GOEBEL, ga'bel, SIEGFRIED ABRAHAM: German Reformed; b. at Winningen (4 m. s.w. of Coblenz) Mar. 24, 1844. He was educated at the universities of Erlangen (1863‑64), Halls (1864‑65), and Berlin (1865‑67), and was deacon at St. Peter's, Posen (1868‑74), court preacher at Halberstadt (1874‑89), and consistorial councilor at Munster (1889‑95). Since 1895 he has been professor of theology at the University of Bonn. In theology he represents Biblical Christianity, and has written Die Parabeln Jesu (2 vols., Gotha, 1879‑$0; Eng. transl. by J. S. Banks, Edinburgh, 1883); Neutestamentliche Schriften, griechisch, mit kurzer Erklarung 2 vols., Gotha, 1887‑93); Das Christentum Christi and das kirchliche Christentum (Giitersloh, 1896); and Die Reden unsers Herrn nach Johannes im Grundtext ausgelegt, i (1906).
GOEPFERT, gap"fart', FRANZ ADAM:German Roman Catholic; b. at Wiirzburg Jan. 31, 1849. He was educated at the university of his native city (1867‑71) and, after being chaplain in Kitzingen (1871‑73) and subdirector of a school for boys in Wiirzburg (1873‑79), was in 1879 appointed associate professor of moral and pastoral theology in the university of the same city. Since 1884 he has been
Goetz THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 12
full professor of the same subjects at Wilrzburg, where he was also university preacher from 1882 to 1892 In addition to editing J. B. Renninger'a Pastoraltheologie (Freiburg, 1893), he has written Die Katholizit4t der Kirche (Wilmburg, 1876); Der Eid (Mainz, 1882); Moraltheologie (3 vols., Paderborn, 1897‑98); and St. Kilianusbtichlein (W iIrzburg, 1902).
GOERRES, gbr‑r6s', JOHANN JOSEF VON:German Roman Catholic; b. in Coblenz Jan. 25, 1776; d. in Munich Jan. 27, 1848. As a youth he welcomed with great enthusiasm the revolutionary movement when it began to invade Germany from France, and advocated the same by word and pen. But when in Paris at the close of 1799 he found opportunity to observe the republic at close hand, he was so‑
bered and turned his back on political
Early Life. life. The years 1800‑06 he spent Political quietly as a teacher at Coblenz, occu‑
Activity. pied with studies in physical science,
after which he spent two years at Heidelberg, where he became interested in Old German literature, and published, as first fruits of his Germanic studies, Die deutachen Volksbiicher (Heidelberg, 1807). The last fruit of his Germanic studies was the Altdeutsche Volks‑ and Meisterlieder aus den Handschriften der Heidelberger Bibliothek (1813). By these achievements G6rres' name is honorably connected with the beginnings of Germanic specialization. His Mythengeschichte der asiatischen Welt (2 vola., Heidelberg, 1810) was a product of the effort of Romanticism to unite religion and poetry.
The wars of liberation led Gorrea back into political life. He created an organ for himself in his journal, the Rheinischer Merkur, and wielded a potent influence by reason of his vigorous language, the keenness of his political judgment, and his patriotic attitude against Napoleon. But when, after Napoleon's defeat, he also directed his criticism against the home government and courageously opposed the incipient reaction, he became objectionable; on the publication of his Deutschland and die Revolution (Coblenz, 1820; Eng. transl., Germany and the Revolution, London, 1820), a warrant of arrest was even issued against him, but he fled to Strasburg. He still issued political writings (1821 and 1822). But the center of gravity of his interests became shifted; he entertained a different philosophy in regard to affiliation with the Roman Catholic Church, and the political writer became a church writer. This transition found practical expression when he joined the staff of the review Der Katholik.
