Bbi 2421 pjj – Second Meeting Essay

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BBI 2421


  • Introduction:
    • What the essay is all about
    • Last sentence is called “thesis statement”
  • Body:
    • Elaborates each subdivision of the essay
    • One paragraph for one subdivision
  • Conclusion:
    • Summarizes or reviews the main point
  • Introduction
  • General statement
  • Thesis statement
  • Body
  • Topic sentence 1
  • Supporting point 1
  • Supporting details 1
  • Topic sentence 2
  • Supporting point 2
  • Supporting details 2
  • Topic sentence 3
  • Supporting point 3
  • Supporting details 3
  • conclusion

Introductory Paragraph

  • Attracts the reader’s interest (general information)
  • Introduces the topic of the essay (thesis statement)

Thesis Statement

  • State the specific topic of the essay
  • List the subtopic of the main topic
  • Eg:
    • Three of the more successful styles are …
    • Therefore, workaholics’ lifestyles can affect their families, social lives, and health.
    • Teenagers express their separateness most vividly in their choice of clothes, hairstyle, music and vocabulary.

Body Paragraph


  • It signals the end of the essay
  • It reminds the reader of your main point
  • It leaves readers with your final thought


  • Unclear introduction
  • Unclear thesis statement
  • Disorganize thesis statement
  • Disorganize body paragraph
  • New subdivision in body paragraph
  • Conclusion does not reflect your whole essay
  • Introducing new idea in conclusion
  • Wrong usage of transition signals
  • Get lost in one’s own writing
  • Contradict one’s own idea

Opinion Essay:

  • Introduction
    • General idea
    • Thesis statement
  • Body paragraph
    • Point 1
    • Point 2
    • Point 3
  • Conclusion
    • Recommendation
  • Thesis statement
  • Topic sentence


  • There are three parts:
    • Concept
    • Category
    • Characteristic(s)
  • Concept:
  • Category:
    • Eg: the custom
  • Distinguishing characteristics:
    • Eg: of office workers wearing casual clothes to work on Friday.
  • Casual Friday refers to the custom of office workers wearing casual clothes to work on Friday.

Body Paragraph:

  • Have a clear topic sentence
  • Discuss each points separately, one after the other.
  • Introduce each point with a signal word / phrases.
  • Eg:
    • The first reason…
    • Another quality of a …
    • In addition, … is another advantage of …

Expansion of Points:

  • To give a clearer idea to the reader
  • This is necessary, especially when you have a one-word term or a phrase such as staycation, memory, medical tourism, low blood pressure.


  • Support each point with relevant details like examples or statistics; numbers, costs, amounts, percentages.


  • Flow (one sentence must lead to the next one)
  • Ways to practice coherence:
    • Use nouns and pronouns CONSISTENTLY.
    • Use transition signals:
      • To move to new idea.
      • To show relations among ideas.
    • Use logical division of ideas:
      • Most important – less important.
      • Less important – most important.

Use Nouns and Pronounce CONSISTENTLY:

  • Continue to use the same nouns and pronouns you start with.
  • Eg:
    • Noun:
      • Students ≠ student.
    • Pronoun:
      • You ≠ they / he / him.


  • Use a plural noun rather than a singular noun when referring to a group of people of both sexes.
  • Use a plural pronoun rather than a singular pronoun to make it less awkward.
  • Eg:
    • A student must display his or her matric card when in campus.
    • Students must display their matric card when in campus.

APA citation

  • Use author-date method
  • In-text citation:
    • Short / long quotations
      • Directly quoting from a work
    • Summary / paraphrase
      • Using your own words

Short quotations

  • Author (Year of publication), “xxx”
  • Page number for the reference (p. 25)
  • Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase
    • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
    • Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199).
    • She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Long quotations

  • 40> words
  • Free-standing block
  • No quotation marks
  • On a new line, indented 5 spaces from the left margin
  • Jones's (1998) study found the following:
  • Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary / paraphrase

  • Author (year of publication), xxx
  • Page number is optional but encouraged.
    • According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
    • APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).


  • 2: name both, use ‘and’
    • Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...
    • (Wegener & Petty, 1994)
  • 3-5: name all the 1st time, first author followed by ‘et al.’ the 2nd time onwards
    • (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
    • (Kernis et al., 1993)
  • 6>: first author followed by ‘et al.’
    • Harris et al. (2001) argued...
    • (Harris et al., 2001)
  • Indirect source: use the original, (secondary)
    • Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
  • Rule
  • Example
  • Use reporting phrase:
  • - He said
  • - He stated
  • - According to name of the source, (use “x” if you copy words exactly)
  • “I like you,” he said.
  • He said, “I like you.”
  • According to veterinarian Dr. Brown (2000), “…”
  • Begin each quoted sentence with a capital letter.
  • When a quoted sentence is separated into two parts, begin the second part with a small letter.
  • “Your dog is a pit bull,” he continued, “and I am afraid of him.”
  • Comma, question mark, exclamation marks etc go inside the second quotation mark.
  • “why not?”
  • Give the quoted person’s title or occupation.
  • Use appositive clause to help you write this better.
  • My older sister, financial manager for a large insurance company, claims, “I save myself time, and I save my company money by telecommuting.”

Reference list: Printed

  • Book:
  • Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
    • Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Reference list: Printed

  • Newspaper:
  • Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, p. x.
  • Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times, p. 7.

Reference list: Printed

  • Newspaper (no author):
  • Title of the article. (year, month date). Title of newspaper, p. x.
  • Report casts shadow. (2007, October 16). Waikato Times, p. 7.

Reference list: Printed

  • Magazine:
  • Author. A. A. (year, month date). Title of the article. Title of the magazine, volume, page number.
  • Goodwin, D. K. (2002, February 4). How I caused that story. Time, 159, 69.

Reference list: Electronic

  • Newspapers:
  • Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from
  • Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from

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