Big Era Five Patterns of Interregional Unity



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urbanization growth of trade migration spread of knowledge language law technology governance
2. Discuss the map in Student Handout 3.1, which depicts trade routes in Afroeurasia. In what ways does this map express what the historians (KN. Chaudhuri and Andrew Watson)
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35 describe in their excerpts Compare this map with the maps in Student Handout 3.2, which show the growth of cities in the Mediterranean region. Locate and name five major cities that existed in 528 CE. How many more cities are shown on the next map for 737 CE Which of these cities are within Muslim-ruled territory On the map for the year 1000 CE, how many cities are within Muslim-ruled territory, and how many new ones have been added What are some factors that might account for cities being founded, becoming much bigger, declining, or disappearing
3. Refer to Bulliet’s graph of conversion (Student Handout 2.4). How would you characterize the period between 737 and 1000 CE in terms of the rates of conversion for each region of the graph in terms of the towns and cities shown on the map of Mediterranean region cities
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Student Handout The Impact of Islam in Afroeurasia

Excerpt from KN. Chaudhuri, Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean (Cambridge
Cambridge UP, 1985), 35-36
The expansion and the new activities which became faintly evident in the rhythm of both caravan and transoceanic trade from the seventh century onwards in northern and southern China received a great deal of their impetus from the domestic aspirations and developments of the Tang and Sung empires. However, in the West it was joined by the second and most powerful of the historical forces of the time, the rise of Islam and its expansion across the fertile lands of the Near East and South Asia. Movements of people by definition involve the exchange of ideas, economic systems, social usage, political institutions, and artistic traditions. The spread of Islam subsumed all these things. It maybe an exaggeration for lack of definite proof to state that the commerce of the Indian Ocean in the westward direction had entered a period of relative contraction during the later Roman empire with the weakening of a Mediterranean world economy It is certainly true that the Arab conquests and rapid demographic diffusion and the political integration of Egypt, Syria, Iran, and North Africa created an enormously powerful zone of economic consumption. It was an expanding area that drew its commercial and fiscal strength from refashioning in the West the Mediterranean economy of antiquity and from harnessing the productive resources of the lands around the Indian Ocean in the East. Arab economic success in the early caliphate period was achieved with the aid of the skills possessed by the people of the ancient Near East. But the growth of great urban centers, a universal feature of Islam, and the new capital cities gave rise to an expanding demand for commodities of all kinds and for precious objects. This in turn quickened the pace of long-distance trade. The revival of the sea and caravan routes across the famous international boundary lines, known to merchants since Hellenistic times, owed much to the ability of the Islamic rulers to protect their property and persons against violence. The laws of commercial contracts and the principles of juridical rights, which evolved in the centuries following the foundation of Islam, took into account a cardinal fact of pre-modern trade. Merchants who traveled by land and sea into the realms of foreign princes were prone to take their business elsewhere without the guarantee of a certain amount of commercial freedom secured by reciprocal political rights and obligations.
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K.N. Chaudhuri, The Economy in Muslim Societies in F. Robinson, ed, The Cambridge
Illustrated History of the Islamic World (Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1996), 124
In popular imagination, Islam was a religion of the desert which arose in the oasis towns of Syria, Iraq, and Egypt in the seventh century AD. Of course, neither Mecca nor Medina, the twin cities of the Prophet Muhammad, really belonged to the desert or the bedouin nomadic way of life. The Umayyad military victories in Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Iran within a decade of
Muhammad's death in 632 produced immediate and tangible results, the most notable of which was the consolidation of the two transcontinental trade routes through the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The economic foundation of the Muslim world system created by the Umayyads and the Abbasids in the first century of Islam rested on three factors settled agriculture, urbanization, and long-distance trade. Nomadism and its economy had provided the backdrop to the early Arab expansion and they were not entirely marginalized in the development of urbanized Islam. The bedouin of Arabia did not give up their nomadic way of life the desert and the camel continued to signify certain aspects of Islam and certainly to signify the context of its movements. Anyone who contemplates the magnificent mihrab of the Great Mosque in Cordoba built in the eight century, with its pure Arab geometry, must be aware that the historical roots of the Islamic world were already strong by the Umayyad and Abbasid periods. But those political leaders and their Arab followers who did migrate to the old and new towns to adopt an urban life soon revived the economic unity of the ancient world, which had been lost with the decline of Rome and Persia
Interior of the Great
Mosque, Cordoba, Spain
Photo by R. Dunn
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38 Map KN. Chaudhuri, The Economy in Muslim Societies in F. Robinson, ed,
The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World (Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1996), 124.