In 1827 Gorres was called by King Louis I. of Bavaria to the University of Munich, and there at last he found the environment in which his individuality could fully unfold itself. An imposing group of notable personalities flourished in harmony at that time in Munich (Dollinger, Lasaulx, Ringseia,
M6hler, Phillips and others), connected
Professor with the review Eos. Besides his suc‑
in Munich. cessful activity as teacher, G6rres found time for thoroughgoing scientific works, the chief of which, Die christliche Mystik,
appeared in four volumes, from 1836 to 1842,
18 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA God‑parents
and fortunately escaped being placed on the Index; for at that time the Cologne controversy broke out (see DRosTE‑VIsCHERING), which straightway called G6rres into the arena, and incited him to what was perhaps his most important, at any rate his most effectual, piece of writing, his Athanasiua (Regensburg, 1837), wherein he brilliantly championed the archbishop of Cologne. As the Roman Catholic Church in Prussia emerged victorious from this conflict, G6rres prompted the establishment of the still current Historischrpolitische Blotter. When Bishop Arnoldi of Treves aroused no small sensation by display of the seamless robe of Christ (see HOLY CoAT), and was sharply attacked in the matter, it was Gbrres, again, who undertook the literary vindication of that procedure. He was ennobled in 1829.
G6rres proved himself a decided personality in very different situations, and made a name for himself through his versatile literary activity. He exhibited his principal talent as a political, writer; for strictly scientific research was not his province, and he was wanting in critical perception. It is significant in relation to his ecclesiastical position that both the later Ultramontane cause and the Old Catholic party appealed to his support, and could make that appeal consistently; since in his case there were points of contact with both these tendencies. He was neither an Ultramontane nor an Old Catholic, but an exponent of that moderate Catholicism which in conjunction with the after‑effects of the rationalistic period had blunted the edge of earlier acerbities. Nor was it until after the Cologne dispute that the distinctively Roman phases of G6rres manifested themselves the more conspicuously. CARL MIRBT.
In honor of Gorres, the G6rres‑Gesellschaft (" G6rres Society ") was founded on the centennial anniversary of his birth, 1876, to promote scholarship in Roman Catholic Germany. It has issued an annual Historiachea Jahrbuch since 1880 and Philosophischea Jahrbuch since 1888, Quellen and Forschungen aus dem Gebiet der Geschichte (11 vols., 1892‑1906), and a Staatslexicon (2d ed., 5 vols., 1900‑04), besides occasional publications. Prizes are offered to encourage investigation. The headquarters are in Bonn. Consult H. Cardanus, Die G6rres‑Gesellsehaft, 1876‑1901 (Cologne, 1901).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The collected writings and letters were published by Marie G6rres and F. Binder, 9 vole., Munich, 1854‑74. Consult: J. Galland, Josef van GSrres, Freiburg, 1878; ADB, ix. 378‑389; J. Friedrich. Ignax con DbUinger, vol. i., Munich, 1899; P. von Hoenebroeeh, Daa PapaMum in seiner soaiabkudturellen Wirkeamkei4 i. 235 sqq., Leipsie, 1901; H. Briick, Geschichte der deuteden katholischen Kirche im 19. Jahrhundert, vol. ii. Munich, 1903.
GOESCHEL, gb'shel, KARL FRIEDRICH: German jurist and philosopher; b. at Langensalza (25 m. n.w. of Erfurt), Thuringia, Oct. 7, 1784; d. at Naumburg (22 m. s.s.w. of Halle) Sept. 22, 1861. He received his first education at Gotha, and in 1803 began the study of jurisprudence at the University of Leipsic, where he remained until 1806, when he was appointed a magistrate in his native town. There he remained for twelve years, and during that period gathered material from the
town archives for a Chronik der Stadt Langensalza in Thiiringen (4 vols., Langensalza, 1818‑44). After the acquisition of Saxony, the Prussian government required officials acquainted with the law and administration of the new province, and G6scheI was accordingly called to Naumburg in 1819 as a justice of the Superior Court, holding this office until 1834. From 1834 to 1845 he officiated as a secretary in the ministry of justice in Berlin, where he was occupied chiefly with ecclesiastical affairs; while in 1845 he was appointed a member of the council of state, and president of the consistory of the province of Saxony, with residence in Magdeburg, until the revolution of 1848 forced him to take refuge in flight.
