1. Compare the ways in which industrialization manifested itself in Japan and Russia.
The process of industrialism threatened traditional and social hierarchies.
In Russia, the aristocracy was threatened by the abolition of serfdom, the creation of regional zemstvoes, and reforms of the army.
In Japan, there were similar changes: the samurai were almost destroyed by the fall of the shogunate, the destruction of feudalism, and military reform.
Both nations used territorial expansion as a means of mollifying the aristocracy and building support for the imperial government.
The courses of expansion differed. Japan did not begin until the 1890s, after industrialization, as it sought to secure sources of raw materials in Korea and Manchuria.
Russian expansion began long before industrialization; one primary motive was the securing of a warm-water port.
2. Compare Japanese and Russian and Latin American independence from the West.
Both made conscious use of Western models in achieving industrialization, and both incorporated aspects of Western culture in the process of industrialization.
Both continued to trade with the West, so in a sense both were culturally and technologically dependent on the West.
Japan's industrialization was more complete and was accomplished with less foreign capital-and, thus, with less foreign control of development. Japan, with the exception of a lack of raw materials, was more economically autonomous.
Russia, even after industrialization, retained some of the aspects of dependent economies, such as heavy foreign capitalization of industry and continued reliance on agricultural exports to the West.
Both were involved in alliances that largely were the creation of Western states.
The chief difference from Latin America was the successful industrialization of Russia and Japan.
Latin America was less involved in Western diplomatic systems and in colonialism. In cultural borrowing and the importation of Western capital, there were greater similarities.
3. Compare Japan and Russia during the process of industrialization.
Both Japan and Russia were late entrants into the industrial movement.
Both followed similar patterns, state-supported transportation systems, banking, factories, and individual land ownerships.
The differences came in the embracement of Western ideals.
While the Russian aristocracy remained skeptical of the West, Japan embraced and adopted many Western ideas.
4. Describe Russian reform and industrialization from 1861 to 1900.
A move to industrialization was part of the process of change.
In Russia, state support was vital, because it lacked a middle class and capital. A railway system was created in the 1870s; it reached the Pacific in the 1880s.