Chapter 02 Neuroscience and Behavior Multiple Choice Questions



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Full file at http://TestbankCollege.eu/Test-Bank-Essentials-of-Understanding-Psychology-9th-Edition-Feldman

Chapter 02

Neuroscience and Behavior

 

 




Multiple Choice Questions
 

1. (p. 50) Alison has developed an interest in how the brain controls the body's voluntary action. You suggest that she become a(n): 


A. genetic psychologist
B. behavioral neuroscientist
C. evolutionary psychologist
D. clinical neuropsychologist

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 10.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate
 

2. (p. 51) The fundamental units of the nervous system are nerve cells, called: 


A. axons
B. glial cells
C. neurons
D. neurotransmitters

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

3. (p. 51) The nervous system contains not only neurons, but also other cells called: 


A. axons
B. glial cells
C. dendrites
D. myelin cells

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
4. (p. 51) Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of glial cells? 


A. They nourish nerve cells.
B. They communicate messages within the nervous system.
C. They help repair damage that might occur to neurons.
D. All of these are functions of glial cells.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

5. (p. 51) Perhaps the main reason that neurons can communicate over relatively great distances within the body is the fact that neurons contain: 


A. a long axon
B. a large cell body
C. many dendrites
D. a variety of neurotransmitters

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

6. (p. 51) The branch-like fibers extending in clusters from the neuron's cell body are called: 


A. axons
B. terminal buttons
C. glial fibers
D. dendrites

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
7. (p. 51) Compare your forearm, hand, and fingers to a neuron. In such an analogy, the dendrites would be your: 


A. forearm
B. fingers
C. hand
D. knuckles

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic
 

8. (p. 51) An axon is a(n): 


A. neuron's cell body
B. branch-like fiber extending in clusters from a neuron's cell body
C. support cell in the nervous system
D. long, tubelike structure extending from a neuron's cell body

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

9. (p. 51) Compare your forearm, hand, and fingers to a neuron. In such an analogy, the axon would be your: 


A. forearm
B. fingers
C. hand
D. knuckles

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic

 
10. (p. 51) Dendrite is to axon as _________ is to _________. 


A. receiving; sending
B. sending; receiving
C. reuptake; action potential
D. action potential; reuptake

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Basic
 

11. (p. 51) Which structures are especially important for communication between one neuron and another? 


A. axons only
B. dendrites only
C. axons and dendrites
D. axons, dendrites, and glia

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

12. (p. 51) Terminal buttons are found at the ends of: 


A. cell bodies
B. dendrites
C. axons
D. glial cells

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
13. (p. 51-52) Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges nervous system structures from the most general to the most specific? 


A. neuron à axon à terminal button
B. neuron à terminal button à axon
C. axon à terminal button à neuron
D. axon à neuron à terminal button

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

14. (p. 51-52) Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another? 


A. dendrite à axon à cell body
B. dendrite à cell body à axon
C. axon à cell body à dendrite
D. axon à dendrite à cell body

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

15. (p. 52) Electrical wires are generally protected by a tube of plastic. A similar insulating function is performed in the nervous system by: 


A. myelin
B. glial cells
C. terminal buttons
D. None of these

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate

 
16. (p. 53) Regarding action potentials, which of the following statements is FALSE? 


A. Action potentials can travel at different speeds along different axons.
B. Along a given axon, some action potentials are stronger than others.
C. Some neurons can fire action potentials at faster rates than other neurons can.
D. All of these are actually true.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Difficult
 

17. (p. 52) You cannot fire a gun softly, or flush a toilet halfway. Like an action potential, gun fire and a toilet's flush follow the __________ law. 


A. on-or-off
B. graded action
C. all-or-none
D. binary response

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic
 

18. (p. 53) As an action potential occurs, the neuron's electrical charge: 


A. changes from negative to more negative
B. changes from positive to more positive
C. changes from negative to positive
D. changes from positive to negative

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate

 
19. (p. 54) In the Development chapter, you will learn that even very young infants can imitate an adult's facial expressions of emotion. As adults, we have no trouble understanding what a friend means to do on the basis of a simple gesture. These abilities reflect the operation of: 


A. mirror neurons
B. synaptic axons
C. terminal buttons
D. reflexive dendrites

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

20. (p. 54) Regarding mirror neurons, which of the following statements is ACCURATE? 


