9. The different populations of all the species in a given area make up a(n)
10. Charles Darwin used _______________ to illustrate the mechanisms of natural selection.
A. artificial selection
C. natural history
11. Which of the following is NOT an underlying theme of biology?
B. Flow of energy
12. The __________ of flowering plants and insects is responsible for much of the diversity of these groups.
A. natural selection
C. artificial selection
D. natural history
13. Scientists employ __________________ at the very beginning of the scientific process.
14. After Joseph Farman discovered, in 1985, that an ozone hole was developing over Antarctica, scientists measured levels of chemicals in the upper atmosphere. They found a surprising concentration of ozone-destroying
15. The proper order for the scientific process is
16. The most inclusive group in taxonomy is a
17. In any experiment, one must be certain to
A. have a suitable control group.
B. wear lab coats and safety glasses.
C. have alternate theories at hand.
D. use clean glassware.
18. We have all heard that dietary fats are linked to higher incidences of heart disease and cancer in humans. Choose the proper hypothesis that a scientist could test.
A. Eating more meat causes cancer.
B. Eating a diet of lard makes you fat.
C. Dietary fat, heart disease, and cancer are all somehow interrelated.
D. Fat levels above 30% of calories in the diet are correlated with an increase in heart disease.
19. A biologist wants to test the effectiveness of a new food additive on causing growth in mice. An effective control group would be one that
A. ate a higher concentration of food additive.
B. was kept in different conditions across the city.
C. was fed the same ration without the food additive.
D. ate a lower concentration of the food additive.
20. At the end of an experiment, a conclusion is formed based on
A. the analysis of the experiment.
B. the general observations during the experiment.
C. the needs of the group funding the experiment.
D. the feelings or beliefs of the scientist conducting the experiment.
21. Which kingdom contains photosynthetic multicellular organisms that live on the land?
A. Fungi B. Plantae
22. Which kingdom contains nonphotosynthetic multicellular organisms that digest their food externally?
23. Which kingdom contains nonphotosynthetic multicellular organisms that digest their food internally?
24. All organisms possess a genetic system that is based on
25. The proper order for the hierarchy of increasing complexity is
A. organelles - cells - molecules - tissues - organs.
B. cells - molecules - organs - tissues - organelles.
C. molecules - organs - cells - tissues - organelles.
D. molecules - organelles - cells - tissues - organs.
E. organs - organelles - cells - molecules - tissues.
26. The test of a hypothesis is called a(n)
27. A scientist wants to study the effect of vitamin C on colds. He recruits 100 people with colds and gives the experimental group 1000 mg of vitamin C per day. What would be an appropriate control?
A. Give the control group nothing.
B. Give the control group 2000 mg of vitamin C per day.
C. Give the control group orange juice every day.
D. Give the control group a pill similar to vitamin C but containing sugar (a placebo).
E. Give the control group 1000 mg of another brand of vitamin C per day.
28. Which of the following is incorrect about experimental variables?
A. The dependent variable is what the investigator measures.
B. The independent variable is the one the researcher is able to manipulate.
C. When graphing data, the independent variable is always presented on the y-axis.
D. A valid experiment can only have one independent variable.
E. In the control experiment, the variable is not altered.
29. Who is credited for discovering cells?
A. Charles Darwin
B. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
C. Robert Hooke
D. Francis Crick
E. Joseph Farman
30. Who are responsible for discovering the structure of DNA?
A. Francis Crick and Jim Watson
B. Charles Darwin and Joseph Farman
C. Anton van Leeuwenhoek and Theodor Schwann
D. Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
E. Theodor Schwann and Robert Hooke
True / False Questions
31. Evolution is the genetic change in an organism over time.
32. Some living organisms possess RNA as their only genetic material.
Fill in the Blank Questions
33. The kingdom that includes mushrooms and yeast is the ________________.
34. All living things use energy, a property known as _______________.
35. As life forms become more advanced, new properties occur. These properties are referred to as _______________.
36. The information that determines what an organism will be like is stored in the _____________ molecule.
37. Cells with a similar structure and function are organized into ____________ in the body.
38. The sources of the ozone-destroying contaminants in the upper atmosphere were found to be ________________________.
chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs
39. The final step in the scientific process is the development of a ___________________.
40. The theory that relates to the diversity of life is the theory of ___________________.
41. The ozone depletion problem is expected to ______________ over the next few years.
42. A collection of related hypotheses that have been shown to be true after extensive testing can be collectively called a __________.
43. The process where organisms act to maintain a relatively stable internal environment is ___________.
44. All organisms on earth encode their genes in strands of _________.
45. A discreate unit of genetic information is called a ___________.
46. Explain why a student of biology needs to study the hierarchy of levels of organization within and among living things.
All living things are made up of chemicals. An understanding of chemistry is the foundation for understanding how living things function. All living things are made up of cells. An understanding of cell function is necessary to understand how tissues work, and how it is possible for tissues to be organized into organs. Understanding the needs of individual organisms helps the student determine the workings of populations and communities.
47. Many people think the term "theory" means someone's idea about something. Explain the scientific use of the term "theory", especially as it relates to the biological concept of evolution.
A theory in biology is a collection of related hypotheses that have been repeatedly tested and have stood the test of time. The theory of evolution means that substantial evidence has been found to verify the notion that evolution has and is occurring among living organisms on earth.
48. Explain the relationship between ozone depletion and rising incidence of skin cancer.
The layer of ozone surrounding the earth shields us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. The UV rays are mutagenic, triggering changes in the DNA of our skin cells, giving rise to cancer. With less ozone, more UV rays hit the earth. If we continue to sunbathe and expose our skin, cancer rates will continue climbing.
49. Why is the study of biology central to the understanding and solving of the world's great environmental problems?
When people do not have knowledge of biology, they do not understand the needs of organisms or the interactions that occur within ecosystems. Without an understanding of the basics of biology, people cannot hope to understand and solve the world's environmental problems.
50. Why is it impossible for supernatural, religious, and unexplained phenomena to be explained by biology?
Biology, and all sciences, are based on the scientific process, which cannot be applied to supernatural, religious, and unexplained phenomena. Science examines and tests evidence; these areas have no tangible evidence for testing.