Asus Pirated software and dissemination of confidential data


Consensus decision-making - Consensus blocking and other forms of dissent



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Consensus decision-making - Consensus blocking and other forms of dissent

  • When there is potential for a block to a group decision, both the group and dissenters in the group are encouraged to collaborate until agreement can be reached

Consensus decision-making - Consensus blocking and other forms of dissent

  • *Limiting the option to block consensus to issues that are fundamental to the group’s mission or potentially disastrous to the group.

Consensus decision-making - Consensus blocking and other forms of dissent

  • *Providing an option for those who do not support a proposal to “stand aside” rather than block.

Consensus decision-making - Consensus blocking and other forms of dissent

  • *Requiring a block from two or more people to put a proposal aside.

Consensus decision-making - Consensus blocking and other forms of dissent

  • *Requiring the blocking party to supply an alternative proposal or a process for generating one.

Consensus decision-making - Consensus blocking and other forms of dissent

  • *Limiting each person’s option to block consensus to a handful of times in one’s life.

Consensus decision-making - Dissent options

  • When a participant does not support a proposal, he does not necessarily need to block it. When a call for consensus on a motion is made, a dissenting delegate has one of three options:

Consensus decision-making - Dissent options

  • *'Declare reservations:' Group members who are willing to let a motion pass but desire to register their concerns with the group may choose declare reservations. If there are significant reservations about a motion, the decision-making body may choose to modify or re-word the proposal.

Consensus decision-making - Dissent options

  • *'Stand aside:' A stand aside may be registered by a group member who has a serious personal disagreement with a proposal, but is willing to let the motion pass. Although stand asides do not halt a motion, it is often regarded as a strong nay vote and the concerns of group members standing aside are usually addressed by modifications to the proposal. Stand asides may also be registered by users who feel they are incapable of adequately understanding or participating in the proposal.

Consensus decision-making - Dissent options

  • *'Block:' Any group member may block a proposal. In most models, a single block is sufficient to stop a proposal, although some measures of consensus may require more than one block (see previous section, Consensus decision-making#Decision rules|Decision rules).

Consensus decision-making - Dissent options

  • Blocks are generally considered an extreme measure—only used when a member feels a proposal endanger[s] the organization or its participants, or violate[s] the mission of the organization (i.e., a principled objection). In some consensus models, a group member opposing a proposal must work with its proponents to find a solution that works for everyone.

BCI2000 - Dissemination

  • BCI2000 has been used in a number of publications and studies internationally. The original paper describing the BCI2000 system has been cited more than 200 times, while the system has been used in over 120 peer-reviewed publications.

BCI2000 - Dissemination

  • BCI2000-based systems have been used by severely disabled individuals, commonly from ALS or other causes of locked-in syndrome, for word processing, email, environmental control, and communication.

BCI2000 - Dissemination

  • BCI2000 was also used in the experiment at the University of Washington that was the first to successfully transmit brain signals over the internet.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

  • 'Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis' ('ADEM') is an immune mediated disease of the human brain|brain

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

  • ADEM produces multiple Inflammation|inflammatory lesions in the brain and spinal cord, particularly in the white matter. Usually these are found in the subcortical and central white matter and cortical gray-white junction of both cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord, but periventricular white matter and gray matter of the Cerebral cortex|cortex, thalami and basal ganglia may also be involved.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

  • When the patient suffers more than one demyelinating episode, it is called 'recurrent disseminated encephalomyelitis' or 'multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis'(MDEM).

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis - Causes and antecedent history

  • Viral infections thought to induce ADEM include Orthomyxoviridae|influenza virus, enterovirus, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella zoster, Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis A, and coxsackievirus; while the bacterial infections include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Leptospira, and Streptococcus#Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci|beta-hemolytic Streptococci

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis - Presentation

  • ADEM has an abrupt onset and a monophasic course

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis - Treatment

  • No controlled clinical trials have been conducted on ADEM treatment, but aggressive treatment aimed at rapidly reducing inflammation of the CNS is standard

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis - Treatment

  • There is some evidence to suggest that patients may respond to a combination of methylprednisolone and immunoglobulins if they fail to respond to either separately

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis - Treatment

  • In a study of 16 children with ADEM, 10 recovered completely after high-dose methylprednisolone, one severe case that failed to respond to steroids recovered completely after IV Ig; the five most severe cases -with ADAM and severe peripheral neuropathy- were treated with combined high-dose methylprednisolone and immunoglobulin, two remained paraplegic, one had motor and cognitive handicaps, and two recovered


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