Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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Hardenberg Hardt


himself to Mainz. There he became a doctor of theology; he then returned to Louvain, where he lectured on the Epistles of Paul with great success. He openly taught the doctrine of justi­fication by faith, without, however, ranging him­self on the side of the Reformers. Still, his opponents roused themselves against him, and he would have been carried to Brussels and condemned as a heretic if it had not been for the opposition of the citizens and students. He withdrew to Aduard, where he remained three years (1540‑12 or 43). While there he visited Hermann of Wied (q.v.) archbishop of Cologne; he also had relations with Melanchthon, and with Johannes a Lasco, who per­suaded him to leave Aduard, which meant for him openly to espouse the Reformation. On Melanch­thon's advice he went to Wittenberg (June, 1543), where he met Luther; and he became an especial friend of Melanchthon and Paul Eber. Hardenberg was summoned by the archbishop of Cologne to aid in carrying out the Reformation (Feb. or Mar., 1544), with whom he attended the Diet of Speyer. The plan of Reformation, devised by Butzer and Melanchthon, and assented to by the archbishop, was warmly approved by Hardenberg, even in the interpretation of the Lord's Supper, which did not meet the approval of Luther. Hardenberg became very useful to the archbishop, who retained him in service until the archbishopric again became Roman Catholic by the archbishop's resignation (Jan. 25, 1547). Hardenberg was then for a short time pastor at Einbeck, afterward military chaplain to Count Christopher of Oldenburg; in the performance of his duties he distinguished himself at the battle of Drakenberg (May, 1547), and, although wounded, took part in the entry of the victorious army into Bremen.

At Bremen the count appointed him cathedral preacher despite the protests of the Roman Catholic archbishop. Hardenberg retained this

Views position till 1561, and these fourteen

on the years were the most fruitful period of

Lord's his life. His only official duties were

Supper. to preach twice a week and to conduct

a course of lectures in Latin. At first

Jacob Propst and Johann Timann (q.v.), the most

noted preachers of the time in Bremen, seemed fully

in accord with him; whether they knew nothing of

his un‑Lutheran views of the Lord's Supper, or

whether they were willing to ignore them for the

sake of peace, can not be decided. This peace did

not last long, for in 1547 the differences concerning

the doctrine of the Lord's Supper were discussed,

but were smoothed over on the occasion of the first

declaration of Hardenberg regarding the Lord's

Supper (Jan., 1548), in which he says that Christ

is in truth given and received in the Eucharist, in

all his entirety both as God and man; that bread

and wine are visible, sacred signs which present and

impart to us the body and blood of the Lord; who­

soever partakes in faith of the sacrament really

partakes of the substance of the body and blood of

Christ. Melanchthon approved of this, Johannes

a Lasco did not.

When the controversies on the subject broke out again outside of Bremen, and especially the one

between Westphal and Calvin, the colleagues of Hardenberg began to question more closely his

attitude toward the doctrines of Contro‑ Luther; Lasco also inquired into the vemy with difference between him and his col‑

Timanr. leagues; so it came about that, al‑

though Hardenberg still tried to main­tain peace, the strife, at first hidden, came to an open rupture. Affairs in East Friesland also brought matters to a crisis; there Lasco had to leave Emden, partly on account of his rela­tions with Hardenberg. Timann saw in these controversies a danger for the Bremen church, and so he published a tract proving that the opin­ions of all orthodox leaders of the church coincided with Luther's. Hardenberg, against whom the tract was directed, took offense chiefly at the doctrine of the ubiquity of the body of Christ. Timann was desirous that all the ministers at Bremen should sign his tract, and, when Hardenberg and two others refused, began to preach against them (Lent, 1556). The senate tried to allay the controversy by a con­ference (Easter, 1556). Then Hardenberg asserted that shortly before his death Luther had said to Melanchthon that the doctrine of the Lord's Supper had been too much discussed, and that he did not agree with Melanchthon's suggestion of pub­lishing a pamphlet to assuage the controversy; however, he urged Melanchthon to do something about it after his death. This had been told Harden­berg. by Melanchthon in Wittenberg (July, 1554). It is not, to be doubted that Hardenberg so under­stood the declaration of Melanchthon, but he was mistaken; Luther cannot have given such advice to Melanchthon.

