Cahsee handbook English 10 2014-2015 Table of Contents



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CAHSEE Handbook English 10
2014-2015

Table of Contents
Sections
1 – Rhetorical Analysis ……………… 2-3

2 – Summary ………………………… 4

3 – Literary Analysis ………………… 5-6

4 – Essay Basics ……………………... 7-9

5 – Sentence Frames/Starters ………... 10-11

6 – Writing Conventions …………….. 12-13

7 – Word Analysis …………………… 14

8 – Genre …………………………….. 15-16



SECTION 1: Rhetorical Analysis
Rhetoric: The art of speaking and writing effectively to engage and persuade an audience
Claim (thesis/argument): A statement an author makes about how things are or should be
Purpose: Why the author wrote the text – Persuade, Inform, Entertain, Describe
Rhetorical Devices

What is a rhetorical device?

Tools used to convey an author’s message





Term

Definition

Example

Purpose

Anecdote

A brief short story

On my first day as a freshman at SYHS I was sent directly to the gym. That’s where our principal, Mr. Espinoza, talked to us about the importance of succeeding even though people outside of our community don’t expect us to be high achievers. When he finished, all of the teachers and staff from our school made a circle around us to let us know that they were there to support us one hundred percent. That’s when I experienced school pride for the first time.

Used to illustrate a point

Analogy

Comparison of an unfamiliar idea to a familiar one in an attempt to explain the

MTV is to music as KFC is to chicken.

Illustrate a new idea by using an old idea as a basis for understanding

Allusion

A short reference to a famous person, event, text, etc.

He’s no Romeo, that’s for sure.

Connects the content of a text to the larger world. Readers are expected to make the connection

Connotation

The implied/non-dictionary definition of a word – opposite of denotation

home vs. house

lonely vs. solitary

unique vs. weird

skinny vs. thin

Particular words are chosen to influence audience’s understanding of an argument

Deductive Reasoning

Begins with a generalization and then applies it to a specific case – generalization must be based on reliable evidence

Genetically modified seeds have caused poverty, hunger, and a decline in bio-diversity everywhere they have been introduced, so there is no reason the same thing will not occur when genetically modified corn seeds are introduced in Mexico.

This strategy allows authors to convince an audience using logic

Diction

An author’s choice of words to convey a tone or effect

Informal: completely clueless

Formal: overwhelmed

Informal: really cool

Formal: interesting

Informal: lost

Formal: uncertain

Use language that fits your audience and matches purpose.

Ethos (Rhetorical Appeal)

The believability of an author’s argument

Author’s Profession

Author’s Education

Author’s relevant Evidence

Author’s Experience

An author build ethos to create a trustworthy image

Logos (Rhetorical Appeal)

Appeal to the audience’s logic to convince them of the author’s point – structure of text

Facts, statistics, data

An author uses logos to persuade through the use of logic/reasoning

Parallelism

The use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter.

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness.

to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences equal in importance

Pathos (Rhetorical Appeal)

Appeal to the audience’s emotions to convince them of the author’s point

My fellow Americans – build a connection with audience

An author uses pathos to persuade an audience by appealing to their emotions

Repetition

The act of repeating significant words and/or phrases

I have a dream

Produces emphasis, clarity, amplification, or emotional effect

Rule of Three

Deliberately presenting ideas or words in patterns of three

Blood, sweat, tears

Clear eyes, full hearts, can’t lose

To make things memorable

Syntax

The way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences to influence the audience

Right: The American Concrete Institute recommends the technique.

Wrong: The technique was recommended by the American Concrete Institute.

Right: Modified by a chemical process, the ash strengthens the asphalt.

Wrong: The ash, modified by a chemical process, strengthens the asphalt.

To make a sentence more readable – the general ease and which readers can understand and remember sentences

Tone

The author’s attitude toward the subject

And the trees all died. They were orange trees. I don’t know why they died, they just died. SO we’ve got thirty kids there, each kid had his or her own little treet to plant and we’ve got these thirty dead trees. All these kids looking at these little brown sticks.” -- gloomy tone

To help the reader understand the writer’s feelings towards a particular topic and influence the reader’s understanding.


SECTION 2: Summary


SECTION 3: Literary Analysis
Theme

What is theme?