The main endeavor of Gbschel's life was the reconciliation of Christianity with modern culture, of which Hegel was the philosophical, and Goethe the poetical, representative. Among his numerous works may be mentioned: Ueber Goethea Faust and dessen Fortsetzung, nebst einem Anhange vom ewigen Juden (Leipsie, 1824); Cdcilius and Octavius, oder Gesprache aer die vornehmaten Einwenr dungen gegen die chriatliche Wahrheit (Berlin, 1828) ; Von den Beweisen fur die Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele im Lichte der spekulativen Philosophic (1835); Beitrage zur apekulativen Philosophie von Gott and dem Menachen and dem Gott‑Menschen (1838), and Unterhaltungen zur Schilderung Goethescher Dicht‑ and Denkweise (3 vols., Sehleusingen, 1834‑38). He also published a collection of essays entitled Zeratreute Blotter alts den Hand‑ and HWfsAden eines Juristen (3 vols., Erfurt, 1832‑42), and likewise wrote a noteworthy treatise on Die Konr kardienformel naeh ihrer Geachichte, Lehre and kirchliehen Bedeutung (Leipsie, 1858).
GOETTLER, got'ler, JOSEF: German Roman Catholic; b. at Dachau (25 m. s.e. of Augsburg) Mar. 9, 1874. He was educated at Scheyern, Freising, and Munich (1885‑98), and since 1904 has been privat‑docent for dogmatic theology at the University of Munich, as well as vicar of St. Cajetan's. He has edited G. Gundlach's ExerzitienVortrage (2 vols., Munich, 1904), and has written St. Thomas von Aquino uned die vortridentinisehen Thomisten t2ber die Wirkung des Bussakramentes (Freiburg, 1904); and Der Miinchener katechetische Kura (Kempten, 1906). GOETTSBERGER, getz'ber‑ger, JOHANN: German Roman Catholic; b. at Kohl, Lower Bavaria, Dec. 31, 1868. He was educated at Freising (18891890) and Munich (1890‑93), and after a year as curate (1894) was prefect at the archiepiscopal school for boys at Freising (1895‑97) and instructor in theology in the archiepiscopal school in the same city (1898‑1900). In 1900 he was appointed associate professor of Old Testament exegesis at the royal lyceum of Freising, and since 1903 has been full professor of the same subject at.the University of Munich. He has written Barhebrdns and seine Scholien zur heiligen Schrift (Freiburg, 1900). GOETZ, getz, LEOPOLD KARL: German Old Catholic; b. at Carlsruhe Oct. 7, 1868. After the
THE NEW 8CHAFF‑HERZOG
completion of his studies, he became, in 1891, pastor of the Old Catholic Church at Passau, since 1900 professor at the Old Catholic theological seminary in Bonn, and since 1902 has also been associate professor of philosophy at the university of the same city. He has written Die Busslehre
Cyprians (Konigsberg, 1895); Die gesehiehtlzche Stellung and Aufgabe des deutsehenAltkatholizismus (Leipsie, 1896); Geschichte der Slawenapostel Konstantinus (Cyrillus) and Methodius (Goths, 1897); Lazaristen and Jesuiten (1898); Redemptoristenund Protestanten (Giessen, 1899); Leo X111, seine Weltanr schauung and seine Wirksamkeit quellenmdssig dargestellt (Gotha, 1899); Jesuiten and Jesuitinnen (1900); Franz Heinrich Reusch (1901); Das Kiever Hohlenr kloster als Kulturzentrum des vormongolisehen Russlands (Passau, 1904); Der . Ujtramontanismus ale Weltanschauung, auf Grund des Syllabus quellenmassig dargestellt (Bonn, 1905); Kirchenrechtliche and kulturgeschichtliche Denkmdler Altrusslands (Stuttgart, 1905); Ein Wort zum konfessionellen Frieden (Bonn, 1906); and Klerikalismus and Laizismus, das Laienelement im Ultramontanismus (Frankfort, 1906).