The strife was not ended by the conference; the council sent to Wittenberg for an opinion, also to

the ministers in Brunswick, Magde­Opinion of burg, Hamburg, Lfneburg, and Wittenberg; Liibeck. The opinion from Wittenberg Expulsion was not opposed to Hardenberg's, but of Harden‑ it warned against mingling irrelevant berg. subjects with the doctrine of the

Lord's Supper, and urged agreement with the form cum pane aumitur corpus; the an­swers of the ministers in the cities approved the creed of the preachers of Bremen, and warned against the sacramentarians. So the council decided fully to remove Hardenberg in order to obtain peace in the church. However, nothing decisive was done at that time. Later, Heshusius, who succeeded Ti­mann at Bremen, advised an open debate, which was scheduled to take place on May 20, 1560. Hardenberg was forbidden to take part, and the archbishop referred the matter to the diet opened at Brunswick (Feb. 3, 1561). The diet decreed that Hardenberg should leave Bremen within fourteen days, which he did. He lived until 1565 in the monastery of Rastede, near Oldenburg, busied with literary labors; he was elected pastor at Sengwarden (1585), and afterward served at Emden, where he continued to find success as a preacher.


BIHLIOOaAPBT: In Bindeeil'e ed. of the CR is some oorre‑

spondenoe between Melanchthon and Hardenberg; oon­suit the index, x. 369, 449, and note, also, A. L. Hermin‑



jard, Correapondance den r4jorrnateura, ix. 285. Paris, 1897.

Consult: D. Gerdes, Hset. motuum acciesiasticorum in

. Bressenti 1547‑61, Groningen, 1756; Q A* Selig,

*'lisUindig. Hiskrie dr ugeburgiaclk. Konfession, iii.


718‑783, Halls, 1735; E. Wagner, Dr. Albert Hmdan­

berpa im Dorn zu Bremen paFahretea Lehramt, Bremen,

1779; W. Bohweckendieok, Dr. Albert Hardsnbsrp, Em­

den, 1859: B. 8piegel, Albert liiweua Hardenberp, Brem­

en, 1889; H. Schmid, Der ICampf der luthariachen %irehe

um Luthaa Lehrc worn Abendmah7, pp. 188‑194, Leilmio

1873; ADB, a. 558 aqq.

HARDING, STEPHEN: Third abbot of Meaux;

b. of parents in good position at Sherborne, Doraet­

shire, England, early in the second half of the

eleventh century; d. at Cfteaua Mar. 28, 1134.

He was educated in the monastery of Sherborne,

and received the tonsure at Molesme, near Dijon,

taking the name of Stephen. He became a rigid

ascetic, and was one of the party which left Molesme

in 1078 to found a new monastery at Cftesux and

the Cistercian Order. In 1110 he succeeded Alberic

as abbot. The strictness of his rule repelled new

members and the community steadily grew smaller,

till in 1113 Bernard of Clairvaua (q.v.) with thirty

of his friends came to the monastery and instituted

the period of growth and prosperity of the order.

Before Stephen's death the number of houses came

to be about one hundred, of which he founded

thirteen in person. His ability as an organizer was

great he had influence with both ecclesiastical and

secular rulers, and he was the real founder of the

Cistercians. Stephen resigned his office the year

before he died. He drew up the Carts caritatis,

which was confirmed by Pope Calixtus II. in 1119,

and made a fine copy of the Bible for use at Cf teaux,

revising the Latin text by the help of certain Jews

who explained the Hebrew to him. Two sermons

are attributed to him, and two of his letters are

preserved among the letters of Bernard (xlv., xlix. ).

See ClsxaaclAM.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: William of Mabnoebury, De

rebus pulls repum Anplorum, book iv., chaps. 334‑3x7,

ed. T. D. Hardy, 2 vole., London, 1840, Eng. travel., in

Church Historians o/ England, vol. iv., ib. 1855; A. Du­

oheene, xietorioi Norrrannorum acriptores, pp. 711‑714

Paris, 1819: W. lhtgdale, Monaaticon Anplicanum, v.

220‑228, London, 1849; ABB, Apr., ii. 498 eqq. Con­

suit: Histoire litt€raire do France, ai. 213 sqq.: L. Bour­

gain, La Chairs fmncaise au zii. sitcle, p. 389, Paris, 1879;

HelYOt. Ordres ‑nasB9uca. vol. v., chap. ‑radii.: Heim­

buober, Orders and Konprepationan, i. 428 eqq., 429‑430,

448, 452; Ceillier, Auteure sacr6a, aiv. 230‑2x2: %L, xi.

787‑788; DNB, asiv. 3x3‑336.

HARDOU>IY, 8,r"dfl'sa', JEAN: French Jesuit;

b. at Quimper (36 m. sxe. of Brest), in Brittany,

1848; d. in Paris Sept. 3, 1729. He early entered

the Society of Jesus, in which he remained sjxty­

seven years. He wrote at first on numismatics.

