g., mental disorders and behavioral disorders). 


A. only clinical psychologists
B. both clinical psychologists and personality psychologists
C. only personality psychologists
D. psychologists from all branches of psychology

 

55. Dr. Kay researches the effectiveness of different therapies for treating severe anxiety disorders. He is MOST likely 


A. a personality psychologist
B. a clinical psychologist
C. a cognitive psychologist
D. a Freudian psychoanalyst

 

56. Which branch of psychology is primarily concerned with thought processes (e.g., how memory works and what people pay attention to)? 


A. Developmental psychology
B. Social psychology
C. Cognitive psychology
D. Biological psychology

 

57. In recent years, _____ has emerged as an important subfield of social psychology that explores the ways in which people think about social situations. 


A. cognitive sociology
B. social cognition
C. cognitive psychology
D. socionition

 

58. Which of the following topics would a cognitive psychologist be MOST likely to study? 


A. The heritability of depression
B. Male-female differences in sexual behavior
C. How people learn to memorize complex musical compositions
D. Altruistic behavior among chimpanzees

 

59. Which of the following topics is a personality psychologist MOST likely to study? 


A. The development of schizophrenia
B. Gender differences in the acquisition of language skills
C. Individual differences in leadership ability
D. Cross-cultural differences in mating and courtship behaviors

 

60. Until recently, the relationship between developmental and social psychology was 


A. that the two subfields mutually influenced each other.
B. that developmental psychology tended to draw more on social psychology.
C. that social psychology tended to draw more on developmental psychology.
D. that the two fields had relatively little influence on each other. 

 

61. The study of how people change across their lives from conception to death is the purview of 


A. developmental psychology.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. clinical psychology.
D. biological psychology.

 

62. Dr. Gem studies individual differences in introversion (a trait similar to shyness). Dr. Gem is MOST likely a _____ psychologist. 


A. social
B. personality
C. clinical
D. developmental

 

63. Which of the following branches of psychology is MOST closely affiliated with social psychology? 


A. Developmental psychology
B. Clinical psychology
C. Personality psychology
D. Biological psychology

 

64. The top research journals in social psychology have substantial overlap, content-wise, with which of the following? 


A. Developmental psychology
B. Clinical psychology
C. Personality psychology
D. Biological psychology

 

65. In recent years, the line between social psychology and _____ has become especially blurred. 


A. developmental psychology
B. biological psychology
C. clinical psychology
D. personality psychology

 

66. According to the textbook, people typically study social psychology because 


A. it is fun and interesting, and can help make the world a better place.
B. it is an important foundation for understanding clinical psychology.
C. it helps them with their personal problems.
D. they think it will be easy.

 

67. According to the textbook, the key distinction between philosophy and psychology is the fact that psychology 


A. is concerned with observable phenomena (e.g., behaviors) rather than unobservable phenomena (e.g., thoughts).
B. is concerned with unobservable phenomena (e.g., thoughts) rather than observable phenomena (e.g., behaviors).
C. primarily relies on the scientific method.
D. primarily relies on the case study method.

 

68. According to the textbook, psychology can be thought of as a kind of "experimental philosophy" because psychology _____, but psychology relies on the experimental method. 


A. addresses many of the same questions that interest philosophers
B. is as popular today as philosophy was in ancient times
C. also grew out of the mathematical sciences
D. is also a highly controversial field

 

69. Social scientists who focus on concrete problems—such as how to boost literacy rates in schools or how to increase energy conservation—are known as 


A. counselors.
B. applied researchers.
C. industrial-organizational (I/O) psychologists.
D. social workers.

 

70. Dr. Hon is a researcher who studies methods for increasing condom usage among sexually active teens. Dr. Hon would probably be BEST described as 


A. a personality psychologist.
B. an applied researcher.
C. a social worker.
D. a developmental psychologist.

 

71. "Applied researchers" are BEST defined as social scientists who 


A. work in "real life" settings—such as in workplaces, schools, or zoos.
B. focus on concrete problems—such as how to boost literacy rates or how to increase water conservation.
C. seek to "test out," or apply, others' theories rather than develop their own theories.
D. study the process of research itself—how researchers go about selecting research questions, conducting studies, and reporting findings.

 

72. Many areas of study in social psychology evoke a lot of passion from the researchers invested in that arena. Although doing research to make the world a better place is great motivation, one of the hazards of this motive is that 


A. only correlational studies can be conducted.
B. ideals and political beliefs may cloud scientific judgment.
C. the research is hard to replicate.
D. the research will be flawed. 