Excerpt from Andrew Watson, Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World
(Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983), 91-94.
The early centuries of Islam saw the creation of a medium for diffusion of great efficiency it was peculiarly receptive to novelties and favored their transmission. . . . The creation of this medium began with the Muslim conquests of the seventh and eighth centuries which united—or began to unite—a large part of the known world, bringing the conquered territories fora time under one rule, and more durably under one language, one religion and one legal system. Although Muhammad's State was a very loose alliance depending on allegiance to the Prophet, and although centrifugal forces at all times worked against centralizing tendencies, the relatively strong State which emerged under the Umayyads and the early Abbasids was an umbrella under which other kinds of unification took place. Gradually, Arabic displaced indigenous tongues as the language of administration, of higher culture and—to varying degrees—of common speech. In time, more and more of the conquered peoples were converted to the religion of the Prophet, so that although nonbelievers were at first very numerous and religious minorities remained important throughout the period of classical Islam, the State came to bean Islamic state and the people it governed came to be predominantly Muslim. The apparatus of the State was the means for other kinds of unification of law, of coinage and of weights and measures. It also forged, when it did not inherit them, links of communication—roads, caravan routes, ports, postal and courier services, and a far-reaching
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39 network of smoke and flame signals—which drew still more closely together the far-flung territories of the caliphates. . . . Within the area of Arab dominion, and to some extent beyond, there was much movement of men, of goods, of technology, of information and of ideas. Ibn Khaldun wrote of the Arabs that all their customary activities lead to travel and movement and so it was to become not only for those of Arabic stock but also for the conquered peoples. The very conquest and settlement of new areas often led to important displacements of peoples. When an area was overrun by Arabs and their allies, the conquering soldiers—mostly from distant places—were often encouraged to settle in the conquered lands. Another wave of migrations occurred when the Jews of formerly Byzantine, Sasanian and Visigothic territories, many of whom had collaborated with the invading armies, began to spread out through the early Islamic world. Further movements followed the conquests with the flight of some conquered peoples, their forcible displacement and the long-distance trade in captured slaves. . . . To the movement of peoples initiated by the conquests and their aftermath were soon added other kinds of displacement. The pilgrimages that Muslims made in great numbers, and especially the pilgrimage to Mecca, brought together people from the far corners of the earth and thus were a vehicle of prime importance for cultural transmission. . . . Many pilgrims took advantage of their displacement to indulge in further travel to carryout business, to visit relatives, to study in foreign centers of learning and just to see sights. Trade by professional merchants also led to much movement. Very soon after the rise of Islam, Muslim and Jewish merchants were penetrating to the outer limits of the caliphate. By the middle of the eighth century they had reached far beyond these bounds and established counters in India, China and East Africa. Hand in hand with trade went missionary activity, as holy men followed in the footsteps of merchants to preach to isolated Muslim communities abroad and to convert the heathen. Thus both trade and religion linked distant outposts into a network which spanned the continents. . . . But perhaps any attempt to explain, or even to describe, the widespread movement of people across the early Islamic world is doomed to fail. All through the literary sources from the medieval Islamic world are found accounts that suggest an almost incomprehensible amount of coming and going across huge stretches of land and water. Every class of people, it seems, was prone to this restlessness all traveled the rich and the poor, the scholar and the illiterate, the holy and the not so holy. Poverty was no obstacle, as one could move by foot, begging along the way relatives could be imposed upon endlessly patrons were readily found for scholars or holy men, or those who posed as such a place to bunk, and perhaps to eat, was available outside the main mosque inmost cities. Lured on in search of money, adventure or truth, Muslims from every region and of every station left home and roamed to and fro over the continents, taking with them knowledge of the farming techniques, plant life and cookery of their homelands and seeing on their way the agricultural practices, plants and foods of new lands. In their travels the early Muslims were on the lookout for whatever could be learned or bought.
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Student Handout Islam and Urbanization

Compare the maps below by locating and listing those cities that
• existed before the expansion of territory under Muslim rule.
• that experienced continuity from the earliest map to the last.
• that appeared in the period between each pair of maps.
