Chapter 02 Neuroscience and Behavior Multiple Choice Questions



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Chapter 02

Neuroscience and Behavior

 

 




Multiple Choice Questions
 

1. (p. 50) Psychologists who specialize in considering the ways in which the biological structures and functions of the body affect behavior are known as _____. 


A. genetic psychologists
B. biopsychologists
C. evolutionary psychologists
D. clinical neuropsychologists

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 10.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-1
 

2. (p. 50) Alison has developed an interest in the ways in which the biological structures and functions of the body affect behavior. She will most likely become a(n): 


A. genetic psychologist.
B. behavioral neuroscientist.
C. evolutionary psychologist.
D. clinical neuropsychologist.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 10.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-1
 

3. (p. 51) The basic elements of the nervous system are called: 


A. axons.
B. glial cells.
C. neurons.
D. neurotransmitters.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

4. (p. 51) As many as _____ neurons throughout the body are involved in the control of behaviour. 


A. 1 billion
B. 1 trillion
C. 5 million
D. 50 million

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

5. (p. 51) Neurons are physically held in place by _____. 


A. axons
B. glial cells
C. dendrites
D. myelin cells

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2

 

6. (p. 51) Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of glial cells? 


A. They nourish nerve cells.
B. They communicate messages within the nervous system.
C. They help repair damage that might occur to neurons.
D. They provide nourishment to neurons.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

7. (p. 51) A cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons is called: 


A. axon.
B. terminal button.
C. glial fiber.
D. dendrite.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

8. (p. 51) An axon is a(n): 


A. neuron's cell body.
B. cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron.
C. support cell in the nervous system.
D. long, slim, tubelike structure extending from a neuron.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2

 

9. (p. 51) Which of the following structures is especially important for carrying messages received by the dendrites to other neurons? 


A. Neurotransmitter
B. Synapse
C. Axon
D. Glial cell

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

10. (p. 51) Terminal buttons are found at the end of: 


A. neurotransmitters.
B. dendrites.
C. axons.
D. glial cells.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

11. (p. 51) Which of the following sequences correctly arranges nervous system structures from the most general to the most specific? 


A. Neuron  axon  terminal button
B. Neuron  terminal button  axon
C. Axon  terminal button  neuron
D. Axon  neuron  terminal button

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2

 

12. (p. 51) Dendrite is to axon what _____ is to _____. 


A. receiving; sending
B. sending; receiving
C. reuptake; action potential
D. action potential; reuptake

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

13. (p. 52) Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another? 


A. Dendrite  axon  cell body
B. Dendrite  cell body  axon
C. Cell body  axon  dendrite
D. Axon  dendrite  cell body

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

14. (p. 52) Electrical wires are generally protected by a tube of plastic. A similar insulating function is performed in the nervous system by the: 


A. myelin sheath.
B. glial cells.
C. terminal buttons.
D. synapse.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2

 

15. (p. 52) _____ is a protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon. 


A. Myelin sheath
B. Glial cell
C. Dendrite
D. Synapse

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

16. (p. 52) You cannot fire a gun softly, or flush a toilet halfway. Like an action potential, gun fire and a toilet's flush follow the _____ law. 


A. incremental transformation
B. graded action
C. all-or-none
D. intensity of stimulus

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

17. (p. 52) The rule that neurons are either on or off is known as the _____ law. 


A. intensity of stimulus
B. graded action
C. all-or-none
D. incremental transformational

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2

 

18. (p. 52) The state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron is known as the _____ state. 


A. triggering
B. terminal
C. optimum
D. resting

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

19. (p. 53) Regarding action potentials, which of the following statements is TRUE? 


A. As the impulse travels along the axon, the movement of ions causes a change in charge from positive to neutral in successive sections of the axon.
B. The action potential moves from one end of the axon to the other like a flame moving along a fuse.
C. After the impulse has passed through a particular section of the axon, negative ions are pumped out of that section, and its charge returns to positive while the action potential continues to move along the axon.
D. Just after an action potential has passed through a section of the axon, a neuron can fire again immediately if it receives appropriate stimulation.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

20. (p. 53) As an action potential occurs, the neuron's electrical charge: 


A. changes from negative to neutral.
B. changes from positive to neutral.
C. changes from negative to positive.
D. changes from positive to negative.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2

 

21. (p. 54) _____ are specialized neurons that fire not only when a person enacts a particular behavior, but also when a person simply observes another individual carrying out the same behavior. 


