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Dissenting opinion

  • A 'dissenting opinion' (or 'dissent') is an Legal opinion|opinion in a legal case written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment

Dissenting opinion

  • A dissenting opinion does not create binding precedent nor does it become a part of case law. However, they are cited from time to time as a persuasive authority when arguing that the court's Holding (law)|holding should be limited or overturned. In some cases, a previous dissent is used to spur a change in the law, and a later case will write a majority opinion for the same rule of law formerly cited by the dissent.

Dissenting opinion

  • The dissent may disagree with the majority for any number of reasons: a different interpretation of the case law, use of different principles, or a different interpretation of the facts. They are written at the same time as the majority opinion and are often used to dispute the reasoning behind the majority opinion.

Dissenting opinion - Types of dissenting opinions

  • A 'dissent in part' is a dissenting opinion that disagrees selectively—specifically, with one part of the majority holding. In decisions that require holdings with multiple parts due to multiple legal claims or consolidated cases, judges may write an opinion concurring in part and dissenting in part.

Dissenting opinion - Dissenting opinions by region

  • In some courts, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the majority opinion may be broken down into numbered or lettered parts, which allows those judges dissenting in part to easily identify which parts they join with the majority, and which sections they do not.

Dissenting opinion - Dissenting opinions by region

  • In the mid-20th century, it became customary for the members of the U.S. Supreme Court and many state supreme courts to end their dissenting opinions with a variation on the phrase I respectfully dissent. In dissents filed in high-profile cases, that phrase can sometimes convey a sarcastic tone, depending upon the context.

Kiss - Non-sexual kisses

  • Female friends and close acquaintances commonly offer reciprocity (social psychology)|reciprocal cheek kissing|kisses on the cheek as a greeting or wikt:farewell|farewell

Kiss - Non-sexual kisses

  • Blown kisses are also used when a person wishes to convey affection to a large crowd or audience

Kiss - Non-sexual kisses

  • In some Western cultures it is considered luck|good luck to kiss someone on Christmas or on New Year's Eve, especially beneath a sprig of mistletoe. Newlyweds usually kiss at the end of a wedding ceremony.

Kiss - Non-sexual kisses

  • Some literature suggests that a significant percentage of humanity does not kiss. In Sub-Saharan African, Culture of Asia|Asiatic, Polynesian culture|Polynesian and possibly in some Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native American cultures, kissing was relatively unimportant until European colonization.Marvin K. Opler, Cross-cultural aspects of kissing, Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, Vol. 3, No. 2, February 1969, pp. 11, 14, 17, 20–21]

Kiss - Non-sexual kisses

  • With the Andamanese, kissing was only used as a sign of affection towards children and had no sexual undertones.

Kiss - Non-sexual kisses

  • In traditional Islamic cultures kissing is not permitted between a man and woman who are not married or closely related by blood or marriage. A Cheek kissing|kiss on the cheek is a very common form of greeting among members of the same sex in most Islamic countries, following the south European pattern.

Organizational dissent

  • [ Conflict: Cost and opportunity.] Retrieved September 17, 2007 argues that the hidden costs of silencing dissent include: wasted and lost time, reduced Decision making|decision Quality (business)|quality, emotional and Interpersonal relationship|relationship costs, and decreased Employment|job motivation

Organizational dissent - Types of dissent

  • There are three types of dissent: articulated, latent, and displaced (Kassing, 1998).

Organizational dissent - Articulated

  • Involves expressing dissent openly and clearly in a constructive fashion to members of an organization that can effectively influence organization adjustment. This may include supervisors, management, and corporate officers.

Organizational dissent - Latent

  • Employees resort to expressing dissent to either their coworkers or other ineffectual audiences within the organization. Employees employ this route when they desire to voice their opinions but lack sufficient avenues to effectively express themselves.

Organizational dissent - Displaced

  • Involves expressing dissent to external audiences, such as family and friends, rather than News media|media or political sources sought out by whistle-blowers.

Organizational dissent - Factors influencing dissent expression

  • Kassing (1997) states there are three factors that influence which dissent strategy an employee will decide to use:

Organizational dissent - Individual influences

  • Individual influences concern qualities that employees bring to the organization, expectations they have acquired, and behaviors they enact within organizations.

Organizational dissent - Preference to avoid conflict

  • Roberto (2005) claims that employees may have a preference for avoiding Organizational conflict|conflict. Therefore, they find confrontation in a public setting uncomfortable. Individual's sense of powerlessness and senses of right and wrong are contributing factors (Kassing Avtgis, 1999).

Organizational dissent - Verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness

  • Kassing and Avtgis (1999) demonstrated that an individual's verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness influence the manner in which an individual will approach expressing dissent. Verbal aggressiveness involves attacking another person's self concept. This may include character attacks, Skill|competence attacks, ridicule, and threats. Argumentativeness, on the other hand, is when an individual argues about controversial issues.

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