Chapter 02 Neuroscience and Behavior Multiple Choice Questions


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Fill in the Blank Questions
 

113. (p. 52) The _____ is an insulating coat of fat and protein wrapped around an axon. 


myelin sheath

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

114. (p. 52) According to the _____ law neurons are either on or off. 


all-or-none

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

115. (p. 54) At the cellular level, our ability to empathize with others may reflect the activity of _____ neurons. 


mirror

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

116. (p. 56) _____ is a chemical message that prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire. 


Inhibitory message

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3

 

117. (p. 58) After a long run, Aaron sometimes experiences a feeling of euphoria, a "runners' high" reflecting the activity of neurotransmitters called _____. 


endorphins

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3
 

118. (p. 62) _____ neurons transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system. 


Afferent

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Difficult
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

119. (p. 62) The somatic nervous system regulates voluntary movement; in contrast, the _____ nervous system underlies involuntary movement. 


autonomic

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

120. (p. 62-63) Arif's heart rate and respiration are slowing, and his dilated pupils are contracting. His _____ nervous system has become active. 


parasympathetic

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

121. (p. 63) _____ is the branch of psychology that seeks to identify how behavior is influenced and produced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. 


Evolutionary psychology

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

122. (p. 64) The tiny _____ gland is known as the "master gland." 


pituitary

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-2
 

123. (p. 69) A technique called _____ records the brain's electrical activity through electrodes. 


EEG (electroencephalogram)

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-1
 

124. (p. 69) Wilma has been experiencing memory difficulties, and her doctor is concerned that Wilma may have a brain tumor. He recommends a(n) _____ to confirm his diagnosis. 


PET (positron emission tomography)

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-1

 

125. (p. 70) Extending from the medulla, through the midbrain, into the forebrain is the _____, which serves to regulate general bodily arousal. 


reticular formation

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

126. (p. 72) Information travels from our sensory receptors to the _____ in the brain, which relays it to higher association areas. 


thalamus

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

127. (p. 73) The amygdala and hippocampus are found within the brain's _____ system. 


limbic

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

128. (p. 73) Epileptics have sometimes had portions of their limbic system removed. Subsequent memory problems may reflect damage to the _____. 


hippocampus

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

129. (p. 74) The cortex has four major sections called _____. 


lobes

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

130. (p. 75) The _____ area in the parietal lobe encompasses specific locations associated with the ability to perceive touch and pressure in a particular area of the body. 


somatosensory

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

131. (p. 77) New neurons are created even during adulthood, in a process called _____. 


neurogenesis

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

132. (p. 82) Vance has learned to voluntarily control the activation of his autonomic nervous system as part of the treatment for an anxiety disorder. This is an example of _____. 


biofeedback

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-4

 

 




Essay Questions
 

133. (p. 51-52) Draw a typical neuron and label its major parts accurately. Briefly identify the functions of the parts labeled on your diagram. 

The drawing should contain: (a) dendrites, which should appear as clusters of branchlike extensions from the cell body; (b) the cell body, which should appear as a roundish structure in the center of the diagram; (c) the axon, which should appear as a long tube extending from the cell body; and (d) myelin, which should appear bracketing portions of the axon. The diagram should also include a terminal button, a bulblike ending to the axon.
The function of the following structures should be described. Dendrites—receive information from other neurons. Axon—sends message to another neuron. Myelin—insulates one axon from another and speeds neural transmission.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 7.1
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

134. (p. 54) Briefly discuss what mirror neurons are, how they work and what implications this recent discovery may hold for future research. What are the evolutionary implications for mirror neurons existence? 

Mirror neurons are neurons that fire not only when a person enacts a particular behavior but also when a person simply observes another individual carrying out the same behavior. Mirror neurons may help explain how (and why) humans have the capacity to understand others' intentions. Specifically, mirror neurons may fire when we view someone doing something, helping us to predict what their goals are and what they may do next.
The discovery of mirror neurons suggests that the capacity of even young children to imitate others may be an inborn behavior. Furthermore, mirror neurons may be at the root of empathy—those feelings of concern, compassion, and sympathy for others—and even the development of language in humans.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 7.1
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2

 

135. (p. 56-57) Outline the sequence of events that occurs at the synapse when a neural message is communicated. 