 

73. When social psychologist Kurt Lewin said that "there is nothing so practical as a good theory," he meant that 


A. many theories are overly abstract; a good theory should be based on directly observable facts.
B. many theories are overly abstract; a good theory should make predictions about directly observable phenomena.
C. although they may seem impractical, theories can be very important in helping to stimulate practical ideas and practical research.
D. he was being facetious (not serious); he was opposed to overly theoretical work, and a major proponent of applied research.

 

74. Kurt Lewin, a prominent early social psychologist, is famous for arguing that scientific theories—while they may seem impractical—can be extremely useful in helping to stimulate practical ideas and practical research. Lewin's famous quote to this effect is 


A. "there is nothing so practical as a good theory."
B. "theories pass; the frog remains."
C. "in theory, practically every theory is practical."
D. " to be theoretical is to be concrete."

 

75. Consider the following two American adages, which seem to contradict one another: "Birds of a feather flock together" and "opposites attract." The authors of the textbook would probably say that 


A. this contradiction is a strange exception—since Americans tend to be extremely single-minded in their "common sense" views about social psychology.
B. most people in the US probably believe just one of these adages to be true, and not both—since most people have very clear personal theories about social psychology.
C. the contradiction is not surprising at all, since "common sense" theories are often poorly defined, and that most people would probably say that both of these things are true (if you asked them at different times).
D. most people would not even see the contradiction if it were pointed out to them, since most people are not strong logical thinkers.

 

76. According to the textbook, "common sense" theories about social psychology are 


A. almost always wrong.
B. often misleading or contradictory.
C. very often correct.
D. very often correct when they have to do with dyadic (2-person) relationships, but usually wrong when they have to do with group behavior.

 

77. The scientific method used by social psychologists is 


A. conceptually the same as the scientific method used by clinical psychologists, biologists, and chemists.
B. conceptually the same as the scientific method used by clinical psychologists, but completely different from the scientific method used by biologists, chemists, and other "hard scientists."
C. completely different from the scientific method used in other fields.
D. conceptually the same as the scientific method used by clinical psychologists, biologists, and chemists—except for the fact that social psychologists do not usually use statistical significance testing.

 

78. The first step in the scientific method is to 


A. state a problem for study.
B. state a hypothesis.
C. determine who the research sample will be.
D. collect data.

 

79. The scientific method consists of approximately _____ basic steps. 


A. 3
B. 5
C. 9
D. 12

 

80. "An idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but not yet proven" is known as 


A. a hypothesis.
B. a theory.
C. an ad hoc test.
D. an independent variable.

 

81. A hypothesis is BEST described as 


A. a worldview.
B. an educated guess.
C. a random guess.
D. a post-hoc explanation (an explanation that has the benefit of hindsight knowledge).

 

82. What is a hypothesis? 


A. A statistical procedure
B. An established scientific fact
C. A testable prediction
D. A kind of sample

 

83. Suppose that Dr. Brown conducts an experiment to examine the effects of mentorship programs on children's academic achievement. She finds that children who are given mentors receive significantly higher grades than children who aren't. The result is statistically significant at the .05 level. What does this mean? 


A. The finding probably occurred by chance; mentorship programs probably DON'T really improve academic achievement.
B. The finding probably did NOT occur by chance; mentorship programs probably DO really boost academic achievement.
C. The finding was larger than expected; mentorship programs appear to be even more effective than Dr. Brown thought they were.
D. The finding was smaller than expected; mentorship programs appear to be less effective than Dr. Brown thought they were.

 

84. In social psychology, researchers typically test hypotheses using the _____ confidence level. 


A. 80%
B. 85%
C. 90%
D. 95%

 

85. In social psychology, a "statistically significant" result is denoted by 


A. p <.05
B. N > 100
C. F = 1
D. µ > 0

 

86. Social psychologists routinely test research hypotheses using the .05 level of significance. This means that so-called "significant" findings are actually "flukes" about _____ of the time. 


A. .05%
B. 1%
C. 5%
D. 20%

 

87. If a researcher tested 1000 people and found that women received significantly higher scores on the verbal portion of the SAT than did men, this would mean that 


A. among the sample that was tested, women's scores were definitely higher than men's (even if the difference is tiny)—though there might not be a difference in the population at large.
B. among the sample that was tested, women's scores were at least 5% higher than men's—though there might not be a difference in the population at large.
C. in the population at large, women's scores probably really are higher than men's (even if the difference is tiny).
D. in the population at large, women's scores probably really are higher than men's—by a score difference of at least 5%

 

88. According to the textbook, if you conduct a research study, write up all of the results in a paper, and submit the paper to a top academic journal, you have a _____ chance of getting your paper published. 