A. Mirror neurons are involved in face recognition and language acquisition, but not in empathy.
B. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and face recognition, but not in language acquisition.
C. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy, language acquisition, and face recognition.
D. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and language acquisition, but not in face recognition.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Difficult
 

21. (p. 55-56) Intraneuron is to interneuron as ________ communication is to __________ communication. 


A. chemical; electrical
B. electrical; chemical
C. electrical; mechanical
D. mechanical; chemical

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate

 
22. (p. 55) A synapse is a(n): 


A. chemical
B. signal
C. joint
D. gap

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

23. (p. 55) Regarding neurotransmission, which of the following statements is TRUE? 


A. Neurotransmitters always increase the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
B. Neurotransmitters may decrease the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
C. A given neuron's dendrites receive either only excitatory or only inhibitory messages.
D. Both B and C are true.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Difficult
 

24. (p. 56) Cocaine causes the neurotransmitter dopamine to remain at the site of the synapse longer than it normally would; cocaine thus inhibits the process termed: 


A. recycling
B. reabsorption
C. reuptake
D. reuse

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic

 
25. (p. 57) The neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in: 


A. attention and learning
B. Parkinson's disease
C. schizophrenia
D. All of these

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

26. (p. 57) Which neurotransmitter is INCORRECTLY described? 


A. acetylcholine—transmits messages related to skeletal muscles
B. GABA—an excitatory neurotransmitter inhibited by alcohol or tranquilizers
C. serotonin—helps regulate sleep and mood
D. Both A and C are incorrectly matched.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

27. (p. 57) Which neurotransmitter is CORRECTLY matched with a psychological function? 


A. relief of pain —glutamate
B. regulates mood —endorphins
C. facilitates learning —dopamine
D. contributes to memory —serotonin

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate

 
28. (p. 57) Which disorder is CORRECTLY paired with an associated neurotransmitter? 


A. Parkinson's disease; dopamine
B. depression; glutamate
C. schizophrenia; serotonin
D. Alzheimer's disease; endorphins

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

29. (p. 57) Inhibitory is to excitatory as _______ is to _______. 


A. glutamate; GABA
B. glutamate; acetylcholine
C. GABA; acetylcholine
D. endorphins; GABA

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Difficult
 

30. (p. 60) Which expression below most closely approximates the number of neural connections in the brain? 


A. 1016
B. 1,000,000
C. one billion
D. 1 X 1012

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 7.3
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate

 
31. (p. 60) In what way does the endocrine system differ from the nervous system? 


A. The endocrine system sends chemical messages; the nervous system does not.
B. The endocrine system sends electrical messages; the nervous system does not.
C. The endocrine system involves the circulatory system; the nervous system does not.
D. Both A and C

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

32. (p. 60-62) At the broadest level, the nervous system is divided into the _________ and the _______ nervous systems. 


A. primary; secondary
B. somatic; autonomic
C. sympathetic; parasympathetic
D. central; peripheral

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Basic
 

33. (p. 60) The brain and the spinal cord constitute the _________ nervous system. 


A. central
B. peripheral
C. primary
D. autonomic

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
34. (p. 60) Automatic, involuntary responses to stimuli are termed: 


A. action potentials
B. conditioned responses
C. instincts
D. reflexes

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

35. (p. 60) Regarding the spinal cord's control of behavior, which of the following is TRUE? 


A. The spinal cord cannot control any behaviors without the help of the brain.
B. The spinal cord is not involved in reflexes.
C. The spinal cord can control some simple reflexes without the brain's help.
D. The spinal cord can sometimes control relatively complex behavior without the brain's help.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

36. (p. 62) Sensory is to motor as _______ is to ________. 


A. efferent; afferent
B. afferent; efferent
C. afferent; interneuron
D. interneuron; efferent

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Difficult

 
37. (p. 62) Imagine a large city in which a downtown business district is linked to outlying suburbs by a system of subway trains. The spinal cord's afferent neurons may be likened to the system's ________ trains; the spinal cord's efferent neurons are analogous to the _______ trains. 


A. local; express
B. outbound; inbound
C. express; local
D. inbound; outbound

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Difficult
 

38. (p. 62) Within the reflex circuit, it is the ______ that allows the spinal cord to control certain reflexes without the brain's help. 