• that appeared outside of territory under Muslim rule, or which were in territory no longer under Muslim rule at the time shown on the map. What conclusions can you draw about the causes and effects of urbanization in the Mediterranean region between 528 and 1000 CE
Populations_50-125,000_23-49,000_15-22,000_Rome_Carthage_Milan_Ravenna'>Miletus
Cities in 528 CE
Populations
50-125,000
23-49,000
15-22,000
Rome
Carthage
Milan
Ravenna
Constantinople
Salonika
Ephesus
Sardis
Alexandria
Antioch
Hamadan
Ctesiphon
Rayy
Caesarea
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Cities in 737 CE
Populations
50-125,000
23-49,000
15-22,000
Toledo
Constantinople
Salonika
Alexandria
Antioch
Hamadan
Ctesiphon
Rayy
Damascus
Nishapur
Shiraz
Kufa
Basra
Fustat
Mosul
Cities in 1000 CE
Populations
50-125,000
23-49,000
15-22,000
Toledo
Constantinople
Alexandria
Antioch
Hamadan
Baghdad
Rayy
Damascus
Nishapur
Shiraz
Basra
Cairo
Mosul
Cordoba
Seville
Isfahan
Fez
Kairouan
Palermo_Makkah'>Palermo
Makkah
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Maps adapted from Colin McEvedy, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (New York Penguin, 1992), 25, 41, 57, 75.
Cities in 1212 CE
Populations
50-125,000
23-49,000
15-22,000
Toledo
Constantinople
Alexandria
Antioch
Hamadan
Baghdad
Rayy
Damascus
Nishapur
Shiraz
Basra
Cairo
Mosul
Cordoba
Seville
Isfahan
Fez
Kairouan
Palermo
Makkah
Rabat-Salé
Marrakech
Tunis
London
Bruges
Ghent
Paris
Milan
Genoa
Ver
ona
Venice
Bruges
Naples
Piza
Florence
Rome
Qus
Bukhara
Sam
arkan
d
Novgorod
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Lesson 4
Why Did Muslim Merchants Know the Rules of the Road
and the Laws of the Sea

Objective:
Students will be able to
• demonstrate how Muslims contributed to creating an interconnected trade network in
Afroeurasia before 1500.
Introduction World trade networks seem a recent phenomenon to many people, including current secondary school students. Interconnected long-distance trade networks, however, existed before 1500. This lesson helps students discover how the spread of Islam in many merchant communities created connections between trade networks. Most students best remember significant events or processes in history through stories. World history has many stories but no overarching narrative similar to what can be found in national histories. One narrative that teachers can point to is the effect of the spread of religions in the pre-modern period. Students will learn from this lesson that the spread of Islam in many merchant communities and the creation of the Caliphates created growing connections between trade networks from West Africa to southern China.
1. The skits that students create in this lesson will help them develop a narrative about the advantages Muslim merchants had in the interconnected trade networks in the Eastern Hemisphere before 1500.
• Students make a list of where their clothing, shoes, and accessories were manufactured.
• Students mark the origin of the clothing on a world map.
• Students draw lines from the manufacturing centers to where they bought the item.
• Students discuss the extent of the interconnected trade network today.
• Extension Students compare import and export data for several nations. What are governments attitudes toward import and export data Which governments tax imports Which governments tax exports Why
2. Students predict where they think Muslim merchants would have been most successful in the Eastern Hemisphere. Students should consult their world history textbook if they have one. It should have at least one map showing where Muslim governments existed and where trade routes existed before 1500.
3. Students use the following primary and secondary sources to create a skit showing at least three factors that made long-distance trade easier for Muslims language, religion, and government protection. The skits must be placed in a specific time and place during the period 1200 to 1500 CE. Students must use at least three props in their skits. Possible examples area toy camel, a lateen sailor picture of one, or a trade good like incense, silk, or fur.
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44 Example Ina Muslim father decides to write a book for his young son giving him advice on how to trade in the Indian Ocean region. The book is added to by members of each generation. They comment on the continuities and changes in the trade networks goods traded, government support, increase in the number of merchants who converted to Islam, and transportation technology. The skit could show how each contributor asks other members of his family, his business partners, or even the audience for help in writing his part of the book. Students can use the primary and secondary sources in the Student Handouts to prepare their skits. Teachers might choose to remove the headings from the sources to help students work on categorization skills. As an additional step before creating and performing the skits, students might organize and label the sources based on geography, dates, and the potential advantages Muslim merchants have.