GOEZE, ge'tse, JOHAN MELCHIOR: German theologian and controversialist; b. at Halberstadt (31 m. s.w. of Brunswick) Oct., 1717; d. at Hamburg May 19,1786. He studied theology at Jena and Halls; in 1741 he became assistant minister at Aacheraleben, whither his father had moved; and in 1744 diaconus. Six years later he accepted a call to the Church of the Holy Spirit in Magdeburg; and in 1755 went as chief pastor to the Church of St. Catherine in Hamburg, where he remained until his death. It was as a defender of the orthodox Lutheranism and as an opponent of the Enlightenment (q.v.) that Goeze is best known, and in the course of the long continued conflict many hard blows and violent epithets were exchanged. The lapse of time has led those who review the controversy to admit Goeze's sincerity and to grant his claims to real scholarship. In his polemics his appeal was to Scripture and the symbolical books of Lutheranism; and when these seemed to be assailed, his conceptions of his duty to himself and his office and the earnestness with which he threw himself into the defense led him often into a violence which is regrettable. As a consequence he was the object of severe attack, especially in the Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek. In 1765 against Semler he defended the Complutsnsian Polyglot (see BIBLES, POLYGLOT, l.). Later he justly assailed the German translation of the German Bible by Karl Friedrich Bahrdt (q.v.). Other polemics were directed against matters which are now wholly of the past. His principal attack was made upon Leasing after the publication of the Wolfenbiittel Fragments (q.v.); and the fact that Leasing chose Goeze as his opponent and made him the almost exclusive object of his replies indicates that Leasing saw in him the most dangerous of his critics. In a single year (1778) Leasing issued fifteen writings against Goeze, eleven of them named AntiGoeze (all in Hempel's ed. of Leasing, vol. xvi.). C=oeze's attacks upon Leasing were printed in Frey‑
willige Beytrdige zu den hamburgischen Nachrichten aus dem Reiehe der Gelehrsamkeit, parts 55‑56, 6163, 75. The conflict centered about the importance of the historical element for faith, Goeze maintaining that Christian faith must fall if the essential content of Biblical history, especially drat of the New Testament, were denied. Leaving's replies were rather irritable than sound, while Goeze's attack was directed by his conscience.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:G. R. RSpe, Johan Melchior Goeze, eirte Rerturep, Hamburg, 1880 (answered by A. Boden Leasing and Goeze, Leipeic, 1862); C. Bross, in Hempel's ed. of Leasing, vol. xv., Berlin 1873; E. Schmidt, Leaainp, ii. 347 eqq., Berlin, 1892; ADB, is. 524h530.
GOG AND MAGOG: A people usually identified with the Scythians. In Gen. x. 2 the second son of Japhet, named Magog, stands between Gomer and Madai. This sets him forth as the representative of a great people, if not of an entire group of nations north of Palestine. Since Togarmah (Armenia) is mentioned as the last branch of Gomer (the ancient Kimmerians, Odyssey, xi. 14; Herodotus, iv. 11 aqq.), a stricter geographical location would place Magog's dwelling between Armenia and Media, perhaps on the shores of the Araxes. But the people seem to have extended farther north across the Caucasus, filling there the extreme northern horizon of the Hebrews (Ezek. xxxviii. 15, xxxix. 2). This is the way Meahech and Tubal are often mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions (Mushku and Tabal, Gk. Moschoi and Tibarenoi). Some derive the name Gog in Ezekiel from the name of the country Magog; others see in Gog a historical personage for whom the prophet invented the name of a country, and find in him the famous king of the Lydians named Gyges (Gugu in the Assyrian inscriptions), who reigned about 660 $.c. (so E. Meyer, and Sayc;e, Higher Criticism, London, 1893, pp. ‑125‑126), or Gagi, ruler of the country of Sahi (F. Delitzsch, R'o lag das Parodies f Leipaic, 1881, pp. 246‑247), which G. Smith identified with that of the Scythiana. Ezekiel announces a coming inroad by this Gog which according to the whole description recalls the inroad of the Scythiane into anterior Asia (about 630 R.c.; Herodotus i. 103 aqq.; cf. Jer. vi. 1 sqq., especially verses 22‑23). According to the general testimony of classical writers (Herodotus, lEschylus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Ovid, Arrian) the Scythiana were northern barbarians full of avarice and fond of war, had immense troops of cavalry, wore very efficient armor, and distinguished themselves as archers, just as is narrated of Magog. These characteristics induced Ezekiel to conceive of Magog as in close connection with the Scythians. Josephus also so identifies them (Ant. L, vi. 1), and after him Jerome and later writers. The name " Scythiana " was among the ancients an elastic appellation, and so was the Hebrew Magog. The inroad of the hordes of Gog as described by Ezekiel is to fall in the period when Israel has long returned from exile and is quietly enjoying in its own country the salvation its God had granted. This Gog appears as the leader of the last hostile attack of the worldpowers upon the kingdom of God, of which the prophets of Israel had spoken (Ezek. xxxviii. 17;
15 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Go ldtzziher
particularly Joel iii. 9 sqq.; cf. Micah iv. 11 sqq.;
Zech. xii. 2 sqq. and xiv.). Ezekiel describes it
more fully. The attack of the enemy brings about
the world‑judgment before the walls of Jerusalem.