A lesson/message expressed implicitly in a text.

Themes should be –

a) general (do not include character names)

b) universal (apply to everyone)

Things to consider when determining theme –


  • Challenges that characters face and how they respond

  • Relationships and shifts between characters

  • Identify main events in text

  • Identify main topics of text

Title/Text

Example

Non-Example

Shrek

Happily ever after isn’t always what you expect it to be.

Shrek’s ugly exterior matches his ugly interior.


Tone

What is Tone?

“Tone” refers to the speaker’s/writer’s ATTITUDE toward the subject; tone reveals HOW a speaker FEELS about a subject.


How do I determine a speaker’s tone?

1. Determine the SUBJECT of the text.

2. Decide whether the author’s attitude toward the subject is positive, neutral or negative.

3. Choose the word that best describes the author’s tone.


Positive

Neutral

Negative

Admiring

Adoring


Agreeable

Amiable


Apologetic

Audacious

Authoritative

Awe


Boisterous

Cheerful


Compassionate

Complimentary

Confident

Convincing

Determined

Enthusiastic

Flamboyant

Giddy


Grateful

Happy


Helpful

Hopeful


Innocent

Inviting


Jesting

Joking


Joyful

Loving


Proud

Respectful

Sentimental

Teasing


Thankful

Whimsical




Accepting

Calm


Complacent

Contemplative

Dramatic

Forthright

Honest

Humble


Informative

Instructional

Ironic

Mellow


Mysterious

Objective

Passive

Placid


Reflective

Religious

Sincere

Solemn


Straightforward

Aggravated

Angry


Annoyed

Arrogant


Bitter/Sour

Bragging


Conceited

Cynical


Defensive

Disgusted

Dismal

Distressed



Enraged

Envious


Explosive

Furious


Gloomy

Hurtful


Immature

Indignant

Insulting

Irritated

Loud

Malice


Mean

Mocking


Obnoxious

Pathetic


Patronizing

Reprimanding

Resentment

Sarcastic

Scornful

Shocked


Teasing

Testy


Literary Devices

What is a literary device?

Tools used to convey an author’s message




Term

Definition

Example

Purpose

Alliteration

Repetition of the same sound at the beginning of several words

Peter Piper picked a pack of peppers.

Focuses readers’ attention on a particular section of the text. Creates rhythm and mood.

Allusion

A short reference to a famous person, event, text, etc.

He’s no Romeo, that’s for sure.

Connects the content of a text to the larger world. Readers are expected to make the connection.

Hyperbole

An exaggeration

I have a million things to do today.

Used to express strong emotions or create a comic effect

Imagery

Use of words and phrases to create mental images for the reader

The gushing stream stole its way down the lush green mountains, dotted with tiny flowers in a riot of colors and trees coming alive with gaily chirping birds.

Helps reader to realistically visualize the text

Irony

The contrast between what is said and what is meant

Oh! What fine luck I have!”

Used to draw attention to one’s point by creating a contrast between ideas.

Metaphor

A figure of speech that compares two unlike things WITHOUT “like” or “as”

She is an angel.

She was sent from heaven.

Take an idea that is understood and use this as a basis for understanding something new.

Mood

The feeling the audience develops due to the author’s tone

The river, reflecting the clear blue of the sky, glistened and sparkled as it flowed noiselessly on.” – create a peaceful mood

To evoke a specific response from the audience.

Onomatopoeia

The imitation of natural sounds in word form.

I made a huge splash in the pool.

Help us form mental pictures about things, people, or places that are described.

Personification

Giving human qualities, feelings, action, or characteristics to non-human objects.

The sun is smiling at me.

To connect readers with what is personified.

Simile

A figure of speech that compares two unlike things, using the words “like” or “as”

She’s like the wind, through my tree.

To add a greater level of meaning and understanding to an otherwise simple sentence.

Symbolism

Something that stands for itself and for something beyond itself

The dove is a symbol of peace.

Black is evil or death.

Red rose is love or romance.

To add deeper and more significant meaning.

Tone

The author’s attitude toward the subject

And the trees all died. They were orange trees. I don’t know why they died, they just died. SO we’ve got thirty kids there, each kid had his or her own little treat to plant and we’ve got these thirty dead trees. All these kids looking at these little brown sticks.” -- gloomy tone

To help the reader understand the writer’s feelings towards a particular topic and influence the reader’s understanding.