A. motor neuron
B. sensory neuron
C. interneuron
D. d, autoneuron

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Difficult
 

39. (p. 62) The two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the _______ and _______ divisions. 


A. somatic; autonomic
B. sympathetic; parasympathetic
C. afferent; efferent
D. sensory; motor

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate

 
40. (p. 60-62) The central nervous system consists of _____________. The peripheral nervous system comprises _____________. 


A. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
B. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the brain and the spinal cord
C. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
D. the brain and the spinal cord; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

41. (p. 62) Somatic is to autonomic as _______ is to _______. 


A. involuntary; voluntary
B. voluntary; involuntary
C. excitation; rest
D. rest; excitation

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

42. (p. 62) Excitation is to rest as ______ is to ________. 


A. autonomic; somatic
B. somatic; autonomic
C. sympathetic; parasympathetic
D. parasympathetic; sympathetic

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate

 
43. (p. 62) Which of the following situations is most likely to involve the action of the parasympathetic nervous system? 


A. Brooke's finger accidentally grazes the hot iron; she immediately jerks her hand away.
B. After a satisfying evening meal, Callum relaxes in front of the television.
C. Walking toward her car in a deserted parking garage one night, Danica is surprised by a strange man appearing from nowhere.
D. None of these

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Difficult
 

44. (p. 62) Izzy's pupils are dilated and her heart is pounding; her breathing is shallow and rapid. Her _________ nervous system is active. 


A. parasympathetic
B. sympathetic
C. autosympathetic
D. somatic

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic
 

45. (p. 62) With respect to its potential basis in nervous system activity, "voodoo death" has been attributed to: 


A. an overactive sympathetic nervous system
B. an overactive parasympathetic nervous system
C. the cessation of sympathetic nervous system responses
D. an understimulated central nervous system

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate

 
46. (p. 63) Which of the following terms best describes the organization of the nervous system? 


A. linear
B. recursive
C. hierarchical
D. random

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

47. (p. 64) For which of the following domains of thought and behavior have behavioral geneticists identified a genetic component? 


A. cognitive abilities
B. personality traits
C. sexual orientation
D. All of these

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

48. (p. 64) Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the relative sizes of the components of the human genome, ordered from smallest to largest? 


A. DNA à gene à chromosome
B. DNA à chromosome à gene
C. gene à chromosome à DNA
D. gene à DNA à chromosome

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Basic

 
49. (p. 64) Which of the following terms is CORRECTLY paired with its description? 


A. chromosome - chemical elements making up genes
B. DNA - inherited material controlling the transmission of traits
C. genome - a map of the human genetic makeup
D. gene - a rod-shaped structure transmitting genetic information across generations

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

50. (p. 64) Genes with a known location are termed _________. The term _________ is used to refer to the map of the total human genetic makeup. 


A. genomes; marker
B. markers; genome
C. chromosomes; genome
D. chromosomes; marker

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

51. (p. 64) With respect to the basis of thought and behavior, your text suggests that: 


A. much of our behavior has a genetic component
B. certain behaviors may be linked to specific genes
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic

 
52. (p. 63-65) Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the degree of specialization of fields within biological psychology, ordered from the broadest to the most specific? 


A. evolutionary psychology à molecular genetics à behavioral genetics
B. evolutionary psychology à behavioral genetics à molecular genetics
C. molecular genetics à behavioral genetics à evolutionary psychology
D. molecular genetics à evolutionary psychology à behavioral genetics

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 10.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

53. (p. 64-65) Dr. Schilling is investigating the potential genetic basis of antisocial personality disorder by examining the relative prevalence of the disorder among either identical or fraternal twins, raised either together or in different families. Her colleague, Dr. Figueroa, is investigating potential genetic markers of the disorder. Dr. Schilling is best described as a(n) ________; Dr. Figueroa, as a(n) ________. 


A. behavioral geneticist; molecular geneticist
B. molecular geneticist; behavioral geneticist
C. behavioral geneticist; behavioral geneticist as well
D. molecular geneticist; molecular geneticist as well

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2, 10.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate
 

54. (p. 64-65) Your text notes that children with a specific gene variant are twice as likely as other children are to develop autism. However, only one-half of one percent of those with the variant develop autism, and three-fifths of those with autism do not have the gene variant. These results: 


A. generally affirm the enterprise of molecular genetics
B. largely discredit the enterprise of molecular genetics
C. pose a challenge for molecular geneticists
D. give me a migraine

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 3.1, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Difficulty: Difficult

 
55. (p. 65) Dr. Ewing is advising a young woman about the risks involved in a potential pregnancy, based on the woman's age and the hereditary illnesses present in her family and that of her husband. Dr. Ewing is a: 


A. genetic counselor
B. genetic therapist
C. behavior therapist
D. behavioral counselor

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 4.4, 10.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

56. (p. 65) Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between the central nervous system and the endocrine system? 