In 1693 he stated in a treatise that nearly all the

classics had been written in the thirteenth century

by monks under the guidance of a certain Severua

Archontius. In a treatise, De nummis Herodiadum,

he held that Herod was au Athenian, a pagan, and

Platonist, and in his commentary on the New

Testament he stated that Jesus and the apostles

had preached in Latin. The authorities of his order

required him to recant his errors, and he submitted,

but retained his convictions. He i8 most worthy

of remembrance for his editions of Themistius in

Greek and Latin (Paris, I884), and of Pliny the

Elder (1685, b vole., inusum Dellohini; revised, 1723, 3 vole.), which is still the most prized edition of this author. In his Conciliorum co7.leCtio regia maxima (12 vole., Paris, 1715), he described all the church councils from 34 to 1714, including more than twenty councils whose history had not been pub­lished before. Of his numerous other works may be mentioned Chronologies Veteris Testamertti ad vulgatam veraam>Rm exacta et nummis antiquis illuatrata (Paris, 1877); Paraphrase de l'Eeel6siaste (1729); Commentaries in Novum Teatamentum (Amsterdam, 1742). A part of his manuscripts was published after his death by the Abb6 d'Olivet, under the title Opera varies (Amsterdam, 1733).


BratsoaaersZ: L. E. Dupin, BibliotAdqus des auEeura eccM­aiaabquas, six. 109, 35 vole.. Paris. 1898‑1711; A. and A. de Backer, Bibtiofhlque den &xivaina de la compapnie do JEaus, ii. 32‑48, Li4ge, 1872; BL, v. 1501‑‑04; Lichten‑

bareer, Ess, vi. s5‑s7.

HARDT, hart, HERMARN VON DER: German orientsliat, exegete, and historian; b. at Melle (62 m. s.s.w. of Bremen) Nov. 15, 1680; d. at Helmstedt Feb. 28, 1748. His parents had settled at Melle as refugees from the religious persecution in Holland. He was educated at the gymnasia of Herfurt, Osnabriick, and Coburg, and at the Univer­sity of Jens, where he studied theology and Oriental languages, and took his master's degree in 1683, when he was appointed privet‑docent. In 1686 he went to Leipaia, where he established himself as privet‑docent in Oriental and classical languages. There he came into contact with Valentin Alberti, who had interested a number of theological students in a deeper and more practical study of the Bible. In order to become better acquainted with the new movement, Hardt went to Dresden and spent a year with Philipp Jacob Spener, and be then resolved to become an expounder of the Scriptures. On the recommendation of Spener, he went to Kaspar Hermann Sandhagen, the famous superintendent of Liineburg, in order to prepare himself better for his vocation. There he met Rudolf August, duke of Brunswick, who took a lively interest in him, received him into his service as librarian and secre­tary in 1688, and had him appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Helmstedt in 1890. Their friendship ceased only with the duke's death in 1704.

This professorship opened an avenue to Hardt for an extensive literary activity. At the same time his attitude changed in regard to the Bible and Pietism; and under the influence of Thomasius (q.v.) his rationalism became so pronounced that he was censured by the official visitors to the univer­sity, sad in 1713 forbidden longer to deliver exe­getical lectures on the Old Testament. He dis­regarded this order, however, and complications followed which ended in his retirement as professor (1727), altho he was permitted to act as sublibra­rian for the university. A later publication on Job brought on him another and more severe censure, and this decided him to devote his energies thence­forth to investigations of the history of the Reforma­tion and of the Council at Basel. These were never published, but the manuscripts are preserved in the



library at Stuttgart, had are valuable as containing

lists and criticisms of books now lost.

Hardt was a genuine admirer and earnest student

of the great classical and Oriental scholars. .'Tia

literary activity resulted in the compilation of over

300 books, pamphlets, and treatises‑most of them

in advance of his contemporaries. His collection of

manuscripts on the Reformation, Antigua literarum

monumenta, autographa Lutheri aliorumque celebrir

orum virorum 1617‑16.¢6 (3 vols., Brunswick, 1690­

1693), and on the Councils of Basel and Constance,

Magnum oecumenicum Constantiense conciJium (6

vols., Frankfort, 1700‑02), are still valuable because

of his diligent use of the principal archives.

(P. TsCHAcgERT.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Limey, Hermann von der Hardt, Carls­

ruhe, 1891; A. Tholuck, Akademisches Leben des 17.