A. Pharyngeal motorneuron
B. Mirror neurons
C. Ventral cord motor neuron
D. Amphid neurons

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

22. (p. 54) Regarding mirror neurons, which of the following statements is ACCURATE? 


A. Mirror neurons are involved in face recognition and language acquisition, but not in empathy.
B. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and face recognition, but not in language acquisition.
C. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy, language acquisition, and face recognition.
D. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and language acquisition, but not in face recognition.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

23. (p. 55) A synapse is a(n): 


A. chemical.
B. signal.
C. joint.
D. gap.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2

 

24. (p. 55) _____ is the space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages. 


A. Synapse
B. Terminal button
C. Axon
D. Cell body

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-2
 

25. (p. 56) Which of the following statements regarding inhibitory messages is TRUE? 


A. Inhibitory messages always increase the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
B. Inhibitory messages decrease the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
C. The dendrites of a neuron cannot receive both excitatory and inhibitory messages simultaneously.
D. Inhibitory messages make it more likely that an action potential will travel down its axon.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3
 

26. (p. 56) The reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button is termed as: 


A. recycling.
B. reassertion.
C. reuptake.
D. reuse.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 5-3

 

27. (p. 57) Which neurotransmitter is described INCORRECTLY? 


A. Acetylcholine—transmits messages related to skeletal muscles
B. GABA—an excitatory neurotransmitter inhibited by alcohol or tranquilizers
C. Serotonin—helps regulate sleep and mood
D. Glutamate—plays a role in memory

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3
 

28. (p. 58) The neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in: 


A. the brain's effort to deal with pain.
B. Alzheimer's disease.
C. the regulation of sleep, eating, mood, and pain.
D. movement, attention, and learning.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3
 

29. (p. 58) Which neurotransmitter is CORRECTLY matched with a psychological function? 


A. Relief of pain—glutamate
B. Regulates mood—acetylcholine
C. Facilitates learning—dopamine
D. Contributes to memory—serotonin

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3

 

30. (p. 58) Which disorder is CORRECTLY paired with an associated neurotransmitter? 


A. Parkinson's disease: dopamine
B. Depression: glutamate
C. Schizophrenia: serotonin
D. Alzheimer's disease: endorphins

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3
 

31. (p. 57) Inhibitory is to excitatory what _____ is to _____. 


A. glutamate; GABA
B. glutamate; acetylcholine
C. GABA; glutamate
D. endorphins; GABA

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 5-3
 

32. (p. 60) Which expression below most closely approximates the number of neural connections in the brain? 


A. 10 quadrillion
B. 1 million
C. 1 billion
D. 1 trillion

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 7.3
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

33. (p. 60) The nervous system is divided into the _____ and the _____ nervous systems. 


A. primary; secondary
B. somatic; autonomic
C. sympathetic; parasympathetic
D. central; peripheral

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

34. (p. 60) The brain and the spinal cord constitute the _____ nervous system. 


A. central
B. peripheral
C. extraneous
D. parasympathetic

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

35. (p. 60) _____ is an automatic, involuntary response to an incoming stimulus. 


A. Action potential
B. Intuition
C. Instinct
D. Reflex

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

36. (p. 60) The _____ is the main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body. 


A. cortex
B. medulla
C. axon
D. spinal cord

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Difficult
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

37. (p. 60) Which of the following is TRUE of the spinal cord's control of behavior? 


A. The spinal cord cannot control any behaviors without the help of the brain.
B. The spinal cord is not involved in reflexes.
C. The spinal cord can control some simple reflexes without the brain's help.
D. The spinal cord can control relatively complex behavior without the brain's help.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

38. (p. 60, 61) The central nervous system is composed of _____. The peripheral nervous system comprises _____. 


A. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
B. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the brain and the spinal cord
C. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
D. the brain and the spinal cord; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

39. (p. 62) Sensory is to motor what _____ is to _____. 