A. 0-1%
B. 10-20%
C. 50%
D. 60-70%

 

89. Social psychologists typically derive _____ based on _____. 


A. hypotheses, theories
B. hypotheses, observations
C. observations, hypotheses
D. observations, theories

 

90. If you conduct a study and predict that X causes Y, then X is the 


A. internal variable.
B. external variable.
C. independent variable.
D. dependent variable.

 

91. If you conduct a study and predict that A causes B, then B is the 


A. internal variable.
B. external variable.
C. independent variable.
D. dependent variable.

 

92. Dr. Khanmohamed is conducting a research project with young children to examine the effect of exposure to different cultural groups on the development of empathy. The independent variable in this research is 


A. young children.
B. exposure to different cultural groups.
C. empathy.
D. how empathy develops.

 

93. Dr. Tsuei is studying the effects of sleep deprivation on interpersonal skills. He is testing the interpersonal skills of 20-25 year-old males who have been sleep deprived for 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours. In this study the dependent variable is 


A. the age of the research participants.
B. the interpersonal skills of the research participants.
C. the length of time that the research participants are deprived of sleep.
D. the type of interpersonal skills test used in the study.

 

94. Suppose that you conducted an experiment to test the effects of violence in TV shows on aggressiveness in children. The dependent variable in this study would be 


A. how violent the TV shows were.
B. how many hours of violent shows the children needed to watch before they became violent.
C. whether or not the children should be exposed to violence.
D. how aggressive the children were.

 

95. Which of the following would be the BEST operational definition for tiredness? 


A. An increase in fantasies about sleeping
B. The number of hours since one has last slept
C. Irritability, poor motor skills, and weak concentration
D. How tired someone looks

 

96. In the context of research, an operational definition of a variable is a precise description of 


A. how the variable will be defined (i.e., how it will be manipulated or measured).
B. how data from the variable will be statistically analyzed.
C. what the variable is expected to "do" according to the research hypothesis (i.e., what results are expected from the variable).
D. how the variable has been defined by researchers in past studies.

 

97. Suppose that you are conducting an experiment to see whether receiving negative feedback from an authority figure will increase eating behavior. After writing an essay, half of your research participants are given negative feedback from a professor, and half are given encouraging feedback. All participants are then placed in a room with a large container of cookies and their eating behavior is observed. In this study, an operational definition for the dependent variable might be 


A. whether participants received critical or encouraging feedback.
B. the number of words in each participant's essay.
C. the number of cookies each participant ate.
D. how many minutes the professor spent giving each participant feedback.

 

98. A(n) _____ is someone who works for a researcher by serving as an "actor" in the research (e.g., pretending to be another research participant, and being mean to other research participants in order to see how participants respond to meanness). 


A. confederate
B. allied respondent
C. infiltrator
D. behaviorist

 

99. In psychology, the word "confederate" is used to refer to 


A. a research assistant who poses as a participant during the course of a research study, in order to help create a certain situation.
B. a research participant who is purposely disruptive during a study (e.g., a participant who lies on questionnaires or refuses to complete an experimental task).
C. a statistician or data analyst.
D. a prototypic research participant (i.e., the "confederate response" is a term used to refer to the "average response" or "mean response").

 

100. In one well-known social psychological study, research participants were asked to make very easy perceptual judgments ("Is Line A longer than Line B?"). The catch was that they were asked to do this while sitting around a table with people who continually gave incorrect responses—people who appeared to be other regular research participants. In reality, however, the other people at the table were not real participants at all; they were actually actors who were working for the experimenter and just posing as participants. The question in this research was whether or not the real research participant would conform to the group's opinion (even though the group's opinion was obviously wrong) or whether the real participant would stick to the right answer. In psychological jargon, the "actors" in this study would be referred to as 


A. confederates.
B. participant players.
C. mundane situationalists.
D. research caretakers.

 

101. Suppose that you are working as a research assistant for a social psychologist. To help her with a research study, the social psychologist asks you to stand in a laboratory waiting room with research participants, act as though you are a research participant yourself, and then pretend to have an epileptic seizure. (The social psychologist is interested in how many people will try to help you.) In other words, your task is to be a _____ in the research. 