A. They operate entirely independently.
B. The endocrine system is part of the central nervous system.
C. The endocrine system is linked to the central nervous system.
D. The central nervous system is one portion of the endocrine system.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

57. (p. 66) The endocrine system is linked to the _________ in the brain, via the _______ gland. 


A. hippocampus; adrenal
B. hippocampus; pituitary
C. hypothalamus; adrenal
D. hypothalamus; pituitary

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate

 
58. (p. 65-66) Which of the following sequences reflects the order in which nervous and endocrine system structures respond to the environment, from first to last? 


A. hypothalamus à pituitary gland à endocrine glands
B. hypothalamus à endocrine glands à pituitary gland
C. pituitary gland à endocrine glands à hypothalamus
D. pituitary gland à hypothalamus à endocrine glands

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

59. (p. 66) Which of the following glands or structures is CORRECTLY matched with the hormone it produces? 


A. pineal gland; oxytocin
B. pancreas; insulin
C. medulla; melatonin
D. pituitary gland; aldosterone

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

60. (p. 66) Which of the following hormones is CORRECTLY matched with its function? 


A. aldosterone - regulates daily rhythms
B. erythropoietin - regulates the sodium and potassium balance in the blood
C. adipokines - regulate the production of red blood cells
D. parathyroid hormone - increases blood calcium

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Difficult

 
61. (p. 66) The hormone oxytocin has been implicated in each of the following behaviors EXCEPT: 


A. the urge to nurse newborn infants
B. the desire to seek or respond to potential sexual partners
C. the development of trust in others
D. violent, dangerous behavior

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

62. (p. 67) Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding hormone replacement therapy as a treatment for menopausal symptoms? 


A. It is used less frequently now than in the past.
B. It has never been successful.
C. Its benefits outweigh its risks.
D. It has become increasingly popular.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

63. (p. 67) Your friend is considering using steroids to increase muscle mass. You would warn him that steroid abuse can lead to: 


A. violent, dangerous behavior
B. cancer
C. heart attacks
D. All of these

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 3.1, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic

 
64. (p. 69-70) Which of the following is NOT a brain-scanning technique? 


A. electroencephalogram (EEG)
B. electromyogram (EMG)
C. positron emission tomography (PET)
D. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

65. (p. 69-70) Which brain-imaging technique below is CORRECTLY matched with its description? 


A. EEG—records the brain's electrical activity with scalp electrodes
B. PET—produces a momentary interruption of the brain's electrical activity
C. fMRI—traces biochemical activity in the brain
D. TMS—traces the activity of individual neural circuits

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

66. (p. 69-70) Which brain-imaging technique below is INCORRECTLY matched with its diagnostic use? 


A. EEG—facilitates the diagnosis of epilepsy and learning disorders
B. PET—may help identify brain tumors
C. fMRI—improves diagnosis of strokes, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease
D. Actually, each of these is correctly matched.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Basic

 
67. (p. 69-70) Brent is taking part in an experiment in the cognitive neuroscience lab on campus. Silently, he reads rapid sequences of words flashed on a computer screen. Simultaneously, the electrical activity of his brain is recorded through skull electrodes. The brain scanning technique used in this study is: 


A. fMRI
B. PET
C. EEG
D. TMS

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate
 

68. (p. 70-71) Marisol is trying a new treatment for severe depression. Brief pulses are sent through her brain. Marisol is undergoing: 


A. optogenetic therapy
B. transcrania magnetic stimulation
C. positron emission tomography
D. functional magnetic resonance imaging

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate
 

69. (p. 70-71) Currently, the newest brain-scanning technique in widespread use is probably: 


A. PET
B. EEG
C. TMS
D. fMRI

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic

 
70. (p. 71) Soon, it may be possible to view the activity of individual neural circuits, thanks to newly developing technology called: 


A. optogenetics
B. synaptic reflectance
C. neurogenetics
D. transcranial magnetic stimulation

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

71. (p. 72) Brain-computer interfaces are: 


A. the stuff of science fiction
B. so 2009—I already have two iBrains—version 2.0!
C. in existence, but still too experimental for practical use
D. available in Asia but only to the rich

 


APA Goal: Outcome 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

72. (p. 72) Which of the following is NOT among the drawbacks of current thought-based interfaces? 