Jahrhunderts, ji. 49‑61, Halle, 1854.

HARDWICK, CHARLES: English church his­

torian, archdeacon of Ely; b. at Slingsby (15 m.

n.n.e. of York), Yorkshire, Sept. 22, 1821; d. near

Bagnlres‑de‑Luchon (70 m. s.w. of Toulouse),

France, Aug. 18, 1859. He attended St. John's

College and Catherine's Hall, Cambridge, and

received a fellowship in Catherine's Hall in 1845.

In 1850 he was select preacher at Cambridge, and in

Mar., 1851, became preacher at the Chapel Royal,

Whitehall. From March to September, 1853, he

was professor of divinity in Queen's College, Bir­

mingham. In 1855 he was appointed lecturer in

divinity at King's College, Cambridge, and Christian

advocate in the university. He was elected a

member of the newly established council of the

senate in 1856, and reelected in 1858. He became

archdeacon of Ely in 1859, shortly before his death

by a fall in the Pyrenees. He edited a number of

books for the Cambridge University Press and the

Percy Society, and wrote several scholarly and val­

uable works, viz.: A History of the Articles of Relig­

ion (Cambridge, 1851; 2d ed., largely rewritten,

1859); A History of the Christian Church, Middle

Age (Cambridge, 1853; 3d ed. by W. Stubbs,

1872); A History of the Christian Church during

the Reformation (1856), and the unfinished treatise,

Christ and Other Masters: an Historical Inquiry into

some of the Chief Parallelisms and Contrasts between

Christianity and the Religious Systems of the An­

cient World (4 parts, Cambridge, 1855‑59; 2d ed.,

with Memoir‑ by F. Procter, 2 vols., London,


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the Memoir by Procter, ut sup.,

consult DNB, xxiv. 347‑348.

HARDY, EDWARD JOHN: Church of England;

b. at Armagh, Ireland, May 7, 1849. He was

educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1871),

and was ordered deacon in 1874, and ordained priest

in the following year. He was curate of St. Sa­

viour's, Brockley Hill, Kent, in 1874‑77, and in the

latter year became an army chaplain, being sta­

tioned at Cork (1877‑79), Bermuda (1879‑‑82),

Dover (1882), Gosport (1882‑86), Netley (1886‑88),

Malta (1888‑90), Plymouth( 1890‑97), Dublin (1897­

1901), Hongkong (1901‑05), and Cairo (since 1905).

In 1898‑99 he was Donnellan Lecturer at Trinity

College, Dublin. In theology he is an Evangelical

High‑churchman with liberal leanings. He has

written How to be Happy though Married (London, 1885); Manners Makyth Man (1887); The Five Talents of Woman (1888); The Business of Life (1892); Sunny Days of Youth (1893); In the Foot­prints of St. Paul (1895); Doubt and Faith (Don­nellan lectures; 1899); Concerning Marriage (1901); Love, Courtship, and Marriage (1901); Pen Portraits of Our Soldiers (1902); and John Chinaman at Home (1905).

HARDY, ROBERT SPENCE: English Wesleyan missionary and Buddhist scholar; b. at Preston (28 m. n.e. of Liverpool), Lancashire, July 1, 1803; d. at Headingly (1 m. n.w. of Leeds), Yorkshire, Apr. 16, 1868. He was admitted to the British Conference in 1825, and subsequently appointed missionary to Ceylon. After a. faithful service of twenty‑three years in this field, he returned to England and served on several important circuits. He was a man of wide culture, and the author of several authoritative works on Buddhism in Ceylon and on Pali literature, viz.: The British Government and the Idolatry of Ceylon (London, 1841); Eastern Monachism: an Account of the Origin, Laws, Dis­cipline, Sacred Writings . . . and Present Circum­stances of the Order of Mendicants, founded by Gdtama Buddha (1850); A Manual o f Buddhism in its Modern Development, translated from Singhalese MSS. (1853); and The Legends and Theories of the Buddhists compared with History and Science (1866).

HARE, AUGUSTUS WILLIAM: Church of Eng­land; b. in Rome Nov. 17, 1792; d. there Feb. 18, 1834. At the age of five he was adopted by his aunt, the widow of Sir William Jones, and was brought up in her home near Basingstoke, Hamp­shire. He attended Winchester College and New College, Oxford, and in 1818, after a long visit to Italy, returned to the latter college as tutor. He incurred his aunt's displeasure by declining to qualify for the rich family living of Hurstmonceaux, but he received ordination in 1825, and in 1829 became rector of the small country parish of Alton­Barnes. In 1833 failing health drove him to Italy. By his plain and fervent preaching and unselfish devotion to his duties he won the hearts of the people, and came to be justly regarded as a model rural clergyman. His important works are: Guesses at Truth (London, 1827), in collaboration with his brother, Julius Charles Hare (q.v.); and Sermons to a Country Congregation (2 vols., 1836), which have been widely read and often reprinted as The Akon Sermons.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. J. C. Hare, Memorials of a Quiet Life, 2 vole., London, 1872; DNB, xxiv. 364.