Then all the world shall know the Lord, all captives
of Israel among the nations shall be brought back,
and the state of blessing and grace of the people of
bound for the last time, brings together after the
millennium from the four corners of the earth to
fight against God's sanctuary and his Church.
Their destruction through fire from heaven pre
cedes the new creation of heaven and earth. In
like manner both nations stand side by side in
Jewish theology (Jerusalem Targum on Num. xi.
27), and among the Mohammedans (Koran xviii.
93, xxi. 96). C. VON CREWI.
The name Gog, who is defined in Ezek. xxxviii. 2, 3, and xxxix.1, as " prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal," occurs seven times in the Bible, and Magog five times. In Ezek. xxxix. 6 Magog is a mistake for Gog, which appears in the Septuagint and is demanded by the preceding context. In xxxviii. 2 the phrase " the land of Magog" is attached ungrammatically to Gog, and is shown by the phtase as repeated in verse 3 to be a gloss. The only other passages in the Old Testament in which Magog occurs are Gen. x. 2; I Chron. i. 5. It has been plausibly suggested that Magog is here miswritten for Gog, as in Ezek. xxxix. 6, the copyist having at first overlooked the right word and after beginning the next one (Madai) rectified his error without erasing the first letter. Hence the existence of Magog, which can not be explained or illustrated from any source, is perhaps more than doubtful. Cf. B. Stade, Geschickte des Volkea Israel, ii. 61‑62, Berlin, 1885. J. F. MCCORDY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. H. Sayce, Higher Criticism and the Monuments, London, 1894; J. A. Eisenmenger, Enidecktea Judenthum, ii. 732 sqq., Konigsberg, 1711; A. Knobel. Vblkertafel der Genesis, pp. 60 sqq., Giessen, 1850; F. Lenormant Les Originee de l'histoire, ii. 458 sqq., Paris, 1884; J. B&hmer, in ZWT, xl (1897), 321 sqq.; H. Winekler, Altorientalische Forechunpen, i. 160 eqq., Leipsic, 1898; DB, ii. 224, iii. 212; EB, ii. 1747‑48; and the commentaries on Genesis and Ezekiel.
GOLDEN CALF. See CALF, THE GOLDEN.
GOLDEN LEGEND. See JACOB (JAMES) of VARAzzE.
GOLDEN NUMBER: A number (I.‑XIX.) indicating the place of R year in the Metonic cycle, according to which the new moon of any particular month occurs on the same day every twentieth year. The name is said to be due to the fact that when the Metonic cycle came into general use about 432 B.C. inscriptions in letters of gold were set up in Athens and other cities indicating the number of the year in the cycle. The numbers were also written in gold or red letters in the old calendars. In the year 1 B.C. the new moon fell on Jan. 1. Hence to find the golden number of any year, add one to the year A.D. and divide by nineteen; the remainder, if any, is the golden number of the year; if there be no remainder, the golden number is nineteen. The golden number is used in finding the date of
Easter. See CALENDAR, THE CHRISTIAN, § 4; and EASTER, 1., 3.