A. confederate
B. mundane situationalist
C. reactant
D. dependent variable

 

102. Dr. Zink and Dr. Vasquez are designing a new study. They have come up with a good hypothesis for the study, but they are having trouble thinking of operational definitions for their variables. In other words, they are concerned that their research might be low in 


A. internal validity.
B. external validity.
C. construct validity.
D. face validity.

 

103. Suppose that you are planning to conduct a study to look at the effect of pet ownership on empathy, but that you cannot find any good measures of empathy (all of the measures that you find seem to fall short of your understanding of what empathy is, or to miss the mark completely). Unless you can find a measure that you are satisfied with, your research may end up being low in 


A. internal validity.
B. external validity.
C. construct validity of the cause.
D. construct validity of the effect.

 

104. If a researcher conducts an experiment in which the independent variable is poorly defined (i.e., has a poor operational definition), then the experiment can be said to have 


A. low internal validity.
B. low external validity.
C. low construct validity of the cause.
D. low construct validity of the effect.

 

105. True experiments have two key features that make them different from other studies. First, in a true experiment, the researcher manipulates (varies) one or more independent variables. Second, the researcher makes use of 


A. statistical testing.
B. random assignment.
C. interactions.
D. priming.

 

106. Dr. Taylor is conducting a study to test the effect of a new drug on people's ability to concentrate at work. His research sample consists of 100 US adults. During a 14-week period, half of the sample is administered the drug and the other half is administered a placebo, and participants' concentration abilities are continually tracked. In the context of this study, if Dr. Taylor uses random assignment, it means that 


A. his study will be high in external validity.
B. the 100 adults in his study are likely to be representative of the larger population of interest.
C. each research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each level of the independent variable (e.g., the placebo group or the drug group).
D. his research findings are likely to be statistically significant.

 

107. Dr. Pow is interested in whether exposure to TV advertisements has a different impact on girls' self-image than it does on boys' self-image. To examine this question, she conducts a quasi-experiment. Why doesn't Dr. Pow conduct a true experiment instead? 


A. She cannot conduct a true experiment, because people cannot be randomly assigned to be "girls" or "boys."
B. She cannot conduct a true experiment, because self-image is not directly observable.
C. She could conduct a true experiment if she wanted to, but she probably has a very small sample size, so in this case a quasi-experiment is better.
D. She could conduct a true experiment if she wanted to, but she is probably interested in "real-life" TV exposure (and probably doesn't want to manipulate this variable).

 

108. Researchers tend to use quasi-experimental research designs when they are able to manipulate an independent variable but NOT able to 


A. use random sampling.
B. use random assignment.
C. perform statistical tests on their results.
D. use more than 20 research participants.

 

109. A study is said to have internal validity if the researcher can be relatively confident that 


A. the same results would occur if the experiment were replicated.
B. changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable.
C. the operational definitions used in the study were good ones.
D. the sample was representative of the broader population of interest.

 

110. In a _____, the researcher is able to manipulate an independent variable but NOT able to use random assignment. 


A. field experiment
B. quasi-experiment
C. correlational study
D. case study

 

111. What is the main advantage of an experiment over a correlational study? 


A. Research participants are always representative of the population.
B. The researcher is better able to draw conclusions about cause and effect.
C. The researcher is able to study phenomena within their natural context.
D. The researcher can use a much smaller sample size and still find a statistically significant result.

 

112. Which of the following research designs allows researchers the MOST control over the variables they are studying? 


A. Quasi-experiments
B. Laboratory experiments
C. Field experiments
D. Correlational studies

 

113. If a study is high in internal validity, then the researcher can be fairly certain that changes in _____ were indeed due to changes in the _____. 


A. construct validity of the cause, construct validity of the effect
B. independent variable, dependent variable
C. external variable, internal variable
D. hypothesis, theory

 

114. When a researcher conducts an experiment and is fairly certain that changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable, that experiment is said to be high in 


A. construct validity.
B. construct validity of the effect.
C. internal validity.
D. external validity.

 

115. Suppose that a cereal manufacturer tried out a new cereal box design for a few months, and—during the same time period—notices that its sales have tripled. One of the cereal executives, Mr. Correl, boasts that the new cereal box must have sparked the increase in sales. But another executive, Mr. Scien, points out that the increase could be due to the new advertising campaign that the company is using, or to new distribution practices that have taken hold, or to the fact that more and more people are eating cereal these days. That is, Mr. Scien suggests that the company's "test" of the new cereal box design is low in 


A. operationality.
B. generalizability.
C. internal validity.
D. external validity.

 

116. Jackson is interested in the effects of violent movies on aggressive behavior.  He has some participants in his study watch Grand Torino (his “violent” movie) and others watch Marley and Me (his “nonviolent”movie).  Unfortunately, in addition to these movies being very different in their violence level, they also differ in a lot of other ways (one is a comedy, the other isn’t, and so forth).  This means that Jackson’s study has a 