A. efferent; afferent
B. afferent; efferent
C. afferent; interneuron
D. interneuron; efferent

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

40. (p. 62) _____ are neurons that connect sensory and motor neurons, carrying messages between the two. 


A. Mirror neurons
B. Amphid neurons
C. Interneurons
D. Autoneurons

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

41. (p. 62) The two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the _____ and _____ divisions. 


A. somatic; autonomic
B. sympathetic; parasympathetic
C. afferent; efferent
D. sensory; motor

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

42. (p. 62) _____ is the part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs. 


A. Somatic division
B. Sympathetic division
C. Parasympathetic division
D. Autonomic division

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

43. (p. 62) Somatic is to autonomic what _____ is to _____. 


A. involuntary; voluntary
B. voluntary; involuntary
C. excitation; rest
D. rest; excitation

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

44. (p. 62) The part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organism's resources to respond to a threat is known as the _____. 


A. somatic division
B. sympathetic division
C. parasympathetic division
D. apathetic division

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

45. (p. 62) The "fight-or-flight" response is associated with the _____ division. 


A. somatic
B. sympathetic
C. parasympathetic
D. apathetic

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

46. (p. 62) The part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to calm the body after an emergency has ended is known as the _____ division. 


A. somatic
B. sympathetic
C. parasympathetic
D. apathetic

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

47. (p. 62) The _____ division also directs the body to store energy for use in emergencies. 


A. somatic
B. sympathetic
C. parasympathetic
D. apathetic

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

48. (p. 62) Which of the following situations is most likely to involve the action of the parasympathetic nervous system? 


A. Brooke's finger accidentally grazes the hot iron; she immediately jerks her hand away.
B. After mistaking her roommate for a thief, Callum relaxes with a glass of water.
C. Walking toward her car in a deserted parking lot one night, Danica is surprised by a strange man appearing from nowhere.
D. Peyton is preparing to go to bed and is alarmed to see a stranger at her window.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

49. (p. 62) With respect to its potential basis in nervous system activity, "voodoo death" has been attributed to: 


A. an overactive sympathetic nervous system.
B. an overactive parasympathetic nervous system.
C. the cessation of sympathetic nervous system responses.
D. an understimulated central nervous system.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

50. (p. 62) Izzy sees a leopard in her backyard. Her pupils are dilated and her heart is pounding; her breathing is shallow and rapid. Her _____ nervous system is active. 


A. parasympathetic
B. sympathetic
C. apathetic
D. somatic

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

51. (p. 63) Which of the following terms best describes the organization of the nervous system today? 


A. Linear
B. Recursive
C. Hierarchical
D. Random

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

52. (p. 63) The branch of psychology that seeks to identify behavior patterns that are a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors is known as _____. 


A. social psychology
B. health psychology
C. clinical psychology
D. evolutionary psychology

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

53. (p. 64) Evolutionary psychologists have spawned a new and increasingly influential field: 


A. social psychology.
B. health psychology.
C. molecular genetics.
D. behavioral genetics.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-1

 

54. (p. 64) The study of the effects of heredity on how people conduct themselves is known as _____. 


A. behavioral genetics
B. classical genetics
C. development genetics
D. molecular genetics

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 10.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

55. (p. 64) Dr. Schilling is investigating the potential genetic basis of antisocial personality disorder by examining the relative prevalence of the disorder among either identical or fraternal twins, raised either together or in different families. Dr. Schilling is best described as a _____. 


A. behavioral geneticist
B. classical geneticist
C. development geneticist
D. molecular geneticist

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2, 10.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-1
 

56. (p. 64) Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between the nervous system and the endocrine system? 


A. They operate entirely independently.
B. The endocrine system is part of the central nervous system.
C. The endocrine system influences and is influenced by the central nervous system.
D. The central nervous system is one part of the endocrine system.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-2

 

57. (p. 64) A key component of the endocrine system is the tiny _____ gland, which is found near—and regulated by—the _____ in the brain. 


A. adrenal; hippocampus
B. pituitary; hippocampus
C. adrenal; hypothalamus
D. pituitary; hypothalamus

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-2
 

58. (p. 64) The _____ gland is a major component of the endocrine system which secretes hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system. 


