Bahan kajian



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  • BAHAN KAJIAN
  • Dikoleksi oleh: Prof Dr Ir Soemarno
  • PSLP –PDKLP PPSUB MARET 2012
  • Kajian interdisipliner merupakan kajian yang tidak mengkhususkan diri pada suatu alat analisis yang bersandar pada paradigma keilmuan satu disiplin tertentu.
  • Kajian interdisipliner dalam melakukan analisisnya menggunakan bidang-bidang keilmuan lainnya relevan dengan obyek kajian yang tengah diteliti.
  • DISCIPLINARY
  • “Disciplinary” merupakan istilah yang digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan tipe-tipe pengetahuan, ekspertais, ketrampilan, orang, proyek, komunitas, problem, tantangan, kajian, penelaahan, pendekatan, dan bidang-bidang riset , yang berhubungan erat dengan bidang kajian akademik (disiplin akademik) atau bidang-bidang praktek profesional (profession).
  • Misalnya, fenomena gravitasi berhubungan erat dengan disiplin akademik fisika, sehingga “gravitasi” dianggap menjadi bagian dari disiplin pengetahuan fisika.
  • Closely associated terms include multidisciplinary (multidisciplinarity), interdisciplinary (interdisciplinarity), transdisciplinary (transdisciplinarity), and crossdisciplinary (crossdisciplinarity).
  • Disciplinary knowledge associated with academic disciplines and professions results in people who are known as expert or specialist, as opposed to generalist who may have studied liberal arts or systems theory.
  • Academic disciplines tend to coevolve with systems of professions. The academic disciplines and professions may be said to 'own' knowledge and the privilege/responsibility of validating/authorizing new knowledge extensions in particular disciplinary areas. For example, astronomers define what is and is not a planet, and so the knowledge about the status of Pluto as a planet can change.
  • Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciplinary ….. Diunduh 22/3/2012
  • “Disciplinary” menyatakan pengetahuan yang berhubungan dengan satu disiplin akademik atau profesi.
  • Permasalahan di dunia nyata:
  • Pemanfaatan sumberdaya alam, pembangunan dan dampak lingkungan
  • Metode Penelitian pendukung:
  • Scientific methods
  • System theory and approaches
  • HASIL INTERDISIPLIN RISET
  • Disiplin ilmu pendukung:
  • Academic disciplines: Ilmu-ilmu dasar
  • Hasil dan Kesimpulan:
  • Keseimbangan ekonomi, sosial, dan ekologi
  • Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies
  • INTERDISIPLINARITAS
  • “Interdisciplinarity” melibatkan kombinasi dua atau lebih bidang-bidang akademik menjadi satu disiplin tunggal.
  • An interdisciplinary field crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged.
  • Originally the term interdisciplinary is applied within education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study.
  • Interdisciplinarity involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goals of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies - along with their specific perspectives - in the pursuit of a common task.
  • Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciplinary ….. Diunduh 22/3/2012
  • APA MAKNA PENELITIAN INTERSIDIPLINER?
  • Interdisciplinary research (IDR) is a mode of research by teams or individuals that combines information, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, or theories from two or more research traditions. Its purpose is to explore questions that are not confined to a single field of research. The increasing complexity of the relationship between nature and society has heightened the need for IDR. At the same time, the development of science and technology has resulted in new forms and practices of inquiry that continually change the disciplinary landscape of knowledge production.
  • IDR takes so many forms that it is best understood not as one thing but as a variety of different ways of bridging and confronting the prevailing disciplinary approaches. Interdisciplinary environmental research will be characterized here in terms of its scope, depth, and goals.
  • The scope of IDR defines which fields or perspectives are involved. The depth of IDR, in turn, defines the level or type of intellectual interaction between them. Finally, the goal of IDR indicates why an interdisciplinary approach is adopted.
  • (sumber: http://www.fidea.fi/index.php?page=interdisciplinarity)
  • MULTI-DISIPLINARITAS
  •  
  • Multidisciplinarity merupakan campuran non-integrative beberapa disiplin-disiplin dimana setiap disiplin mempertahankan methodologies dan asumpsi-asumsinya tanpa mengalami perubahan atau pengembangan (pengkayaan) dari disiplin lainnya di dalam hubungan multidisiplinaritas.
  • Multidisciplinarity is distinctly different from Interdisciplinarity because of the relationship that the disciplines share. Within a multidisciplinary relationship this cooperation "may be mutual and cumulative but not interactive" (Augsburg, 2005) while interdisciplinarity blends the practices and assumptions of each discipline involved.
  • Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciplinary ….. Diunduh 22/3/2012
  • Multidisciplinary, dalam kontek pengelolaan dan perawatan kesehatan, berarti bahwa penyedia layanan kesehatan dari berbagai profesi bekerja bersama berkolaborasi untuk melakukan diagnose, pendugaan/penilaian dan perlakuan, di dalam lingkup praktek dan bidang kompetensinya.