A. factorial design.
B. confound.
C. nonrandom assignment.
D. random assignment.

 

117. When the effects of two variables cannot be separated,_____has been said to occur.   


A. confounding
B. random assignment
C. an interaction
D. a main effect

 

118. Mariah wants to study the effects of arousal and cost on helping behavior.  She has two experimental conditions of high versus low arousal, and combines that with two experimental conditions with high and low cost of helping.  This creates four possible conditions:  high arousal/high cost, high arousal/low cost, low arousal/high cost, and low arousal/low cost.  She then measures which condition results in the highest rate of helping behavior.  Mariah has employed 


A. a factorial design.
B. a meta-analysis.
C. a correlational approach.
D. mundane realism.

 

119. When an experiment includes more than one independent variable, it is a(n) 


A. meta-analysis.
B. factorial design.
C. main effect.
D. interaction effect.

 

120. In an experiment on the effects of communication on cooperation, researchers observed higher rates of cooperation if members got to communicate with each other prior to doing the cooperative task than if they were not allowed prior communication.  This illustrates a(n)_____effect of communication on cooperation. 


A. meta-analytic
B. correlational
C. main
D. interaction

 

121. The effect of a single independent variable by itself, ignoring the effects of other independent variables, is called a(n) 


A. correlation coefficient.
B. confound.
C. interaction effect.
D. main effect.

 

122. An interaction effect refers to 


A. the joint effects of more than one independent variable.
B. the effect of a single independent variable by itself.
C. the linear relationship between two variables.
D. the probability that the difference was just a statistical fluke.

 

123. Xavier does a study in which he compares group brainstorming to individual brainstorming in face-to-face versus computer-mediated (i.e., chat room) communication conditions.  He finds that groups are generally less productive at brainstorming than individuals, but that in chat room conditions that the difference is a lot less.  The fact that the effect of group versus individual condition depends on which communication medium was used illustrates a(n) 


A. statistically significant result.
B. correlation coefficient.
C. main effect.
D. interaction effect.

 

124. Suppose that a researcher asked you to answer a series of incredibly personal questions about your sexual life. You might (justifiably) feel annoyed and intruded upon, and find yourself being rude to the researcher, or even purposely giving the researcher incorrect information. Your response would be an example of 


A. experimental realism.
B. confederate behavior.
C. mundane realism.
D. reactance.

 

125. The term "reactance" is used to refer to the tendency for people to 


A. revert to simplistic, childlike ways of dealing with situations when they are under stress.
B. try to "look good" or say the "right" thing when their behavior is being observed.
C. pretend to feel the opposite of how they are really feeling when they are ashamed or embarrassed about their true feelings.
D. have an unpleasant emotional response when others are trying to restrict their freedom.

 

126. In which of the following situations would Igor be MOST likely to experience reactance? 


A. He is out on a first date with an attractive person and trying to make a good impression.
B. He comes home and finds his older brother reading his journal—where he has written deep, dark secrets that he does not want anyone to see.
C. He sleeps through an important job interview, and only has himself to blame.
D. He finds out that his mother has cancer, but that she has been hiding it from him for several years because she didn't want him to worry about her.

 

127. When experiments are conducted outside of the laboratory, in real-world settings, they are called 


A. correlational studies.
B. field experiments.
C. quasi-experiments.
D. applied research.

 

128. Can correlational studies or experiments ever be conducted outside of the laboratory? 


A. No, both of these types of studies are always performed in the lab.
B. Correlational studies can be conducted inside the laboratory or out in the "real world," but experiments are always conducted in the lab.
C. Correlational studies are always conducted in the "real world" (not the lab) and experiments are always conducted in the lab (not the "real world").
D. Both correlational studies and experiments can be performed in the lab or in the "real world;" when experiments are performed in the "real world" they are called field experiments.

 

129. Suppose that a researcher decided to study everyday altruism towards men versus women by leaving (fake) fully addressed college applications in airport lobbies (identical except with male versus female applicant names), and then tracking the number of people who send in the application. What kind of study of this? 


A. A laboratory study
B. A field experiment
C. A correlational study
D. A quasi-experiment

 

130. Researchers often attempt to design studies that will be high in both experimental realism and mundane realism. However, 


A. experimental realism is generally considered to be far more important.
B. mundane realism is generally considered to be far more important.
C. most researchers acknowledge that experimental realism is really only important when one is conducting a true experiment.
D. most researchers acknowledge that mundane realism is almost impossible to achieve.

