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Organizational dissent - Verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness

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Organizational dissent - Verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness

  • Individuals will choose their strategy for expressing dissent based on the strength of their arguments. Kassing and Avtgis (1999) found an individual who is more argumentative and less verbally aggressive is prone to use articulated dissent. On the other hand, an individual who lacks argumentative skills will resort to using a less direct and more aggressive strategy, latent dissent.

Organizational dissent - Work locus of control

  • Kassing's (2001) study demonstrated that employees with an internal locus of control used articulated dissent whereas an employee with an external locus of control preferred to use latent dissent.

Organizational dissent - Relational influences

  • Relational influences include the types and qualities of relationships people maintain within their organization.

Organizational dissent - Relational influences

  • Employees may feel uncomfortable voicing their dissenting opinions in the presence of others because they feel the best way to preserve relationships is to keep quiet

Organizational dissent - Relational influences

  • Superior–subordinate relationship

Organizational dissent - Relational influences

  • Conversely, employees that perceive their relationship with their supervisor as low-quality will resort to latent dissent

Organizational dissent - Relational influences

  • Therefore, supervisors should not only take actions to encourage dissent, they must be willing to seek out individuals willing to say no to them (Roberto, 2005).

Organizational dissent - Organizational influences

  • Organizational influences concern how organizations relate to their employees.

Organizational dissent - Organizational norms

  • Employees make assessments about Motivation|motives and restraints when others dissent and use this knowledge to inform their own decisions about when and how to use dissent (Kassing, 2001)

Organizational dissent - Organizational identification

  • Organizational identification and workplace freedom of speech has an effect on an individual's choice of expressing dissent (Kassing, 2000). If an individual highly identifies himself or herself with the organization, they are more likely to use the dissent strategy that mirrors the organization's values. If the organization demonstrates it values dissent and promotes workplace freedom of speech, the highly identified employee will demonstrate articulate dissent.

Organizational dissent - Openness

  • An organization that limits the opportunities for employees to voice their opinions, demonstrates contradictory expectations, and gives the perception that openness is not favored, will lead employees to select latent dissent strategies (Kassing Avtgis, 1999).

Organizational dissent - Perceptions of organizational dissenters

  • The perceptions of supervisors and coworkers can be used to further determine an individual's choice of dissent strategy. Employees will take notice of other dissenters and the consequences of their actions and will use this information to refine their sense of organizational tolerance for dissent, to determine what issues merit dissent, and to inform their future dissent strategy choices (Kassing, 2001).

Organizational dissent - Perceptions of organizational dissenters

  • Kassing (2001) found that articulated and latent dissenters were perceived differently. People perceived articulated dissenters to be more satisfied, more committed, possess higher quality relationships with their supervisors, and seen as employees who believed they have influence within their organizations than latent dissenters. Furthermore, articulated dissenters, compared to latent dissenters, were perceived to be less verbally aggressive.

Organizational dissent - Triggering events

  • The majority of employees expressed dissent due to resistance of organizational change

Organizational dissent - Triggering events

  • In addition to the dissent-triggering event, the focus of the issues can be relevant to how one expresses dissent. Kassing (2002) believed individuals may focus on improving matters within the organization that affect themselves (self-focused), they may focus on the welfare of the organization of the whole (other-focused) or they may focus on issues concerning their co-workers (neutral).

Organizational dissent - Articulated dissent

  • An individual will use upward articulate dissent in response to functional and other-focused dissent-triggering events. Organizations are more attractive to upward articulate dissenting when it is in regards to functional aspects. This type of dissent gives the perception that dissenters are being constructive and are concerned with issues of principle rather than personal-advantage. It allows the employee to signal their commitment to cooperative goals.

Organizational dissent - Latent dissent

  • Individuals may also express latent dissent in response to functional and other-focused dissent-triggering. They determine to use latent instead of articulate when they believe that management is not receptive to employee dissent. This indicates that individuals would use articulate dissent if they feel those channels are not available and accessible. Latent dissent is also used in protective dissent–triggering events.

Organizational dissent - Displaced dissent

  • When an organization fails to address potential issues, employees may then view the organization as discouraging dissent and will resort to using either latent or displaced dissent in the future.

Organizational dissent - Benefits of upward dissent

  • In 2002, Kassing's research found upward dissent can be beneficial to both the organization and the individuals involved.

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