4. Coins and currency Ask students to generate a list of elements found in paper and coin money in the world today. They should mention
• the currency amount
• name of the government issuing/minting the currency
• date of issue or minting
• symbols related to the government and/or culture Tell students that the American dollar is recognized and used outside of the United States even if the people using it do not read English. Have students discuss the advantages to merchants and tax collectors when currency looks familiar. Use the website Early Islamic Coins by James N. Roberts (
http://users.rcn.com/j-roberts
) to find images of all of the coins listed below. Students may use copies of images of currency from 1000-1250 that show Arabic writing on them (minted by Muslim and Christian rulers
Almoravids (Spain)
Fatimids (Egypt) Delhi Sultanate (India) Bela III of Hungary (1173-96)
Seljuqs of Rum (Turkey)
Rasulids of Yemen
Khwarizmshahs (Iran/Afghanistan)
Saffarids of Seistan (Iran)
Ildegizids of Azerbaijan Normans of Sicily Students use the above list to mark on a map of Afroeurasia the location of the places where the coins were minted.
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Discussion questions
• Why did coins issued by Muslim rulers during most of the period from 1000 to 1250 only have Arabic writing on them (religious prohibition against images of people)
• What advantage might readers of Arabic have in the trading zone encompassed by the coins
• What kind of conclusions can you draw about the extent of Muslim rulers' influence on trade
Assessment
Have students write a response to the passage below using the map they created and the other maps for this lesson
Modern Dhow with Lateen Sail off the Coast of India
Photo by Ray Smith
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Student Handout Evidence of Factors that Eased Trade in the Muslim
World
Arabic as a language common to many Muslims made trade easier.
• The first reliable evidence of Islam as an active force in Southeast Asia comes from the Venetian merchant Marco Polo. Landing in northern Sumatra on his way back to Europe from China in 1292, he discovered Perlak, an Islamic town surrounded by non-Islamic neighbors. An inscription from a tombstone dated 1297 reveals that the first ruler of
Samudra, another Sumatran state, was a Muslim. The Moroccan Muslim Muhammad ibn-
'Abdullah ibn-Battuta visited the same town in 1345-46 and wrote about his experiences with the Muslim ruler there. By the late fourteenth century, inscriptions in Sumatra were written with Arabic letters rather than older, indigenous or Indian-based scripts.
• The collection of documents from the Cairo Geniza (traditional Jewish archives) shows that Jewish merchants of the ninth to eleventh centuries prized command of Arabic to aid them in long-distance trade. Contracts and business partnerships between Jews and Muslims or Christians were common.
Muslims spread transportation technology.
• Camel Arab and Muslim conquerors of North Africa brought the one-humped camel and the efficient North Arabian saddle to expand trans-Saharan trade. The camel made it possible for people from the southern Sahara to establish contacts with the people of the northern Sahara.
• Dhow Lateen (triangular-shaped) sail on boat of sewn (not nailed) hull used extensively by Arab/Muslim sailors throughout the Indian Ocean region.
• Cartography Knowledge of the monsoon wind patterns and map making recorded in books supported by Islamic governments (mostly the Caliphates.
The hajj, the annual Muslim religious pilgrimage to Makkah, affected trade positively.
Excerpt from The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, trans. R. J. C. Broadhurst (London Jonathan Cape
1952), 105-121. Ibn Jubayr was a Muslim from Spain who made the hajj in 1184 CE. From all parts produce is brought to it, and it is the most prosperous of countries in its fruits, useful requisites, commodities, and commerce. And although there is no commerce save in the pilgrim period, nevertheless, since people gather in it from east and west, there will be sold in one day, apart from those that follow, precious objects such as pearls, sapphires, and other stones, various kinds of perfume such as musk, camphor, amber and aloes, Indian drugs and other articles brought from India and Ethiopia, the products of the industries of 'Iraq and the Yemen, as well as the merchandise of Khurasan, the goods of the Maghrib, and other wares such as it is impossible to enumerate or correctly assess. Even if they were spread overall lands, brisk markets could beset up with them and all would be filled with the useful effects of commerce. All this is within the eight days that follow the pilgrimage, and exclusive of what might suddenly arrive throughout the year from the Yemen and other countries. Not on the face of the world are there any goods or products but that some of them are in Mecca at this meeting of the pilgrims.
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47 This blessing is clear to all, and one of the miracles that God has worked in particular for this city.


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