49. How does time become Frankie's enemy in Part 3?
When Part 3 begins, time continues to be Frances' enemy. All summer, it has dragged when she wanted it to be fast. Now, time seems to be passing too quickly. The wedding goes by so fast that she doesn't get a chance to speak to her brother and the bride so that she can explain that they all belong together.
50. Describe the party that Berenice offers to throw Frances after the wedding debacle.
In trying to console Frances, Berenice offers to throw her a party after school starts. In fact, she offers to throw two simultaneous parties. One would be a proper indoor party with little olive sandwiches, and the other would be a rough outdoor party with hot dogs. Berenice's offer of a dual party pays tribute to both the child and the young woman that Frances has simultaneously become.
51. What does France to do the night after returning home from the wedding?
That night, after everyone else has gone to bed, Frances tries to run away, carrying her father's pistol. She even puts the pistol to her head for a minute, but then she thinks that she might feel this same nothingness forever, so she decides to change her mind at the last second. Finally, Frances has an idea to go to the Blue Moon and find out if the red-haired soldier is dead. She wants to know whether or not she is a murderer, before she leaves town. Frances decides that if he is not dead, she will marry him, since Big Mama predicted she would marry someone with light hair and blue eyes. Frances has finally admitted to herself that she is too scared to go out into the world alone.
52. Describe the bus ride to Winter Hill.
Frances says goodbye to her old town at 6:30 in the morning. She rides the bus sitting apart from Berenice, John Henry, and her father. They arrive at 11 a.m., and the author says, "the next hours were unexplainable."
53. According to the narrator, how does Frances think John Henry viewed the wedding? How did Frances think Berenice viewed the wedding?
For John Henry, the wedding had only been a great big show. He had enjoyed F. Jasmin's misery at the end in the same way he had enjoyed the angel cake. For Berenice, the wedding was seen only as a pleasure trip to Winter Hill.
54. Why does F. Jasmin disappear and Frances appear in Part 3?
The first thing the reader notices is that F. Jasmine disappears as soon as the wedding doesn't include her. From this point on, the protagonist is known by her given name of Frances.
55. How are Frances' dreams of travel kept alive at the end of Part 3?
Frances' dreams of travel are still alive and well, and now she has a friend to dream with her. She is finally a member of something: her friendship with Mary Littlejohn. More importantly, she is also a member of a new family that includes her, her father, and John Henry's parents. She finally feels connected and included.
56. What changes does the month of November bring for Frances, Berenice, and John Henry?
Months later, in November, Frances is now 13. She is in the kitchen with Berenice on what actually is their last day together. John Henry died in October, having battled meningitis for 10 days. His parents will now share a home with Frances and her father in a suburb outside of town. When this was decided, Berenice turned in her resignation and decided to marry T.T., the man she's been dating. He doesn't make her shiver the way Ludie Freeman did, but T.T. is a good, steady man who loves her.
57. How does Frances react to not being included in the wedding party?
Frances gets upset the wedding does not include her. She throws a fit when the bride and groom leave for their travels. She flings herself down in the sizzling dust and cries out "Take me! Take me!" On the return trip home, she does not talk to anyone on the bus and she sits in the negro section of the bus with Berenice.
58. Describe Mr. and Mrs. Williams.
Mrs. Williams wore a lace dress and she twice asked F. Jasmin what grade she was in at school. But, using a tone grown people use when speaking to a child, she also asked F. Jasmin if she would like to play out on the swing before the wedding. Mr. Williams was nice to her, too. He was a sallow man with folds in his cheeks and the skin beneath his eyes was the grain and color of an old apple core. Mr. Williams also asked her what grade she was in at school.
59. Why was F. Jasmin not able to speak with her brother, Jarvis or the bride, Janice? Provide examples.
F. Jasmin was not able to speak with her brother or the bride to tell them her plans because the three of them were never alone together. Jarvis was out checking the car someone was lending to them for the honeymoon, while Janice dressed in the front bedroom among a crowd of beautiful grown girls.
60. Describe Mary Littlejohn and her family.
Mary Littlejohn collected pictures of great masters and pasted them in an art book. They read the works of poets like Tennyson together. Mary was going to be a great painter and Frances, a great poet. Mary had long braids that she could nearly sit on, braids of a woven mixture corn-yellow and brown, fastened at the ends with rubber bands and, on occasion, ribbons. she had brown eyes with yellow eyelashes, and because she bit her nails, her dimpled hands were tapered at the fingers to little pink blobs of flesh. The Littlejohns were Catholics. Mr. Littlejohn had been connected with a tractor company and before the war, the Littlejohns lived abroad.
