Muslims, Jews, Christians, Hindus, and adherents of other belief systems cooperated in trade together. • The Geographical Encyclopedia of Yaqut al-Hamawi (1179-1229) included a section about Baghdad under the Abbasids, c. 1000 CE : The long wide estrades platforms at the different gates of the city were used by the citizens for gossip and recreation or for watching the flow of travelers and country folk into the capital. The different nationalities in the capital had each ahead officer to represent their interests with the government, and to whom the stranger could appeal for counselor help. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1000baghdad.html • An early fourteenth-century traveler described Cambay, the major port of Gujarat in the Indian subcontinent, as having beautiful houses and mosques. The majority of its inhabitants were foreign merchants. • Ina Persian Muslim diplomat, described Calicut (a port city on the west Indian coast) as a place where there were no restrictions on foreign merchants bringing goods from throughout the Indian Ocean trade network. Arab-speaking captains and merchants were treated the same as Hindu merchants by the Hindu ruler of Calicut. • Al-Hassan ibn-Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, better known as Leo Africanus, was probably born in the sin Granada, the last Muslim state in Spain, but he was raised in Fez in Morocco. Educated in Islamic law, he entered the service of the sultan of Fez, who sent him on commercial and diplomatic missions across sub-Saharan West Africa. During one such mission, he was captured by Christian pirates and brought to Rome in 1518, where Pope Leo X persuaded him to accept Christianity. In 1526, while in Rome, he completed in Italian his History and Description of Africa, probably based on an earlier version he had written in Arabic. About Mali, he wrote Here are many craftsmen and merchants in all places and yet the king honorably entertains all strangers. The inhabitants are rich and have plenty of merchandise. Here is a great number of temples, clergymen, and teachers, who read their lectures in the mosques because they have no colleges at all. The people of the region excel all other Negroes in wit, civility, and industry, and were the first that embraced the law of Muhammad. . . .” About Timbuktu, he wrote All its houses are . . . cottages, built of mud and covered with thatch. However, there is a most stately mosque to be seen, whose walls are made of stone and lime, and a princely palace also constructed by the highly skilled craftsmen of Granada. Here there are many shops of artisans and merchants, especially of those who weave linen and cotton, and here Barbary merchants bring European cloth. The inhabitants, and especially resident aliens, are exceedingly rich, since the present king married both of his daughters to rich merchants http://college.hmco.com/history/world/bulliet/earth_peoples_brief/1e/students/primary/af ricanus.htm
World History for Us All Big Era 5.3– Landscape/Close-Up Unit http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/ Page 48 Coins produced by governments and having Arabic texts and standard shapes made trade easier. • In AD 698 the Caliph ‘Abd al-Malik (685-705) radically changed the way coins looked. All pictorial designs were removed and replaced with inscriptions to meet the Muslim prohibition against graven images. His coins gave pride of place to aversion of the kalima, or declaration of faith, (There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, which was written across the obverse. The inscriptions also include the date, mint, and name of the ruler. This coin style became the standard for almost all coins produced by Muslim rulers throughout the Eastern Hemisphere. • In the Red Seaport of Aqaba, archaeologists found at the eleventh century street levels a cloth sack full of gold coins, 32 dinars, possibly left by a hajj pilgrim trying to escape an attack on the city. Three of the coins appear to have been minted in North Africa. Others were gold coins probably minted at Sijilmasa, a Moroccan town on the northern edge of the Sahara. Five Pillars of Islam hospitality to travelers and annual hajj created regular routes • A Muslim interpreter who went on several of the Ming voyages led by the Chinese Muslim admiral, Cheng He, noticed that the Muslim king of Malacca improved trade by building abridge over a stream near the royal palace and constructing twenty booths for sale of all kinds of goods. Harry J. Benda and John A. Larkin, The World of Southeast Asia Selected Historical Readings (New York Harper & Row, 1967), 14-15. • Between 1328 and 1330, Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan Muslim legal scholar and judge (qadi) traveled to Mogadishu, a very large East African port city dependent on trade. He wrote in his travel memoir a description of trade in Mogadishu When a boat comes in the harbor, young men sail their small dhows