A. They operate slowly.
B. They cannot be adapted to novel uses.
C. Their use requires extensive training.
D. The technology is at a very rudimentary stage.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate

 
73. (p. 71-73) Which of the following structures is NOT part of the brain's central core? 


A. hippocampus
B. cerebellum
C. pons
D. reticular formation

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

74. (p. 73) The hindbrain includes each of the following structures EXCEPT the: 


A. medulla
B. thalamus
C. pons
D. cerebellum

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

75. (p. 73) The part of brain closest to the spinal cord is the _________; it is important for such functions as __________. 


A. cerebellum; movement and motor coordination
B. cerebellum; heart rate and respiration
C. medulla; movement and motor coordination
D. medulla; heart rate and respiration

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate

 
76. (p. 73) The pons serves to: 


A. regulate arousal
B. relay sensory information to the brain's association areas
C. integrate movement between the left and right halves of the body
D. consolidate memories

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

77. (p. 71) Ultimately extending from the medulla into the forebrain, the _______ functions to increase or decrease the brain's arousal in response to external stimulation. 


A. reticular formation
B. thalamus
C. cerebellum
D. limbic system

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

78. (p. 71) Your text states that the cerebellum is found just above the medulla and behind the pons. That is, the cerebellum is ______ to the medulla and _______ to the pons. 


A. inferior; anterior
B. inferior; posterior
C. superior; anterior
D. superior; posterior

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate

 
79. (p. 71) Yves has been drinking. He has difficulty walking a straight line when asked to do so by a police officer. Apparently, Yves' _________ is functioning poorly. 


A. thalamus
B. cerebellum
C. corpus callosum
D. reticular formation

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate
 

80. (p. 73) The thalamus may be likened to a(n): 


A. amplifier
B. receiver
C. filter
D. transmitter

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

81. (p. 73) Information travels from our sensory receptors to the _______ in the brain, which relays it to higher association areas. 


A. thalamus
B. cerebellum
C. hypothalamus
D. amygdala

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
82. (p. 73) The hypothalamus is located immediately ________ the thalamus. 


A. superior to
B. inferior to
C. below
D. Either B or C: They mean the same thing.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
 

83. (p. 73) Pizza! Beer! Sex! Our motivation or drive for such things is based in part on the activity of the brain region known as the: 


A. hypothalamus
B. thalamus
C. hippocampus
D. amygdala

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic
 

84. (p. 73) The hypothalamus: 


A. maintains homeostasis
B. regulates survival-directed behavior
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
85. (p. 73) The __________ in the brain contributes to the body's maintenance of a steady internal physiological state, called __________. 


A. hippocampus; homeostasis
B. hypothalamus; homeostasis
C. hippocampus; equilibrium
D. hypothalamus; equilibrium

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Moderate
 

86. (p. 73-74) The limbic system contains each of the following structures EXCEPT the: 


A. amygdala
B. medulla
C. hippocampus
D. Actually, the limbic system contains all of these structures.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

87. (p. 73-74) Which limbic system structure below is INCORRECTLY matched with the potential effects of damage to the structure? 


A. amygdala—unusual emotional or aggressive behavior
B. hippocampus—difficulties in learning and memory
C. Neither A nor B is incorrectly matched.
D. Both A and B are incorrectly matched.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate

 
88. (p. 73-74) The amygdala is to emotion as the hippocampus is to: 


A. memory
B. movement
C. decision making
D. vision

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Basic
 

89. (p. 74) Darnell underwent surgery to control his severe epilepsy. Now, however, Darnell cannot form new memories of his experiences, although he does remember events in the past. Most likely, the surgery destroyed a portion of the ______ in Darnell's brain. 


A. amygdala
B. striatum
C. hypothalamus
D. hippocampus

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate
 

90. (p. 74) The "new brain" is the: 


A. hindbrain
B. limbic system
C. cerebral cortex
D. central core

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
91. (p. 74-75) Which of the following sequences correctly identifies and orders the lobes of the cortex, from anterior to posterior? 