The answer should include the following steps in the sequence: (1) neurotransmitters are produced and stored in the axon. An action potential reaches the end of the axon, or the terminal button; (2) If an action potential arrives, the potential stimulates the release of neurotransmitter molecules from vesicles within the terminal button; (3) the neurotransmitter molecules float passively across the gap between the terminal button of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron; (4) the molecules fit into specialized receptor sites on the dendrites of the receiving neuron; making (5) the receiving neuron either more or less likely to produce its own action potential, depending on the neurotransmitter.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

136. (p. 56) What are neurotransmitters? 

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to a dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiving neuron. The chemical mode of message transmission that occurs between neurons is strikingly different from the means by which communication occurs inside neurons: Although messages travel in electrical form within a neuron, they move between neurons through a chemical transmission system.
There are several types of neurotransmitters, and not all neurons are capable of receiving the chemical message carried by a particular neurotransmitter. In the same way that a jigsaw puzzle piece can fit in only one specific location in a puzzle, each kind of neurotransmitter has a distinctive configuration that allows it to fit into a specific type of receptor site on the receiving neuron. It is only when a neurotransmitter fits precisely into a receptor site that successful chemical communication is possible.
If a neurotransmitter does fit into a site on the receiving neuron, the chemical message it delivers is basically one of two types: excitatory or inhibitory.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-3

 

137. (p. 57-58) Identify and describe any three neurotransmitters, using specific examples. 



Students' answers may vary.
The answer should include three of the following neurotransmitters. At least one of the functions or domains listed for each of the three neurotransmitters should be mentioned, ideally in a personalized example.

Acetylcholine—movement of skeletal muscles; memory


Glutamate—memory
GABA—eating and aggression; affected by alcohol
Dopamine—involved in movement, attention, learning and reinforcement
Serotonin—regulates sleep, mood, eating, depression
Endorphins—the brain's natural painkiller; may produce euphoric feelings

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3
 

138. (p. 57-58) Identify how abnormal levels of specific neurotransmitters may be involved in each of these disorders: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. 

The answer should include the following:

Alzheimer's disease - diminished production of acetylcholine


Parkinson's disease - abnormally low levels of dopamine
Schizophrenia - abnormally high levels of dopamine

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-3

 

139. (p. 62) Diagram and describe the peripheral nervous system. Make sure to include descriptions or examples that illustrate understanding. 



Students' examples may vary.
The peripheral nervous system branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body. Made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites, the peripheral nervous system encompasses all the parts of the nervous system other than the brain and spinal cord. There are two major divisions—the somatic division and the autonomic division—both of which connect the central nervous system with the sense organs, muscles, glands, and other organs.
The somatic division specializes in the control of voluntary movements—such as the motion of the eyes to read this sentence or those of the hand to turn this page—and the communication of information to and from the sense organs. The autonomic division controls the parts of the body that keep us alive—the heart, blood vessels, glands, lungs, and other organs that function involuntarily without our awareness.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

140. (p. 62-63) Distinguish between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. For each division, provide an example of a situation in which the division would become active. Describe the effects on several bodily processes of the activity of each division. 



Students' examples may vary.
The answer should contain the following information:

The sympathetic nervous system acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations by mobilizing the organism's resources to "fight" or "flee."


The parasympathetic nervous system acts to calm the body once a stressful situation or emergency has ended. It allows the body to store energy.
The sympathetic nervous system becomes active in such "fight-or-flight" situations as spotting a threatening stranger in a desolate parking garage, being involved in a near-accident on the road, and so on.
The parasympathetic nervous system becomes active in calm, restful situations such as relaxing after dinner or resting in bed before falling asleep.
Signs of sympathetic nervous system activity are increased heart rate, inhibited digestion, dilated pupils, shallow breathing.
Signs of parasympathetic nervous system activity are decreased heart rate, facilitated digestion, constricted pupils, slowed respiration.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

141. (p. 63-64) Define what evolutionary psychology. Using language as an example, describe how an evolutionary psychologist would explain, describe and study this function. 



Evolutionary psychology is the branch of psychology that seeks to identify how behavior is influenced and produced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. Evolutionary psychologists argue that the course of evolution is reflected in the structure and functioning of the nervous system and that evolutionary factors consequently have a significant influence on our everyday behavior. Their work, in conjunction with the research of scientists studying genetics, biochemistry, and medicine, has led to an understanding of how our behavior is affected by heredity, our genetically determined heritage. Evolutionary psychologists have spawned a new and increasingly influential field: behavioral genetics. Consistent with the evolutionary perspective, behavioral genetics researchers are finding increasing evidence that cognitive abilities, personality traits, sexual orientation, and psychological disorders are determined to some extent by genetic factors.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 4.5
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

142. (p. 65) Identify six components of the endocrine system. State the hormone(s) each component produces. Identify the functions of these hormones. 