 

131. If an experiment gets participants psychologically involved and engaged, but the setting does not resemble the real world, then the experiment would be said to be 


A. low in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
B. low in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.
C. high in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
D. high in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.

 

132. If an experiment does NOT get participants psychologically involved and engaged, even though the setting of the experiment closely resembles the real world physically, then the experiment would be said to be 


A. low in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
B. low in experimental realism but high in mundane realism.
C. high in experimental realism but low in mundane realism.
D. high in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.

 

133. Suppose that you are a research participant in a laboratory study that is looking at fear and social support. The researcher shows you an extremely scary movie and then asks you whether you feel like talking to anyone (and who) once the movie is over. Although you are in a laboratory setting the whole time, which does not resemble "real life" at all, you get very caught up in the procedures of the study and almost forget that you are in a study. Thus, in your experience, this study is 


A. low in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
B. low in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.
C. high in experimental realism and low in mundane realism.
D. high in experimental realism and high in mundane realism.

 

134. Compared to laboratory experiments, field experiments tend to be 


A. low in internal validity and low in external validity.
B. low in internal validity and high in external validity.
C. high in internal validity and low in external validity.
D. high in internal validity and high in external validity.

 

135. When findings from a study are likely to generalize to other people and other settings, the study is said to have 


A. external validity.
B. internal validity.
C. construct validity.
D. mundane realism.

 

136. If a study is high in external validity, then 


A. the findings are likely to generalize to other people and other settings.
B. the researcher can confidently conclude that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the variables in the study.
C. participants in the study are highly engaged and involved in the study.
D. the research situation physically resembles a real-world situation.

 

137. Zhao’s research interest is to determine if poverty causes one to be more politically liberal.  However, he cannot randomly assign people to conditions of poverty versus wealth because (aside from the practical difficulty) it would be unethical to do so.  Zhao will have to  


A. conduct a field experiment.
B. take a correlational approach.
C. do a meta-analysis.
D. develop a factorial design.

 

138. Dr. Hurtado and Dr. Yashari have recently conducted a study and found a positive correlation between music-listening and dancing ability: People who listen to lots of music tend to be excellent dancers. The correlation is statistically significant. Can they conclude that listening to music causes people to be better dancers? Why or why not? 


A. Yes, because there is a positive correlation.
B. Yes, because there is a statistically significant correlation.
C. No, because the evidence is correlational, not experimental.
D. No, because the correlation probably does not hold true for deaf people.

 

139. If you know that achievement is positively correlated with life satisfaction, then you can conclude that 


A. one of two things MUST be true: Either achievement causes life satisfaction OR life satisfaction causes achievement.
B. a third variable (such as commitment or passion) MUST cause both achievement and life satisfaction.
C. as achievement increases, happiness also increases.
D. the relationship between the two variables must be statistically significant.

 

140. There is a moderately strong, positive relationship between different forms of prejudice: People who are prejudiced against Group X also tend to be prejudiced against Group Y. Given this information, we should expect the correlation between anti-Jewish prejudice and anti-Asian prejudice to be about 


A. .04
B. 0.4
C. 4.0
D. 40

 

141. Psychologists typically use a statistic called _____ to denote the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. 


A. a p-value
B. lambda
C. coefficient alpha
D. a correlation coefficient

 

142. Correlation coefficients are statistics used to denote 


A. the amount of variability in a dataset.
B. the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables.
C. the degree to which the difference between two arithmetic means is likely to have been due to chance.
D. the strength of the relationship among three or more variables.

 

143. Suppose that there is a perfect negative correlation between the amount of money that Jane spends and the amount of money that she has in her bank account: for every dollar that she spends, she has exactly one less dollar in her bank account (assuming no interest, fees, or credits). Thus the correlation between Jane's spending and savings can be represented as 


A. r = 0.00
B. r = -100
C. r = -1.00
D. r = 100

 

144. When there is no relationship between two variables, the correlation coefficient is 


A. -100
B. -1
C. 0
D. +1.0

 

145. Correlation coefficients are used to describe the relationship between two variables. They are usually denoted using the letter 


A. n
B. p
C. r
D. q

 

146. A correlation coefficient communicates two pieces of information about the relationship between two variables: The _____ communicates the direction of the relationship, and the _____ communicates the strength of the relationship. 


A. value, sign
B. sign, value
C. slope, value
D. sign, slope

 

147. The main weakness with correlational research (as opposed to experimental research) is that 


A. researchers cannot conduct tests of statistical significance.
B. researchers cannot draw conclusions about cause and effect.
C. correlational research tends to have low external validity.
D. correlational research tends to be low in mundane realism.