A. frontal à temporal and parietal à posterior
B. occipital à temporal and parietal à frontal
C. frontal à occipital à temporal and parietal
D. frontal à temporal and parietal à occipital

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

92. (p. 75) Anterior to the parietal lobe is the frontal lobe; inferior to it is the _______ lobe. 


A. occipital
B. temporal
C. dorsal
D. posterior

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

93. (p. 75) In which lobe is motor cortex located? 


A. occipital
B. frontal
C. parietal
D. temporal

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
94. (p. 75) In a neurophysiological investigation, a monkey makes an involuntary gesture when a portion of its brain is electrically stimulated. The area of the brain that was most likely stimulated is the: 


A. anterior portion of the parietal lobe
B. posterior portion of the frontal lobe
C. anterior portion of the frontal lobe
D. posterior portion of the occipital lobe

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

95. (p. 76) Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the amount of motor cortex devoted to the control of a particular movement and the degree of precision required by the movement? 


A. There is no relationship.
B. There is only a weak relationship.
C. There is a positive correlation.
D. There is a negative correlation.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.3
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Difficult
 

96. (p. 76) Somatosensory cortex is to auditory cortex as the _______ lobe is to the _______ lobe. 


A. temporal; parietal
B. parietal; occipital
C. occipital; parietal
D. parietal; temporal

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Basic

 
97. (p. 77) Your text states that "the greater the [cortical] area devoted to a specific area of the body . . . the more sensitive that area of the body." Which of the following alternatives best expresses the quoted phrase in terms of a correlation coefficient? 


A. 1.00
B. .00
C. > .00 and < 1.00
D. > -1.00 and < .00

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.3
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Difficult
 

98. (p. 77) In a rollerblading mishap, Wendy fell down and injured the very back of her head. Which of her senses is most likely impaired? 


A. hearing
B. vision
C. taste
D. touch

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic
 

99. (p. 77) The brain injury suffered by 19th-century railroad worker Phineas Gage allowed psychologists to learn about the functions of the brain's: 


A. association areas
B. central core
C. limbic system
D. sensory areas

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic

 
100. (p. 77) Which of the following is NOT an executive function? 


A. recalling information
B. setting goals
C. controlling impulses
D. making moral judgments

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

101. (p. 77-78) Broca's area is to Wernicke's area as _______ is to ________. 


A. reading; speaking
B. reading; writing
C. language comprehension; language production
D. language production; language comprehension

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

102. (p. 77) Violet's speech is slow and labored; however, she can understand the speech of others. Violet suffers from: 


A. Broca's aphasia
B. Wernicke's aphasia
C. either Broca's or Wernicke's aphasia
D. neither Broca's or Wernicke's aphasia

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate

 
103. (p. 77-78) Warren suffers from Wernicke's aphasia. Which of the following deficits should he experience in thought or behavior? 


A. Warren should experience an inability to recognize faces.
B. Warren should have difficulty recognizing objects visually.
C. Warren should have trouble producing fluent speech.
D. Warren should experience difficulty understanding language.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate
 

104. (p. 78) The process by which the brain reorganizes itself throughout development is termed: 


A. neurogenesis
B. neuroplasticity
C. neuroadaptation
D. neuromutability

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

105. (p. 78) Which of the following statements BEST expresses the relationship between neuroplasticity and neurogenesis? 


A. Neurogenesis is an example of neuroplasticity.
B. Neuroplasticity is an example of neurogenesis.
C. Neurogenesis is the same process as neuroplasticity.
D. Neuroplasticity is unrelated to neurogenesis.

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis
Difficulty: Moderate

 
106. (p. 78) According to your text, neurogenesis is especially evident in brain areas related to learning and memory. Based on this statement, you might expect neurogenesis to be particularly prevalent in the brain's: 


A. thalamus
B. cerebellum
C. hippocampus
D. hypothalamus

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

107. (p. 78) Based on your text's discussion of the effects of specific experience on information processing, which of the following conclusions is probably MOST valid? 


A. Specific experience has no effect on the way the brain processes information.
B. Specific experience has only a minimal effect on the way the brain processes information.
C. Specific experience has very definite, specific effects on the way the brain processes information.
D. Specific experience has broad, general effects on the way the brain processes information.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 3.1
Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluation
Difficulty: Moderate
 

108. (p. 78) The use of stem cells to stimulate dopamine production appears to be a promising treatment for which of the following disorders? 