HARE, JULIUS CHARLES: One of the most influential of the English theologians of the first half of the nineteenth century; b. at Valdagno (14 m. n.w. of Vicenza) Italy, Sept. 13, 1795; d. at Hurstmonceaux (20 m. em.e. of Brighton), Sussex, England, Jan. 23,1855. He was sent to the Charter­house School, London, in 1806; in 1812 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge; in 1818 was made fellow and tutor, and gathered about him a circle of admir­ing students, among them John Sterling, Richard Chenevix Trench, and Frederick Denison Maurice, whose sister he married in 1844. He was ordained

Hardwick Harkavy


in 1826, and in 1832 became rector of Hurstmon­ceaux, where he labored till his death, surrounded by a large circle of friends, and highly. esteemed. In 1840 he was appointed archdeacon of Lewes in the diocese of Chichester, and chaplain to the queen.

Archdeacon Hare combined thorough scholarship, original thought, noble character, harmless wit, and manly piety. He was as familiar with Luther, Schleiermacher, Neander, Olshausen, Nitzsch, Tho­luck, and other German theologians as with Crammer, Hooker, Leighton, Pearson, and Tillotson. His love for German scholarship was intensified by his study of Coleridge's works, whom he profoundly esteemed as a Christian philosopher, and by his intimacy with Thomas Arnold of Rugby, and with Bunsen, whom he met in Rome in 1832. This visit to Rome formed an epoch in his life. In philosophy Archdeacon Hare was an independent disciple of Coleridge. In theology he had most sympathy with Dr. Arnold, but excelled him in the extent of his scholarship. He was one of the founders of the Evangelical Broad‑church school, which seeks to liberalize the Anglican communion by keeping it in friendly intercourse with Continental thought and learning. He was a sturdy champion of Protes­tantism against the encroachments of Romanism and Tractarianism, but he never exposed himself to the charge of disloyalty to the Church, nor forgot the personal respect due to his opponents. His strength lay in his combination of theological attain­ments with purity of character, and in his talent for stimulating others to study and investigation.

Archdeacon Hare first became known as an author through Guesses at Truth by Two Brothers (London, 1827; lasted., much enlarged, 1871; selections, ed. P. E. G. Girdlestone, 1897), written by himself and his elder brother, Augustus William Hare (q.v.). With Bishop Thirlwall he translated Niebuhr's history of Rome (2 vols., 1828‑32). His ablest theological work was The Mission of the Comforter, with Notes (1846), which contains five sermons preached at Cambridge in 1840 on the words of Jesus on the office of the Holy Spirit (John xvi. 7‑11). More than half of the work consists of learned notes and excursuses. His defense of Luther, originally the tenth note of this work, separately issued in an enlarged form shortly before Hare's death, is the ablest vindication of the Re­former against the attacks of Bossuet, Hallam, Sir William Hamilton, and the Oxford Tractarians. Hare also contributed the text for the English edi­tion of Konig's illustrations of the life of Luther. In 1839 he delivered at Cambridge a series of instruc­tive and inspiring sermons on I John v. 5, published in 1840 as The Victory of Faith (3d ed. by E. H. Plumptre, London, 1874). The sixth sermon con­tains one of the most eloquent descriptions of the conquering power of faith in the English language (pp. 225 sqq.), but the extreme length of the sermons elicited expressions of disapproval when they were delivered. The Contest with Rome (1851) is one of the most trenchant of the Anglican writings called forth by the controversy with Romanism and Puseyism. A collection of his Charges was pub­lished in 1856, a year after his death.

(PHILIP ScaeFFt.) D. S. ScHAFir.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. J. C. Hare, Memorials of a Quiet Life, London, 1872; the essay by F. D. Maurice prefixed to the Charges collected London, 1856, and A. P. Stanley, in Quarterly Review, July, 1855, both prefixed to The Vic­tory of Faith, London, 1874; DNB, xxiv. 369‑372; and the Memoir by E. H. Plumptre, prefixed to the later edi­tions of Gueaaea at Truth, e.g., London, 1871.

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