out to the larger trade ships and offer fresh food on platters. The Mogadishu men invite the foreign merchants to their homes and arrange to sell their imported goods. They also take charge of buying local goods for the foreign merchants to take with them • In the s, Ibn Battuta observed the sultan in Kilwa in on the East African coast. On the Sultan Abu al-Muzaffar Hasan: A man of great humility, he sits with poor brethren, and eats with them, and greatly respects men of religion and noble descent. He used to devote the fifth part of the booty made on his expeditions to pious and charitable purposes, as is prescribed in the Koran, and I have seen him give the clothes off his back to a poor religious homeless man who asked him for them. • On the Sultan Abu Muhammad of Oman on the Arabian Peninsula, Ibn Battuta wrote Its inhabitants make a habit of eating meals in the courts of the mosques, every person bringing what he has, and all sitting down to he meal together, and travelers join in with them • On the Muslim ruler of Mali in Sudanic West Africa, Ibn Battuta had this to say I stood before the sultan and said to him, 'I have indeed traveled in the lands of the world. I have met their kings. I have been in your country four months and you have given me no hospitality and not given me anything. What shall I say about you before the
World History for Us All Big Era 5.3– Landscape/Close-Up Unit http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/ Page 49 Sultans" Then the Sultan ordered a house for me in which I stayed and he fixed an allowance for me…He was gracious tome at my departure, to the extent of giving me one hundred mitqals of gold" http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter3.shtml Muslim government protected trade and property for merchants. • In his eleventh-century work A Guide to the Merits of Commerce Abu al-Fadl Ja’far bin Ali ad-Dimashqi wrote about Damascus There are three kinds of merchants he who travels, he who stocks, he who exports. Their trade is carried out in three ways cash sale with a time limit for delivery, purchase on credit with payments by installment, and muqaradah (in Islamic law a contract in which one individual entrusts capital to a merchant for investment in trade in order to receive a share of the profits. The investor bears all of the financial risks the managing party risks his labor • The Book of Routes and Kingdoms by the eleventh-century Andalusian geographer Abu c Ubayd al-Bakri writes on the West African kingdom of Ghana The city of Ghana consists of two towns situated on a plain. One of these towns, which is inhabited by Muslims, is large and possesses twelve mosques in one of which they assemble for the Friday prayer. There are salaried imams and muezzins, as well as jurists and scholars. The king's town is six miles distant from this one. . . . The king has a palace and a number of domed dwellings all surrounded with an enclosure like a city wall. Around the king's town are domed buildings and groves and thickets where the sorcerers of these people, men in charge of the religious cult, live. In them too are their idols and the tombs of their kings" http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter1.shtml • Malacca, 1400 - 1511 CE The sultans of Malacca appointed a multilingual harbor captain with a large staff who met every ship coming from China, India, Persia, the Arabian peninsula, East Africa, or other parts of Southeast Asia. As with all trade cities, Malacca provided guarded storehouses where goods from the interior and abroad could be stored until traders arrived. The Malaccan Muslim rulers also made alliances with outlying tribes and ports and a regional navy that policed the local waters and escorted friendly vessels Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board, New York, http://www.interknowledge.com/malaysia/history03.htm
World History for Us All Big Era 5.3– Landscape/Close-Up Unit http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/ Page 50 This unit and the Three Essential Questions How did humans overcome the difficulties of transporting goods and people across long distances and over difficult terrain using only pack animals, carts, and wagons In what ways did the spread of Islam facilitate contacts and communication among far-flung groups of people Why might individuals who share a religion prefer to do business with one another rather than with people of another religion How did the growth of Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam in the first millennium CE affect the exchange of scientific knowledge, technology, and the arts How do religions today contribute to the development and spread of new ideas in the arts, such as painting, architecture, and music This unit and the Seven Key Themes This unit emphasizes Key Theme 2: Economic Networks and Exchange Key Theme 6: Science, Technology, and the Environment Key Theme 7: Spiritual Life and Moral Codes This unit and the Standards in Historical Thinking Historical Thinking Standard 1: Chronological Thinking The student is able toe) interpret data presented in time lines. Historical Thinking Standard 2: Historical Comprehension The student is able to (b) identify the central questions a historical narrative addresses, (c) read historical narratives imaginatively, taking into account what the narrative reveals of the humanity of the individuals involved—their probable values, outlook, motives, hopes, fears, strengths and weaknesses, (e) draw upon data in historical maps in order to obtain or clarify information on the geographic setting in which the historical event occurred, its relative and absolute location, the