 

148. Compared to true experiments, MOST correlational studies are low in 


A. internal validity.
B. external validity.
C. construct validity of the cause.
D. construct validity of the effect.

 

149. Suppose that you are interested in knowing whether there are gender differences in suicide (i.e., whether one gender commits suicide more frequently than the other). The only way to study this precise question would be to conduct 


A. a true experiment, using random assignment.
B. a quasi-experiment, using no random assignment.
C. a field experiment, using random assignment.
D. correlational research looking at archival data (existing data).

 

150. A literature review that averages together the statistical results from different studies conducted on the same topic is called a 


A. factorial design.
B. meta-analysis.
C. replication.
D. correlational approach.

 

151. Mirena wants is interested in the effects of gender on aggression. She collects all the studies she can find that have been conducted on this topic, and averages their results to generate a big picture of what the findings in that area reveal. Mirena has conducted a 


A. correlational study.
B. field experiment.
C. quasi-experiment.
D. meta-analysis.

 

152. The textbook discusses the "self-correcting nature of science" as it applies to social psychology. The idea here is that, over time, erroneous conclusions are revised appropriately, because 


A. most research in social psychology builds off of prior research relatively slowly and systematically.
B. common sense will override conclusions that are obviously incorrect.
C. most psychologists study just one topic for their entire careers, and will eventually notice if they made an error earlier in their careers.
D. every 20-30 years, researchers revisit old topics and replicate all of the old research.

 

153. Replication refers to 


A. the joint effects of two or more independent variables.
B. the technique of meta-analysis.
C. repeating an experiment to see if the same results can be obtained..
D. an experimental setting seeming like the real-world.

 

154. Replication is an important part of  


A. the self-correcting nature of science.
B. experimental design.
C. measuring a correlation.
D. experimental realism.

 

155. MOST research in social psychology is based on 


A. prison inmates and the elderly.
B. adult samples from the general population.
C. high school student samples.
D. college student samples.

 

156. Most social psychologists 


A. study prison inmates but are interested in normal adults in general.
B. study prison inmates but are interested in abnormal (mentally ill) adults in general.
C. study college students but are interested in normal adults in general.
D. study college students but are interested in abnormal (mentally ill) adults in general.

 

157. According to the textbook, social psychology's reliance on college student samples 


A. is a serious problem—although it has not been discussed much among social psychologists.
B. is a serious problem—such that most social psychologists are now collaborating with anthropologists and sociologists in order to gain access to data from more diverse populations.
C. is a serious problem—so serious that many social psychology journals now refuse to publish papers that are solely based on college student samples.
D. is an issue that deserves continued attention, but not necessarily a serious problem for most social psychological research.

 

158. Suppose that you are conducting a research project for a social psychology class. Due to the fact that you have no budget for the research, you are forced to rely on a college student population. How big of a problem is this in terms of your ability to later generalize your findings to other groups of people? 


A. It is a very serious problem, for pretty much anything you are studying.
B. It is a very serious problem for most topics within social psychology (though not all).
C. It is a very serious problem if your sample size is under 1000; if your sample size is over 1000, however, it is not a serious problem.
D. It is an issue to pay attention to and take into consideration, but it is generally not a very serious problem unless you are studying certain topics (e.g., attitudes about aging or education).

 

159. Most research in social psychology is based on Western European and Northern American samples, though some research has also been conducted in other areas of the world. Based on what is known to date, it appears to be reasonably safe to generalize social psychological research findings to the vast majority of 


A. people living in the U.S. who are Caucasian.
B. people living in the U.S.
C. people living in Western nations.
D. people from all cultures in the world.

 

160. Most social psychological research has been conducted in the U.S. and a few very similar nations. According to the textbook, how well do findings generalize to other cultures? 


A. With only one notable exception, no cross-cultural differences have been found in any area of social psychology.
B. In general, there appear to be many large and important cross-cultural differences across areas of social psychology.
C. In general, there appear to be many large and important cross-cultural differences for women, but very few cross-cultural differences for men.
D. It is not yet known; not enough research has been replicated cross-culturally.

 

161. MOST social psychological research has been conducted in 


A. the U.S. and a few similar western European nations.
B. the U.S. and China.
C. England.
D. Austria and France.

 

162. When people work on a task jointly with someone else (e.g., putting together a large bookcase), each person tends to put in less effort than he or she would if working alone. 