A. esophageal
B. apocrine
C. parotid
D. pituitary

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-2
 

59. (p. 64) The _____ gland has sometimes been called the "master gland" because it controls the functioning of the rest of the endocrine system. 


A. pituitary
B. esophageal
C. apocrine
D. parotid

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-2

 

60. (p. 64) The hormone oxytocin has been implicated in each of the following behaviors EXCEPT the: 


A. urge to nurse newborn infants.
B. desire to seek or respond to potential sexual partners.
C. development of trust in others.
D. tendency to produce violent, dangerous behavior.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 6-2
 

61. (p. 65) Which of the following glands or structures is CORRECTLY matched with the hormone it produces? 


A. Pineal gland; oxytocin
B. Pancreas; insulin
C. Medulla; melatonin
D. Pituitary gland; aldosterone

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-2
 

62. (p. 65) Which of the following hormones is CORRECTLY matched with its function? 


A. Aldosterone - regulates daily rhythms
B. Erythropoietin - regulates the sodium and potassium balance in the blood
C. Adipokines - regulate the production of red blood cells
D. Parathyroid hormone - increases blood calcium

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-2

 

63. (p. 65) Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding hormone replacement therapy as a treatment for menopausal symptoms? 


A. It is used less frequently now than in the past.
B. It is the only treatment that does not have any side effects.
C. Its benefits outweigh its risks.
D. It has become increasingly popular.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 6-2
 

64. (p. 68) Which of the following is NOT a brain scanning technique? 


A. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
B. Electromyogram (EMG)
C. Positron emission tomography (PET)
D. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-1
 

65. (p. 69) Which brain imaging technique below is CORRECTLY matched with its description? 


A. EEG—records the brain's electrical activity with electrodes
B. PET—causes a momentary interruption of the brain's electrical activity
C. fMRI—traces biochemical activity in the brain
D. TMS—produces a graph of electrical wave patterns

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-1

 

66. (p. 69) Which brain imaging technique below is INCORRECTLY matched with its diagnostic use? 


A. EEG—facilitates the diagnosis of epilepsy and learning disorders
B. PET—may help identify brain tumors
C. fMRI—improves diagnosis of strokes and multiple sclerosis
D. TMS—facilitates the diagnosis of nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-1
 

67. (p. 69) Brent is taking part in an experiment in the cognitive neuroscience lab on campus. Silently, he reads rapid sequences of words flashed on a computer screen. Simultaneously, the electrical activity of his brain is recorded through skull electrodes. The brain scanning technique used in this study is: 


A. fMRI.
B. PET.
C. EEG.
D. TMS.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-1
 

68. (p. 69) The newest brain scanning technique which is popularly used is: 


A. PET.
B. EEG.
C. TMS.
D. fMRI.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-1

 

69. (p. 70) Marisol is trying a new treatment for severe depression. Brief magnetic pulses are sent through her brain. Marisol is undergoing: 


A. optogenetic therapy.
B. transcranial magnetic stimulation.
C. positron emission tomography.
D. functional magnetic resonance imaging.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-1
 

70. (p. 70) Soon, it may be possible to view the activity of individual neural circuits, due to the emerging field of: 


A. optogenetics.
B. synaptic reflectance.
C. neurogenetics.
D. transcranial magnetic stimulation.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-1
 

71. (p. 70) Which of the following structures is NOT part of the brain's central core? 


A. Hippocampus
B. Cerebellum
C. Pons
D. Reticular formation

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-1

 

72. (p. 70) The hindbrain includes each of the following structures EXCEPT the: 


A. medulla.
B. thalamus.
C. pons.
D. cerebellum.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

73. (p. 70) The part of the brain closest to the spinal cord is the _____; it is important for such functions as _____. 


A. cerebellum; maintaining body temperature
B. cerebellum; heart rate and respiration
C. medulla; maintaining body temperature
D. medulla; heart rate and respiration

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

74. (p. 70) The pons serves to: 


A. regulate arousal.
B. relay sensory information to the brain's association areas.
C. integrate movement between the left and right halves of the body.
D. consolidate memories.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

75. (p. 70) The part of the brain that controls bodily balance is the _____. 


A. hypothalamus
B. thalamus
C. reticular formation
D. cerebellum

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

76. (p. 70) Yves has been drinking. He has difficulty walking a straight line when asked to do so by a police officer. Apparently, Yves' _____ is functioning poorly. 