Students' answers may vary.
The answer should mention several of the following:

Adrenal medulla: produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, which underlie the fight-or-flight response


Adrenal cortex: makes aldosterone, which regulates sodium and potassium balance in the blood
Pancreas: produces insulin
Posterior pituitary gland: secretes oxytocin, which facilitates birthing, bonding, and the development of trust
Pineal gland: produces melatonin, which regulates daily rhythms
Parathyroid gland: produces parathyroid hormone, which increases blood calcium
Thyroid gland: produces thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolism and growth
Ovaries: produce progesterone, which controls reproduction in females
Testes: produce testosterone, which controls reproduction in males

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-2
 

143. (p. 69-70) List and describe the brain imaging techniques. 

Three of the following techniques should be identified; a description of the diagnostic utility of each technique should follow.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)—facilitates the diagnosis of epilepsy and learning disabilities


Positron emission tomography (PET)—may help identify the presence of brain tumors
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)—has improved the diagnosis of many ailments, including strokes, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) imaging—may allow the treatment of certain psychological disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-1

 

144. (p. 70, 72) Identify and describe the "old brain" structures or areas. Illustrate the function of each area. 



The "old brain" is the brain's central core. Three of the following structures should be identified. Damage or deterioration should lead to impairment of the function listed for a given area.

Medulla regulates breathing and heart rate.


Pons regulates sleep; coordinates movement between the right and left sides of the body.
Cerebellum controls body balance; coordinates movement.
Reticular formation—regulates alertness; when awake, produces arousal to outside stimulation; when asleep, filters out distracting background stimuli.
Thalamus—acts as a relay station for information from the senses.
Hypothalamus—maintains homeostasis, a steady internal state for the body; produces and regulates survival-related behavior, such as eating, self-protection, and sex.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

145. (p. 80) Review recent research investigating the effects of gender and culture on brain structure and function. 



Young girls show earlier development in the frontal lobes, which control aggressiveness and language development. On the other hand, boys' brains develop faster in the visual region that facilitates visual and spatial tasks such as geometry. Furthermore, most males tend to show greater lateralization of language in the left hemisphere. For them, language is clearly relegated largely to the left side of the brain. In contrast, women display less lateralization, with language abilities apt to be more evenly divided between the two hemispheres. Such differences in brain lateralization may account, in part, for the superiority often displayed by females on certain measures of verbal skills, such as the onset and fluency of speech. Other research suggests that men's brains are somewhat bigger than women's brains even after taking differences in body size into account. In contrast, part of the corpus callosum, a bundle of fibers that connects the hemispheres of the brain, is proportionally larger in women than in men.
Culture also gives rise to differences in brain lateralization. Native speakers of Japanese seem to process information regarding vowel sounds primarily in the brain's left hemisphere. In contrast, North and South Americans, Europeans, and individuals of Japanese ancestry who learn Japanese later in life handle vowel sounds principally in the right hemisphere. One explanation for this difference is that certain characteristics of the Japanese language, such as the ability to express complex ideas by using only vowel sounds, result in the development of a specific type of brain lateralization in native speakers

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 5.5, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-3

 

146. (p. 82) What is biofeedback? Describe the procedure and identify some of the physical and psychological disorders where it is applied. 



Biofeedback is a procedure in which a person learns to control through conscious thought internal physiological processes such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, skin temperature, sweating, and the constriction of particular muscles. Although it traditionally had been thought that the heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, and other bodily functions are under the control of parts of the brain over which we have no influence, psychologists have discovered that these responses are actually susceptible to voluntary control.
In biofeedback, a person is hooked up to electronic devices that provide continuous feedback relating to the physiological response in question. For instance, someone trying to control headaches through biofeedback might have electronic sensors placed on certain muscles on her head and learn to control the constriction and relaxation of those muscles. Later, when she felt a headache starting, she could relax the relevant muscles and abort the pain.
Although the control of physiological processes through the use of biofeedback is not easy to learn, it has been employed with success in a variety of ailments, including emotional problems (such as anxiety, depression, phobias, tension headaches, insomnia, and hyperactivity), physical illnesses with a psychological component (such as asthma, high blood pressure, ulcers, muscle spasms, and migraine headaches), and physical problems.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-4
 

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