A. multiple sclerosis
B. Alzheimer's disease
C. schizophrenia
D. Parkinson's disease

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic

 
109. (p. 79) The use of stem cells in research and treatment remains controversial because stem cells come from: 


A. nonhuman species
B. aborted fetuses
C. genetic engineering in the laboratory
D. paid adult donors

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 4.4, 4.5
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
 

110. (p. 79-80) Which of the following statements is most accurate with respect to the lateralization of language among right-handers? 


A. It is most likely left-lateralized.
B. It is most likely right-lateralized.
C. The control of language is shared equally between the hemispheres.
D. No generalization can be made: The lateralization of language varies dramatically from one person to another.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
 

111. (p. 79-80) Trevor is scratching his head, trying desperately to solve a verbal analogy as part of a standardized entrance examination; Sienna, meanwhile, is giving an oral presentation in a political science class. Of the brain's hemispheres, Trevor's _______ hemisphere is most active; Sienna's _______ hemisphere is most active. 


A. right; right
B. left; left
C. right; left
D. left; right

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate

 
112. (p. 80) Kate has suffered right-hemisphere damage. Which of the following processes is LEAST likely to be affected? 


A. achieving feng shui in her living room by rearranging the couch and the TV
B. balancing her checkbook
C. reading that look on her boyfriend's face
D. thinking that a new song on the radio is really catchy

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate
 

113. (p. 80) The left and right hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the: 


A. corpus callosum
B. corpus cerebellum
C. central sulcus
D. information superhighway

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge
Difficulty: Basic
 

114. (p. 80) Ramona is a woman. Stefan is a man. Which of the following statements is most likely TRUE regarding potential differences in the corpus callosum between these two individuals? 


A. Stefan's corpus callosum is probably the same size as Ramona's.
B. Ramona's corpus callosum may be larger than Stefan's.
C. Ramona's corpus callosum may be slightly smaller than Stefan's.
D. Ramona's corpus callosum may be quite a bit smaller than Stefan's.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 5.5, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Moderate

 
115. (p. 81) Which of the following generalizations is probably most accurate regarding potential gender differences in the lateralization of language? 


A. No gender differences in the lateralization of language have been found.
B. Language is more strongly left-lateralized among females than among males.
C. Language is more strongly left-lateralized among males than among females.
D. No generalization may be made: The lateralization of language is too variable from one person to another.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 5.5, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

116. (p. 81) Potential gender differences in the lateralization of language: nature or nurture? 


A. Nature. It boils down to brain anatomy. The corpus callosum is proportionately larger in females than in males.
B. Nurture. Parents give baby girls more encouragement to talk than they do baby boys, fostering brain development in certain areas.
C. Neither A nor B is right.
D. Either A or B

 


APA Goal: Outcome Outcomes 1.2, 5.5, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Moderate
 

117. (p. 81) Imagine a study of potential cultural differences in the lateralization of language. Three participant groups are tested: native monolingual English speakers, native monolingual Japanese speakers, and native English speakers who acquired Japanese as a second language. Which of the following might be the study's dependent variable? 


A. the participant group
B. some measure of brain activity in the left hemisphere
C. some measure of the difference in brain activity between the two hemispheres
D. Either B or C would be an appropriate dependent variable.

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 2.2, 5.5, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Difficult

 
118. (p. 81) Roger Sperry's Nobel Prize-winning split-brain investigations: 


A. offered a way for psychologists to study the operation of each hemisphere
B. included a combination of case study and experimental techniques
C. offered mainly correlational data
D. Both A and B

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Synthesis
Difficulty: Moderate
 

119. (p. 83) Mrs. Simon has learned to lessen the pain associated with her migraine headaches by voluntarily relaxing specific muscles and reducing her blood pressure. This example illustrates: 


A. deep-brain stimulation
B. biofeedback
C. split-brain control
D. transcranial stimulation

 


APA Goal: Outcomes 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Application
Difficulty: Basic
 

120. (p. 83) Biofeedback procedures have proven successful in treating: 


A. physical problems
B. difficulties that are mainly emotional or mood-related
C. physical ailments with a psychological element
D. All of these

 


APA Goal: Outcome 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension
Difficulty: Basic
 

 



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