A. thalamus
B. cerebellum
C. corpus callosum
D. reticular formation

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

77. (p. 70) The part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons and made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal is known as the _____. 


A. reticular formation
B. thalamus
C. cerebellum
D. limbic system

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

78. (p. 72) The thalamus may be likened to a(n): 


A. amplifier.
B. receiver.
C. filter.
D. relay station.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

79. (p. 72) The _____ is the part of the brain that is located in the middle of the central core and acts primarily to relay information about the senses. 


A. thalamus
B. cerebellum
C. hypothalamus
D. amygdala

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

80. (p. 72) The _____ is a tiny part of the brain that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior, such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior. 


A. medulla
B. cerebellum
C. amygdala
D. hypothalamus

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

81. (p. 72) Pizza! Beer! Sex! Our motivation or drive for such things is based on the activity of the brain region known as the: 


A. hypothalamus.
B. thalamus.
C. hippocampus.
D. amygdala.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

82. (p. 72) The _____ maintains a steady internal environment for the body. 


A. thalamus
B. amygdala
C. hypothalamus
D. hippocampus

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

83. (p. 72) The _____ in the brain contributes to the body's maintenance of a steady internal physiological state, called _____. 


A. thalamus; homeostasis
B. hypothalamus; homeostasis
C. hippocampus; equilibrium
D. thalamus; equilibrium

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

84. (p. 73) The limbic system contains which of the following structures? 


A. Amygdala
B. Pons
C. Thalamus
D. Corpus callosum

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

85. (p. 73) The structures of the _____ jointly control a variety of basic functions relating to emotions and self-preservation such as eating, aggression, and reproduction. 


A. central core of the brain
B. endocrine system
C. limbic system
D. cerebral cortex

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

86. (p. 73) Darnell underwent surgery to control his severe epilepsy. Now, however, Darnell cannot form new memories of his experiences, although he does remember events in the past. Most likely, the surgery destroyed a portion of the _____ in Darnell's brain. 


A. amygdala
B. striatum
C. medulla
D. hippocampus

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

87. (p. 73) The _____ is referred to as the "new brain." 


A. hindbrain
B. limbic system
C. cerebral cortex
D. central core

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

88. (p. 74) Which of the following sequences correctly identifies the orders of the lobes of the cortex, from anterior to posterior? 


A. Frontal  temporal and parietal  posterior
B. Occipital  temporal and parietal  frontal
C. Frontal  occipital  temporal and parietal
D. Frontal  temporal and parietal  occipital

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

89. (p. 74) In which lobe is the motor area located? 


A. Occipital
B. Frontal
C. Parietal
D. Temporal

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

90. (p. 75) The _____ area is part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body's voluntary movement. 


A. attribution
B. sensory
C. motor
D. association

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

91. (p. 75) In a neurophysiological investigation, a monkey makes an involuntary gesture when a portion of its brain is electrically stimulated. The area of the brain that was most likely stimulated is the: 


A. parietal lobe.
B. frontal lobe.
C. temporal lobe.
D. occipital lobe.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 2.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

92. (p. 75) The _____ area is the site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue. 


A. attribution
B. sensory
C. motor
D. association

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

93. (p. 75-76) The somatosensory area is to the auditory area what the _____ lobe is to the _____ lobe. 


A. temporal; parietal
B. parietal; occipital
C. occipital; parietal
D. parietal; temporal

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

94. (p. 76) The visual area in the cortex is located in the _____. 


A. frontal lobe
B. occipital lobe
C. temporal lobe
D. parietal lobe

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

95. (p. 76) The brain injury suffered by 19th-century railroad worker Phineas Gage allowed psychologists to learn about the functions of the brain's: 


A. association areas.
B. central core.
C. limbic system.
D. sensory areas.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

96. (p. 76) The _____ areas are considered to be the site of higher mental processes such as thinking, language, memory, and speech. 


A. sensory
B. attribution
C. motor
D. association

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

97. (p. 76) Which of the following is NOT an executive function? 