Essay Topics/Writing Assignments
These 20 essay questions can be used as essay questions on a test, or as stand-alone essay topics for a take-home or in-class writing assignment. Students should have a full understanding of the text in order to answer these questions. They ask for a thorough analysis of the text.
1. How does becoming F. Jasmin help Frankie to escape her current situation? How does becoming F. Jasmin hinder Frankie's escape from her current situation? How are Frankie, F. Jasmin, and Frances similar? How are they different? Please use specific examples from the book.
2. How does Frankie view her father over the course of the novel? Why does she view him in this way? Please use specific examples from the book.
3. How is Frankie disconnected from the world? What does she do to try to reconnect with the world? Provide at least two reasons for both questions. Please use specific examples from the book.
4. In what ways are Berenice and Frankie similar? In what ways are Bernice and Frankie different? Provide at least two examples for both questions. Please use specific examples from the book.
5. How does Big Mama's prediction about F. Jasmin's future regarding the roads, trains, and money, foreshadow what comes later in the novel? Please use specific examples from the book.
6. Based on the novel, what do you think are Frankie's three biggest fears? Why do you think each of these represent her biggest fears? Please use specific examples from the book.
7. What is the significance of the music, clocks, and Frankie's multiple name changes? Please use specific examples from the book.
8. Why does the novel not focus on Jarvis even though his wedding is anticipated throughout the novel? Why does the author choose to only focus on Jarvis through Frankie's thoughts about the wedding and her memories of her brother? Please use specific examples from the book.
9. How does the author foreshadow the separation of Frankie, John Henry, and Berenice? Please use specific examples from the book.
10. Why do you think the author chose to use a narrator to tell Frankie's story? Why did the author not use the first person narrative to portray her struggle to belong to a group? Please use specific examples from the book.
11. Why is the protagonist so mesmerized by the relationship between Jarvis and Janice and Berenice and her four husbands? Please use specific examples from the book.
12. Why is the art of conversation significant in the novel? What role does conversation play in the novel? Please use specific examples from the book.
13. How is F. Jasmin 's dream in which she faced an opening door, significant to the plot of the story? Please use specific examples from the book.
14. How does Frankie's innocence isolate her from the real world? How is Frankie's innocence diminished? Please use specific examples from the book.
15. In the Member of the Wedding, Frankie is the protagonist of the novel. Is Frankie her own antagonist? Why or why not? Please use specific examples from the book.
16. What is significant about the setting of this novel? Why is the setting significant? Why is it important to understand the real world significance of the story in order to understand Frankie's story? Please use specific examples from the book.
17. What role does Janice's character play in the novel? Why does the author choose to introduce Janice to reader in the manner that he does? Why is Janice's character significant? Please use specific examples from the book.
18. What events in the novel, The Member of the Wedding, cause Frances to lose her innocence? How do these events connect her to other girls her age and make her a member of something? Please use specific examples from the book.
19. How does Frankie find her voice in the novel? Was her voice lost or did she rediscover it? How do you know this? Please use specific examples from the book.
20. What role does dining together play in the novel? What significance does food have in the novel? Why is dining together and food significant? Please use specific examples from the book.
This section contains 30 daily lessons. Each one has a specific objective and offers at least three (often more) ways to teach that objective. Lessons include classroom discussions, group and partner activities, in-class handouts, individual writing assignments, at least one homework assignment, class participation exercises and other ways to teach students about the text in a classroom setting. Use some or all of the suggestions provided to work with your students in the classroom and help them understand the text.
Objective: The setting of the story is a small town in Alabama during World War II. To the modern reader, this may seem like a portrait of ideal community life, but to Frankie it is a time and place that she would like to escape. The objective of this lesson is to discuss and understand the setting of the story.
1) Tasks, Ideas, Challenges, and Homework
Discussion: What was the setting of this story? Why does McCullers choose this setting? What is the significance of this setting? How would the story change if this part of the novel was written in a different setting (i.e. New York during the Great Depression, Georgia during the 1960s, etc.)?