GOLDEN ROSE: An ornament blessed by the pope every year on the fourth Sunday in Lent (called Laetare Sunday from the opening words of the introit of the mass for the day) and usually sent afterward as a mark of special favor to some Catholic sovereign, male or female, or to some Catholic personage distinguished either as a church member or in the civil community. The rose is also occasionally bestowed on noted churches orsanctuaries, or even on illustrious Catholic cities or commonwealths.
Originally the ornament consisted of a single flower of wrought gold colored red; later the golden petals were decked with rubies and other precious stones; and finally the form adopted was that of a thorny branch bearing several flowers and leaves with one principal flower at the top, all of pure gold. The ceremonies at present employed in the blessing of the golden rose are quite elaborate, symbolizing, according to the liturgists, Christ and his grace. The origin of the custom is uncertain. An allusion to it is certainly found in the Chronicle of William of Newburgh (1197) and mention of the golden rose as such is found as early as the eleventh century. Urban V. who sent a golden rose to Joanna of Naples in 1366, is Said to be the first to determine that the blessing should take place annually. Doubtless the practise was but the development of a much earlier custom on the part of the popes of sending presents to princes who had deserved well of the Church.
Among the great number of instances of the conferring of the golden rose recorded in Morone'sDizionario ecclesiastico, a few of the more noteworthy are the following: Henry VIII. of England received the rose from three popes, the last time from Clement VII. in 1524. His daughter, Queen Mary, received the same favor from Julius III. in 1555. Pius IV. honored the republic of Lucca with it in 1564, and the same pontiff in 1564 bestowed the favor on the Lateran basilica. The shrine of Loreto received it from Gregory XIII. in 1584. Similarly the cathedral of Capua was favored by Benedict XIII. in 1726, and in 1833 the same distinction was bestowed by Gregory XVI. on the basilica of St. Mark in Venice. The queen of France, MariaTheresa, received it from Clement IX. in 1668; and the queen of Poland, Maria Casimir, from Innocent XI. in 1684, in recognition of the recent deliverance of Vienna by her valiant husband, John Sobieski. If in any particular year no one is deemed worthy to receive this distinction, the rose is laid up in the treasures of the Vatican. JAMES F. DRISCOLL.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Moroni, Diyionaria eeeleaiastico, s.v., Rome, 1865; w. E. Addis and T. Arnold, Qatholic Dictionary,
pp. 412‑413, London, 1903.
GOLDZIHER, gold'zi‑her, IGNATIUS: Hungarian Jewish Orientalist; b. at Stuhlweissenburg (35 m. sm. of Budapest), Hungary, June 22, 1850. He was educated at the universities of Budapest, Berlin, Leipsic (Ph.D., 1870), and Leyden. He was privat‑docent at Budapest in 1871‑72, and in
Good, The Highest
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
1873,84 traveled in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. He was secretary of the Jewish community at Budapest from 1876 to 1905 and in 1894 was appointed professor of Semitic philology in the University of Budapest, while since 1900 he has been lecturer on the philosophy of religion in the Jewish Theological Seminary of the same city. He served as one of the members of the foreign board of consulting editors of the Jewish Encyclopedia, to which he also contributed (1901‑05). He is particularly known for his researches in Mohammedanism. In theology he adheres to the critical method in all problems. He has written Sttudim caber Tanchum jerusehalmi (Leipsie, 1870); Der Mythos bei den Hebretem and seine geschichtliche Entudcklung (1876; Eng. transl., Hebrew Mythology, by R. Martineau, London, 1877); Az Iszldm (Budapest, 1881); Die z4hiriten, ihr Lehrsystem and ihre Geschichte (Leipsie, 1884); Muhammedanische Studim (2 vols., Halle, 18891890); Der Diwdn des Garwal ben Aus Al‑Hufej'a (Leipsie, 1893); Abhandlungen zur arabisehen Philologie (2 vols., Leyden, .1896‑99); Le Livre de Mohammed tZn Toumert, Mahdi des Almohades (Algiers, 1903); and A Buddismua hatdsa az 1szldmra (Budapest, 1903); and has edited Kitab ma ani al‑nafs (Gdttingen, 1907).