A. Recalling information
B. Setting goals
C. Controlling impulses
D. Making judgments

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

98. (p. 76) Violet's speech is slow and labored; however, she can understand others' speech. Violet has: 


A. Broca's aphasia.
B. Wernicke's aphasia.
C. dyslexia.
D. dyscalculia.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

99. (p. 76) Warren suffers from Wernicke's aphasia. Which of the following will he experience in thought or behavior? 


A. Warren will experience an inability to recognize faces.
B. Warren will have difficulty recognizing objects visually.
C. Warren will have trouble producing fluent speech.
D. Warren will experience difficulty understanding language.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

100. (p. 77) The process by which the brain reorganizes itself throughout development is termed: 


A. neuroformation.
B. neuroplasticity.
C. neuroadaptation.
D. neuromutability.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

101. (p. 77) _____ is the creation of new neurons. 


A. Neurogenesis
B. Neuroadaptation
C. Neuromutability
D. Neuropathy

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

102. (p. 73, 77) Neurogenesis is especially evident in brain areas related to learning and memory. Based on this statement, you might expect neurogenesis to be particularly prevalent in the brain's: 


A. thalamus.
B. cerebellum.
C. hippocampus.
D. hypothalamus.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

103. (p. 77) Which of the following is TRUE about the brain? 


A. New research has confirmed that no new brain cells are created after childhood.
B. The interconnections between neurons become less complex throughout life.
C. Specific experience can modify the way in which information is processed.
D. The brain does not have the ability to shift functions to different locations in cases of surgery.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 3.1
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-2
 

104. (p. 78) The use of stem cells in research and treatment remains controversial because stem cells come from: 


A. nonhuman species.
B. aborted fetuses.
C. genetic engineering in the laboratory.
D. paid adult donors.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 4.4, 4.5
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-2

 

105. (p. 79) Which of the following statements is most accurate with respect to the lateralization of language? 


A. It is most likely left-lateralized.
B. It is most likely right-lateralized.
C. The control of language is shared equally between the hemispheres.
D. The lateralization of language varies dramatically from one person to another.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-3
 

106. (p. 79) Trevor is scratching his head, trying desperately to solve a verbal analogy as part of a standardized entrance examination; Sienna, meanwhile, is giving an oral presentation in a political science class. Of the brain's hemispheres, Trevor's _____ hemisphere is most active; Sienna's _____ hemisphere is most active. 


A. right; right
B. left; left
C. right; left
D. left; right

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-3
 

107. (p. 79) Kate has suffered right-hemisphere damage. Which of the following processes is LEAST likely to be affected? 


A. Achieving feng shui in her living room by rearranging the couch and the TV
B. Balancing her checkbook
C. Reading that look on her boyfriend's face
D. Thinking that a new song on the radio is really catchy

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.4
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-3

 

108. (p. 80) The hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the: 


A. corpus callosum.
B. corpus cerebellum.
C. central sulcus.
D. cerebral cortex.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-3
 

109. (p. 80) Ramona is a woman. Stefan is a man. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding potential differences in the corpus callosum between these two individuals? 


A. Stefan's corpus callosum is probably the same size as Ramona's.
B. Ramona's corpus callosum is larger than Stefan's.
C. Ramona's corpus callosum is slightly smaller than Stefan's.
D. Stefan's corpus callosum is much larger than Ramona's.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 5.5, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-3
 

110. (p. 80) Which of the following generalizations is probably most accurate regarding potential gender differences in the lateralization of language? 


A. No gender differences in the lateralization of language have been found.
B. Language is more strongly left-lateralized among females than among males.
C. Language is more strongly left-lateralized among males than among females.
D. The lateralization of language is variable from one person to another.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 5.5, 8.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 7-3

 

111. (p. 80) People whose corpus callosum has been surgically cut to stop seizures are called _____. 


A. deep-brain patients
B. dual brain patients
C. split-brain patients
D. bicameral patients

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-4
 

112. (p. 82) Mrs. Simon has learned to lessen the pain associated with her migraine headaches by voluntarily relaxing specific muscles and reducing her blood pressure. This example illustrates: 


A. deep-brain stimulation.
B. biofeedback.
C. split-brain control.
D. transcranial stimulation.

 


APA Goal Outcome: 1.2, 4.2
Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 7-4

 

 





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