SECTION 4: Essay Basics
CAHSEE Essay Genres
1) Expository/Informative/Explanatory

2) Argumentative/Persuasive

3) Letter

4) Response to literature


Step 1: Breaking Down a Prompt


School pride is an important component of a campus’s academic and social environment. Some students might be proud of their school because they have a great football or basketball team. Some students might take pride in their school because of its academic programs, career pathways, facilities, or clubs.
Write an essay in which you discuss some factors that contribute to students feeling proud of their school. Be sure to thoroughly support your ideas with specific examples and details.

a) Sample Prompt

b) Sample Do/What

c) Questions to Answer
i) In what genre are you being asked to write?

ii) Who is your intended audience?


iii) What is your thesis statement?




Step 2: Brainstorming
a) Review background information – what is the prompt asking you to focus on?

b) Brainstorm ideas about the main topic.

c) How many body paragraphs will you have and what will they be about?

Step 3: Essay Structure & Sentence Frames
I. Introduction – 1 paragraph
a) Opening – Introduce topic in a general way. (1-2 sentences)
Sentence frames:

Some people...

Some people believe school pride is what makes or breaks your high school experience.



Imagine if/that…

Imagine if all the students were completely silent in a pep assembly because they didn’t have school pride.



If you’ve ever… then you know…

If you’ve ever been to an SYHS pep assembly, then you know Cougars have a lot of school pride.



The popular saying… expresses how…

The popular saying at SYHS “ROAR: Responsibility, On-time, Attitude, Respect” expresses how students at SYHS have school pride.


Other ideas:

Define the topic:

School pride is the pleasure or satisfaction taken in belonging to your school.

Quote:


“Cougars clap once. Cougars clap twice. Cougars!” is the way we show our school pride when we start our assemblies at SYHS.

Fact:


If you ask every single student out of the 2300 who attend SYHS what our school motto is they will readily tell you, “ROAR: Responsibility, On time, Attitude, Respect,” –now that’s school pride.
Anecdote:

On my first day as a freshman at SYHS I was sent directly to the gym. That’s where our principal, Mr. Espinoza, talked to us about the importance of succeeding even though people outside of our community don’t expect us to be high achievers. When he finished, all of the teachers and staff from our school made a circle around us to let us know that they were there to support us one hundred percent. That’s when I experienced school pride for the first time.


b) Background – Provide information on topic that readers must know to understand topic. (2-4 sentences)
c) Thesis/preview – Your claim & reasons (no “I think” or “I feel”). (1-2 sentences)
II. Body – 2-3 paragraphs
a) Topic Sentence – State what this paragraph will be about. This should be reason #1 from your thesis. (1 sentence)

  • Include transition word – First, Second, Next, Last, Also.

  • State topic of essay.

  • State topic of paragraph.


Sentence Frames

The first reason…

One reason that…

First of all, …


b) Evidence – Create a piece of evidence to support your topic sentence/first reason.


  • Example

  • Analogy – Comparison

  • Anecdote – Short Story

  • Scenario – Made up story



c) Elaboration – Explain how piece of evidence supports thesis. (1-2 sentences)
Sentence Frames

This illustrates that…

This demonstrates that…

This shows that…

This indicates that…
d) Closing Sentence – Restate topic of this paragraph and/or transition to your next paragraph. (1 sentence)
III. Conclusion – 1 paragraph
a) Restate thesis – Rewrite your thesis using slightly different words, while keeping the meaning. (1 sentence)
b) Summarize main points – No new information – look at topic sentences and rewrite your main points. (1-2 sentences)
c) Importance – State why this topic is important/why readers should care. (1 sentence)
d) Connect to opening – Return to your general statement. (1 sentence)


SECTION 5: Sentence Frames/Starters
Identifying Author’s Claim


Author’s Name

Verb

Claim (paraphrase)

X

acknowledges that

agrees that

argues that

believes that

denies/does not deny that

celebrates the fact that

claims that

complains that

concedes that

demonstrates that

emphasizes that

insists that

observes that

questions whether

refutes the claim that

reports that

suggests that

urges us to



paraphrase author’s claim here…



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