True    False

 

163. Social psychology was in existence as a field roughly 100 years before Freudian psychoanalysis. 


True    False

 

164. Social psychology primarily relies on the experimental method. 


True    False

 

165. The "ABC triad" in social psychology refers to social psychology's focus on attribution, behavior, and culture, respectively. 


True    False

 

166. Social psychology has been more influenced by history than by any other social science. 


True    False

 

167. Neuroscience is the field that integrates the study of social psychology and biological psychology. 


True    False

 

168. According to the textbook, human intuition is typically an excellent guide to understanding human behavior. 


True    False

 

169. Social psychologists usually derive their hypotheses from existing theories. 


True    False

 

170. Researchers usually test their hypotheses at the .05 level of significance. 


True    False

 

171. Random assignment is one of the defining features of correlational research. 


True    False

 

172. The two defining features of an experiment are control and random assignment. 


True    False

 

173. Consider the following study: Participants either perform a complex task in front of others or a simple task alone. The experimenter plans to examine the effects of task complexity and the presence of others on performance. 



This study is confounded. 
True    False

 

174. The term "experimental realism" refers to whether the physical setting of a research study resembles the "real world." 


True    False

 

175. Replication is essential to the self-correcting nature of science. 


True    False

 

176. Most contemporary research in social psychology is based on college student samples. 


True    False

 

177. When people work on a task jointly with someone else (e.g., putting together a large bookcase), each person tends to put in ____________________ effort than he or she would if working alone. 


________________________________________

 

178. The school of thought known as ____________________ seeks to explain human behavior in terms of learning principles such as rewards and punishments. 


________________________________________

 

179. In social psychology, the "ABC triad" refers to ____________________, ____________________, and____________________. 


________________________________________

 

180. The study of human culture—the shared values, beliefs, and practices of a group of people—is known as ____________________. 


________________________________________

 

181. Social psychology has been least influenced by____________________psychology, until recently. 


________________________________________

 

182. What separates psychology from philosophy is psychology’s emphasis on____________________.. 


________________________________________

 

183. In social psychology, the notation "p <.05" signifies ____________________. 


________________________________________

 

184. If you conduct a study and predict that excessive computer use causes social awkwardness, then social awkwardness is the ____________________ variable. 


________________________________________

 

185. A person who is secretly working for an experimenter to help create a particular situation is called a(n) ____________________. 


________________________________________

 

186. When an experimenter wants to investigate the impact of two independent variables at the same time they will need to use a(n)____________________. 


________________________________________

 

187. Suppose that you participate in an experiment that is designed to examine the effects of sadness on creativity. Even though the sadness manipulation used by the experimenters is very artificial, you nonetheless experience deep sadness during the study. Thus, the study was apparently high in ____________________. 


________________________________________

 

188. When a researcher conducts an experiment, and is fairly certain that changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable, that experiment is said to be high in ____________________. 


________________________________________

 

189. True experiments have two key features that make them different from other studies. First, in a true experiment, the researcher manipulates (varies) one or more independent variables. Second, the researcher makes use of ____________________. 


________________________________________

 

190. As discussed in the textbook, the main weakness with correlational research (as opposed to experimental research) is that the researcher cannot ____________________. 


________________________________________

 

191. When you combine statistical results across a number of studies all on a similar topic you have conducted a(n)____________________. 


________________________________________

 

192. During the era in which social psychology was emerging as a discipline, it was caught between two opposing camps: behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis. Explain how social psychology did not fit neatly into either of those camps, and how it ultimately integrated features from both as it emerged as an independent field. 


 


 

 


 

 

193. Compare and contrast social psychology with two other branches of psychology (e.g., cognitive psychology, personality psychology). 


 


 

 


 

 

194. Compare and contrast social psychology with two related fields outside of psychology (e.g., sociology, anthropology). 


 


 

 


 

 

195. Outline the scientific method, describing each of the different steps involved. 


 


 

 


 

 

196. Compare and contrast the experimental method with the correlational method. How do these two approaches differ, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each? 


 


 

 


 

 

197. According to the textbook, is most social psychological research high in external validity? Why or why not? How big of a problem is cultural relativity for social psychology as a field, and what steps are researchers taking to address it? 


 


 

 


 

 

198. Explain the self-correcting nature of science. 


 


 

 


 

 
Chapter 1--The Mission and the Method Key


 

1. In one of the first social psychological experiments ever conducted, researcher Norman Triplett examined the records of teams of cyclists. He found that cyclists who raced against each other _____ than those who raced alone (against the clock). 


A. were more aggressive after the race
B. got into more accidents


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