Activity 1: Divide students into six groups. Each group should use the internet, books, and other resources to research their assigned topics. The groups should divide into the following topics: Groups 1 & 4 - Research America during WW II, Groups 2 & 5 - Research the world response to WW II, and Groups 3 & 6 - Research Alabama. Each group should be prepared to share the results of their research with the class. Each group should explain how the information that they have collected is important to understand in regards to the setting of the story and the events that occur.
Activity 2: Divide students into small groups. Have each group retell Part 1 using a different setting for the story. The setting can be a real or imaginary location. Each group should be prepared to share their story.
Activity 3: Have each student draw their interpretation of their new version of Part 1. Student should share their interpretations with their group. They should explain how their interpretation is different than the actual setting in the novel.
Homework: Have students write a journal entry expressing how it would be to live in Alabama during World War II. Students should be prepared to share their responses with the class.
Objective: The theme of isolation is prevalent in Part 1 of the Member of the Wedding. Although Frankie is surrounded by people, she is still not saved from the loneliness of being 12 years-old. The objective of this lesson is to explore the theme of isolation.
1) Discussion: What is isolation? How do you define isolation? How is isolation exhibited in the novel?
Activity 1: Divide students into small groups. Have each group identify and write down examples of isolation in Part 1. Ask students to interpret these examples of isolation for a deeper meaning of what the isolation represents. Students should be prepared to share their examples and reasoning with the class. They should also be prepared to discuss their meanings of the isolation expressed in these examples: How do you know these are examples of isolation? What does the isolation represent? What reason would Frankie have for being so isolated despite being surrounded by people?
Activity 2: Have students write a journal entry about the isolation in Part 1. Why do you think the isolation exists? What is the cause of the isolation? Do you think the feeling of being isolated will eventually go away? Why or why not?
Homework: Have students identify a time when they felt isolated. They should respond to how their isolation compares to that of Frankie. Students should write two paragraphs on how their isolation compares to Frankie's. Students should be prepared to share with the class.
Objective: McCullers uses a narrator to tell the story of Frankie and the wedding. Because the narrator is responsible for telling this story to the reader, the reader does not get to hear the characters' thoughts or feelings. The objective of this lesson is to discover the importance of viewpoint in text.
1) Discussion: Why does the author decide to use a narrative point of view? Do you think gaps of information exist because the story is told by the narrator? What information do you think Frankie, John Henry, Royal Quincy Addams, Berenice, or Jarvis would have included if the story was told from their point of view?
Activity 1: Divide students into small groups. Have each group retell Part 1 through the view point of Frankie, Berenice, or John Henry. Students should feel free to add details that may be missing. Students should be prepared to share the details of their stories.
Discussion: What parts of the story changed when it was told from a different view point? Why was it important to hear the story told from different viewpoints? Why do you need different viewpoints when telling a story?
Activity 2: Have students choose which point of view the novel should have been told through. Students should write a short essay on why they think this novel would be best told through first-person point of view or third-person point of view.
Homework: Have students write a journal entry discussing the importance of using different viewpoints to tell a story.
Objective: Metaphors are comparisons that show how two things are similar. Authors use metaphors to make their writing more interesting and entertaining. An example of a metaphors in Part 1 of the Member of the Wedding is "Summer was like a green sick dream or like a silent crazy jungle under glass." However, the novel The Member of the Wedding, does not use many metaphors to enhance the story. The objective of this lesson is to learn more about metaphors, explore the metaphors in the novel, and to determine how to use metaphors to enhance the story.
1) Lecture: Introduce or reintroduce students to metaphors. Explain the importance of metaphors in writing. Provide information on the different forms metaphors can take.
Activity 1: Divide students into small groups. Each group should discuss the metaphors that they have identified in the novel. Have students discuss what each metaphor means and why the author decided to include it in the novel. Students should also discuss the importance of the metaphors. Have each group write an analysis of their metaphors that includes information from their discussion.
Activity 2: Divide students into small groups. Have each group search Part 1 for areas where a metaphor would enhance the story. Students should create appropriate metaphors for that section of the novel. For instance, metaphors could be used throughout Part 1 when Frankie is talking about the wedding or when the author is describing the wedding. Students should be prepared to present appropriate metaphors.
Homework: Have students create five metaphors for Frankie. They should include the reasons why that particular comparison was made. Students should draw a picture or create a collage that illustrates the metaphors that they have created.
Objective: McCullers introduces readers to John Henry's character in Part 1. Although John Henry appears throughout the remainder of the novel, much of what is known about this character is revealed in Part 1. For much of the book, John Henry is an observer to the conversations that occur between Frankie and others. The objective of this lesson is to examine the character of John Henry.