World History for Us All Big Era 5.3– Landscape/Close-Up Unit http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/ Page 51 distances and directions involved, the natural and man-made features of the place, and critical relationships in the spatial distributions of those features and historical event occurring there, (g) draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources. Historical Thinking Standard 3: Historical Analysis and Interpretation The student is able to (d) draw comparisons across eras and regions in order to define enduring issues as well as large-scale or long-term developments that transcend regional and temporal boundaries. Historical Thinking Standard 4: Historical Research Capabilities The student is able to (a) formulate historical questions from encounters with historical documents, eyewitness accounts, letters, diaries, artifacts, photos, historical sites, art, architecture, and other records from the past, (c) interrogate historical data. Resources Instructional Resources for Teachers Annenberg/CPB. Bridging World History A Part Multi-Media Course in World History. Produced by Oregon Public Broadcasting. (Burlington, VT Annenberg Foundation, 2005). The Course Guide describes Bridging World History as a course designed to help students construct a meaningful context that reveals the shared human past. This part integrated media learning resource uses video, Web, and print to deliver content and activities sufficient to support a six-credit undergraduate-level course. Unit 7, titled The Spread of Religions addresses the early centuries of Muslim history. Bentley, Jerry Hi Old World Encounters Cross-cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times. New York Oxford UP, 1993. Blankinship, Khalid. "The Spread of Islam" In S. L. Douglass, ed, World Eras Rise and Spread of Islam, 622-1500. Farmington, MI Gale, 2002), 230-232. Bloom, Jonathan. Paper Before Print The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World. New Haven Yale UP, 2001. Bulliet, Richard. Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period An Essay in Quantitative History. Cambridge, Mass Harvard UP, 1979. Bulliet, Richard. Islam: the View from the Edge. New York Columbia UP, 1994. Chaudhuri, KN. Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean. Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1985.
World History for Us All Big Era 5.3– Landscape/Close-Up Unit http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/ Page 52 Council on Islamic Education. Teaching about Islam & Muslims in the Public School Classroom: A Handbook for Educators. rd ed. Fountain Valley, CA Council on Islamic Education, 1995. Curtin, Philip Di Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1984. Douglass, S. Li Beyond A Thousand and One Nights A Sampler of Literature from Muslim Civilization. Fountain Valley, CA Council on Islamic Education, 1999. Douglass S. Land Karima Alavi. Emergence of Renaissance Cultural Interactions between Europeans and Muslims. Fountain Valley, CA Council on Islamic Education, 1999. Dunn, Ross E. The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim Traveler of the 14 th Century. Rev. ed. Berkeley University of California Press, 2004. Gies, Frances and Joseph. Cathedral Forge and Waterwheel Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages. New York Harper Collins Publishers, 1994. Goitein, SD. A Mediterranean Society An Abridgment in One Volume. Berkeley University of California Press, 1999. Nasr, Sayyed Hossein. Islamic Science, An Illustrated History. Westerham, Kent World of Islam Festival Publishing Company, 1976. Francis Robinson, ed. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1996. Watson, Andrew.Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983. Instructional Resources for Students Pouwels, Randall Li The African and Middle Eastern World, 600-1500. Oxford Oxford UP, 2005. This book is part of the Oxford University Press series for young people titled The Medieval & Early Modern World The first seven of thirteen chapters are concerned with the early centuries of Islam. The Qur’an.” Calliope: Exploring World History 14, 4 (Dec. 2003). The history magazine for young people devotes this entire issue to the Qur’an.