  • MULTI-DISIPLINER
  • INTERDISCIPLINARY.
  • Interdisciplinary refers to new knowledge extensions that exist between or beyond existing academic disciplines or professions. The new knowledge may be claimed by members of none, one, both, or an emerging new academic discipline or profession.
  • An interdisciplinary community or project is made up of people from multiple disciplines and professions who are engaged in creating and applying new knowledge as they work together as equal stakeholders in addressing a common challenge. The key question is what new knowledge (of an academic discipline nature), which is outside the existing disciplines, is required to address the challenge.
  • Aspects of the challenge cannot be addressed easily with existing distributed knowledge, and new knowledge becomes a primary subgoal of addressing the common challenge. The nature of the challenge, either its scale or complexity, requires that many people have interactional expertise to improve their efficiency working across multiple disciplines as well as within the new interdisciplinary area.
  • Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciplinary ….. Diunduh 22/3/2012
  • An interdisciplinarary person is a person with degrees from one or more academic disciplines with additional interactional expertise in one or more additional academic disciplines, and new knowledge that is claimed by more than one discipline.
  • Over time, interdisciplinary work can lead to an increase or a decrease in the number of academic disciplines.
  • TRANSDISCIPLINARY
  • Transdisciplinary refers to knowledge that exists in every individual, thus eliminating the need for discipline boundaries.
  • A transdisciplinary community or project is made up of transdisciplinary professionals, which is an ideal that can only be approached and not actually achieved in practice. To exist in today's society, a transdisciplinary professional would possess certification or degrees in all disciplines as well as experience in all professions.
  • In essence, a truly transdisciplinary person contains all the distributed knowledge of the people in the community or project as their individual common knowledge. Furthermore, they exist within a community of people that share that knowledge.
  • A transdisciplinary community is one in which common knowledge of individuals and the distributed knowledge of the collective are identical.
  • Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciplinary ….. Diunduh 22/3/2012
  • CROSS-DISCIPLINARITY
  • Crossdisciplinarity describes any method, project and research activity that examines a subject outside the scope of its own discipline without cooperation or integration from other relevant disciplines. In crossdisciplinarity, topics are studied using foreign methodologies of unrelated disciplines, for example Ethics in clinical research and occupational health.
  • Crossdisciplinarity is distinctly different from Interdisciplinarity because of the relationship that the disciplines share. Within a crossdisciplinary relationship disciplinary boundaries are crossed but no techniques or ideals are exchanged while Interdisciplinary relationships blend the practices and assumptions of each discipline involved.
  • Multidisciplinarity is very closely related to crossdisciplinarity because there is no transfer of methodologies or cooperation between the disciplines but different in that 'more than one' other outside discipline examines a specific topic.
  • .
  • Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disciplinary ….. Diunduh 22/3/2012
  • WHY INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH?
  • Definition
  • Interdisciplinary research (IDR) is a mode of research by teams or individuals that integrates information, data, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, and/or theories from two or more disciplines or bodies of specialized knowledge to advance fundamental understanding or to solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of a single discipline or area of research practice.
  • Interdisciplinary research (IDR) can be one of the most productive and inspiring of human pursuits—one that provides a format for conversations and connections that lead to new knowledge. As a mode of discovery and education, it has delivered much already and promises more—a sustainable environment, healthier and more prosperous lives, new discoveries and technologies to inspire young minds, and a deeper understanding of our place in space and time.
  • In recent decades, the growth of scientific and technical knowledge has prompted scientists, engineers, social scientists, and humanists to join in addressing complex problems that must be attacked simultaneously with deep knowledge from different perspectives. Students show increasing enthusiasm about problems of global importance that have practical consequences, such as disease prevention, economic development, social inequality, and global climate change—all of which can best be addressed through IDR.
  • Sumber: http://www.beckmanmacular.org/site/DocServer/Info_on_IDR.pdf?docID=121….. Diunduh 22/3/2012
  • “research, teaching, or problem solving that integrates several disciplines to create a unified outcome”
  • James Collins
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Definition of “Interdisciplinary Research”
  • The process of answering a question, solving a problem, or addressing a topic that cannot be dealt with adequately by a single discipline and draws on the ensemble of a disciplines defining elements and integrates the insights to produce a more comprehensive understanding or cognitive advancement.
  • (SUMBER: http://www.idrsociety.org/what-we-do-2/idr-symposium-2011/)
  • Interdisciplinary research (IDR) is a mode of research by teams or individuals that integrates information, data, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, and/or theories from two or more disciplines or bodies of specialized knowledge to advance fundamental understanding or to solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of a single discipline or area of research practice.
  • (sumber: http://www.pkal.org/collections/Vol4InterdisciplinaryResearch.cfm)


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