1) Activity 1: Divide students into small groups. Have each group make a list of John Henry's characteristics. Students should include information about his attributes, such as his name, age, and gender, and background information about him, such as family status, political views, religion, and time and place of the story. Have students create a collage based on their lists of John Henry's characteristics. These collages should represent the character. Students should be prepared to share their lists and collages with other groups.
Discussion: What role does John Henry play in Part 1 of the novel? How do you know this? Why do you think the author cast him in this role?
Activity 2: Have students reread Part 1. Students should identify at least four words, phrases, or sentences that contribute to the development to John Henry as a character. For each word, phrase, or sentence, students should write how it contributes to his character and why they help us to learn more about him.
Homework: Based on what the students know about John Henry, they should write a brief journal as if they are John Henry reflecting on the events in Part 1 of the novel. Students should be prepared to share their entries.
Objective: Frankie Addams is young girl at the very end of her childhood. Because of her transition from her childhood to adolescence, Frances has had many loses, such as her old comfortable relationship with her father, her best friend, and her cat. It is important to understand the stage of life that Frances is undergoing in order to understand her struggles. The objective of this lesson is to learn more about adolescence.
1) Activity 1: Divide students into small groups. Have each group use the internet and other resources to research the physical, psychological and social changes of adolescence. Have students to create a chart with three columns: physical, psychological, and social. They should categorize their research into these three categories. Students should be prepared to share the information that they learn with the class.
Discussion: What changes of adolescence was Frances undergoing? How do you know this? Why is it necessary to understand the stages and changes of adolescence to understand Frances' struggles?
Activity 2: Have students pretend that they are Frances. Have them write a monologue about adolescence for Frances to give to her father that tells him how she is feeling and why she is reacting in the manner she is to the changes in her life. Students should be prepared to share with the class.
Homework: Have students write a reflective journal entry expressing their thoughts about adolescence. They can compare their experience with that of Frances. What similarities exist? What differences exist? What advice would they give to Frances?
Objective: The author introduces the theme of identity early in the novel when Frankie changes her name and identity to F. Jasmin. F. Jasmin's character is different from Frankie's character. Frankie transitions from Frankie to F. Jasmin in an attempt to give her voice to her changing identity. The objective of this lesson is to explore the theme of identity.
1) Discussion: What is identity? How is it a theme in this novel? What are some examples of a character searching for identity in this chapter? Whose identity is changing in the novel? Why is their identity being changed? Is it necessary for them to change their identity?
Activity 1: Divide students into small groups. Have each group identify and write down examples of a character searching for their identity in Part 2. Ask students to analyze these examples of changes in identity to determine what they represent. Students should be prepared to share their examples and reasoning with the class. They should also be prepared to discuss their meanings of changing identity in these examples: How do you know these are examples of changes in identity? What do the changes in identity represent?
Activity 2:. Have students write a journal entry on how Frankie and F. Jasmin are similar and how they are different. Why is it necessary for Frankie to transition into F. Jasmin? Why can Frankie not re-assume her identity as Frankie?
Homework: Have students think of instances when people question their identity. They should write a short essay on why people question their identity. What things help people define their identity? Why is it necessary to establish your identity? Students should be prepared to share with the class.
Objective: The author, Carson McCullers, pays a lot of attention to time in this story. The descriptions of the clock's ticking, as well as frequent mention of the time helps to convey how hot, lazy, and slow this summer has been for Frankie. The objective of this lesson is to explore the use of time in The Member of the Wedding.
1) Activity 1: Divide students into groups. Have each group identify instances in which the author used time in Part 1 and Part 2, Chapter 1. Student should explain why they think the author used time in the identified sections of the novel. Why is the author so attentive to time in the novel? Why is including the time stamp throughout the chapter significant? Each group should be prepared to share.
Discussion: What role does time play in the novel? Why do you think the author constantly used the time on the clock instead of dates on a calendar or days of the week to mark the time in the novel? Why is it even necessary for the author to make any mention to time?
Activity 2: Have students a journal entry on what time represents in this novel. Why does time symbolize? How would the novel differ if time was not included in the novel? Why is it necessary to have the timestamps?
Homework: Have students rewrite a section of the novel not using timestamps or by changing the timestamps. How does this change the novel? Does it make it easier for the reader to keep track of the events of the novel or does it make it harder?