World History for Us All Big Era 5.3– Landscape/Close-Up Unit http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/ Page 53 Correlations to National and State Standards National Standards for History Era 4: Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter, 300-1000 CE. Standard 2: Causes and consequences of the rise of Islamic civilization in the seventh-10th centuries Standard 3: Major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang dynasty, 600-900 CE ; Standard 4: The search for political, social, and cultural redefinition in Europe, 500-1000 CE ; Standard 7: Major global trends from 300-1000 CE. Era 5: Intensified Hemispheric Interactions, 1000-1500 CE. Standard 1: The maturing of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange in an era of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion California: History-Social Science Content Standard 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 5. Describe the growth of cities and the establishment of trade routes among Asia, Africa, and Europe, the products and inventions that traveled along these routes (e.g., spices, textiles, paper, steel, new crops, and the role of merchants in Arab society. Illinois Learning Standards Social Science State Goal 16 – History. E. Understand Illinois, United States and world environmental history. 16.B.3b (W) Identify causes and effects of the decline of the Roman empire and other major world political events (e.g., rise of the Islamic empire, rise and decline of the T’ang dynasty, establishment of the kingdom of Ghana) between 500 CE and 1500 CE. Ca (W) Describe major economic trends from 1000 to 1500 CE including long distance trade, banking, specialization of labor, commercialization, urbanization and technological and scientific progress. New York State Learning Standards for Social Studies Standard 2: World History—students…demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments and turning points in world history Global History and Geography Core Curriculum, Unit 2: Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter, 500-1200, Unit 3: Global Interactions, 1200-1650. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies The student understands (17) Culture. The student understands relationships that exist among world cultures. The student is expected to (A) explain aspects that link or separate cultures and societies (B) explain the impact of political boundaries that cut across culture regions (E) evaluate how cultural borrowing affects world cultures and (F) evaluate the consequences of improved communication among cultures. (23) Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations have affected societies throughout history. The student is expected to (B) identify new ideas in mathematics, science, and
World History for Us All Big Era 5.3– Landscape/Close-Up Unit http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/ Page 54 technology that occurred during the Greco-Roman, Indian, Islamic, and Chinese civilizations and trace the spread of these ideas to other civilizations; Virginia Standards of Learning Era IV Regional Interactions, 1000 to 1500 AD. WHI.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of civilizations and empires of the Eastern Hemisphere and their interactions through regional trade patterns by a) locating major trade routes b) identifying technological advances and transfers, networks of economic interdependence, and cultural interactions. WHII.2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the political, cultural, and economic conditions in the world about 1500 AD by d) analyzing major trade patterns e) citing major technological and scientific exchanges in the Eastern Hemisphere. Conceptual links to other teaching units This unit on the rise of Islam and its relationship to the development of a trans-hemispheric network of trade, travel, and cultural exchanges leads smoothly into the next instructional unit. Landscape Teaching Unit 5.3, titled Consolidation of Trans-Hemispheric Networks (1000-1250 CE) examines how interconnections across Afroeurasia matured and intensified, partly owing to the spread of Muslim merchants and their institutions across the mid-region of the hemisphere, but also owing to the continuing boom of China’s economy and the rise of anew, vigorous urban civilization in Europe. The period from 1000 to 1250 is the crucial moment when peoples almost everywhere in Afroeurasia become linked together in one way or another. Mosque of Ibn Tulun Cairo, Ninth Century Photo by R. Dunn