Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Delitzsch, Jadiechea Handwerkerleben

our Zeit Jesu, Erlangen, 1875, Eng. transl., Jewish Artisan

Lift, London, 1877, Philadelphia 1883, New York, 1883;

H. Winckler, in Alttestamentliche Forschungen, eipsic,

1892• P. Rieger, Verauch einer Tschnologis and Termi­

nologie der Handwerke in der Misnah, Berlin, 1894; E.

Day, Social Life of the Hebrews New York, 1901; DB,

iv. 807; ED, articles " Handicrafts," •• Metals," •` Pot­

„ .. Weaving."


HANER, hd'ner, JOHANN: Humanist; b. at

Nuremberg, date not known; d. at Bamberg c.1544.

He probably studied at Ingolstadt, and must have

been known in certain circles as a humanist by

1517. He gave personal advice to Leo X. in regard

to the Lutheran cause, and in 1524 addressed a letter

to Clement VII. recommending certain slight eccle­

siastical reforms, in the manner of Erasmus. One

month later he urged Erasmus to come forward in

behalf of the threatened Church, but his addresses

seem to have made no impression. In 1525 he

became preacher of the cathedral church in Wilrz­

burg, but his leanings toward the Reformation soon

compelled him to leave. As he had started from

Erasmus, he was more inclined toward Zwingli than

toward Luther. He attempted to bring about a

reconciliation on the question of the Lord's Supper.

At the Diet of Speyer in 1526 he became acquainted

with Landgrave Philip, who took him into his serv­

ice. After giving up his position at Wili‑zburg, he

returned to Nuremberg and received a small prebend

there; but in consequence of mortified ambition,

dissatisfaction with the condition of the church in

Nuremberg, and deficient knowledge of the Lutheran

doctrine of justification, he went, in 1532, to Regens­

burg and reentered the Roman Catholic Church. In

1533 he sent to Landgrave Philip and George of Sax­

ony a manuscript treatise, directed against the Evan­

gelical doctrine of justification, Prophetia tutus ac

nova hoc at, vera scriyturle interpretatio. De syneera

cognitione Christi, which Cochlmus published in 1534

against the will of the author. Haner was answered

by Thomas Venatorius, preacher of Nuremberg, in

his De sola fide iusti fieante nos in oculis dei (1534;

reprinted 1556). In the beginning of 1535 Haner

had to leave Nuremberg and went to Bamberg,

where he was accepted as preacher of the cathedral

church late in 1541. In 1535 he sent a treatise on

the council to Vergerio and in 1537 made new

propositions to the pope. In 1539 he published in

Leipsie Theses Joannis Haneri Noribergensis de

pwnitmtia, in which he attacked Luther and tried

to influence the antinomian controversy (see ANTI­



BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. J. 1. von D811inger, Reformation, i. 130 eqq., Regensburg, 1851; idem, Beitrage zur politiaden, kirchdichen and Kulturpeschichte der seeks letzten Jahr­hunderte, iii. 105 sqq., Vienna, 1882; F. F. von Soden, Beetrape zurGesehichte der Reformation, p.354, Nuremberg, 1855; A. Baur, Zwinplis Theolopie, ii. 418 sqq., Halle, 1889; W. Friedensburg, in Beitrdpe zur baYereschen Kir­cheweschiehte, v. (1899) 167. Prof. Kolde purposes to write a biography.



HANNA, WILLIAM: Free Church of Scotland;

b. at Belfast, Ireland, Nov. 26, 1808; d. in London

May 24, 1882. He was educated at the universities

of Glasgow and Edinburgh, was ordained pastor of

the parish of East Kilbride, near Glasgow, in 1835,

and was translated to the parish of Skirling, Peeble­

ahire, in 1837. He was an active supporter of

Thomas Chalmers in the ecclesiastical controversy

of the time; and at the disruption of 1843 he joined

the Free Church, taking his entire congregation

with him. In 1847 he was entrusted with the prep­

aration of the official life of Chalmers, and in the

same year he was appointed editor of the North

British Review. In 1850 he became the colleague

of Thomas Guthrie (q.v.) in the St. John's Free

Church, Edinburgh, where he preached to many

devoted hearers till his retirement in 1866. His

principal works are Memoirs of the Life and Writings

of Thomas Chalmers (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1849‑52);

Wycliffe and the Huguenots (1860); and Our Lord's

Life on Earth (6 vols., 1869). He edited The Pos­

thumous Works of Thomas Chalmer: (9 vols., 1847­

1849); also A Selection from the Correspondence of

Thomas Chalmers (1853); and the Letters of Thomas

Erskine o f Linlathen (2 vols.,1877).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, asv. 300‑301.

HANNAH (Hebr. Hannah, "grace, winsomeness ")

A Hebrew feminine name, occurring in the Bible

and Apocrypha in three instances: (1) The mother

of the prophet Samuel (q.v.). (2) The wife of

Tobit, of the tribe of Nephthali (Tobit i.9). Ac­

cording to the Vulgate the wife of Raguel bears the

same name (Tobit vii. 2, 8, 14, 16, viii. 12; LXX.,

Edna). (3) A"prophetess" of the tribe of Asher

(Luke ii. 36‑38, where the English versions repro­

duce the Greek form Anna). It is said in praise

of her that after seven years in marriage she had

continued in widowhood to her eighty‑fourth year.

Being at all times ready and receptive for divine

revelations, she could draw near, like Simeon, at

the right hour to greet in the infant Jesus the Re­

deemer of Israel, prefiguring the widows described

in I Tim. v. 5. ARNOLn RZfEQ(i.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: DB, ii. 299; JE, vi. 219‑220, and the litera­

ture cited under SAMUEL.


land; b. at Warrington (15 m. e. of Liverpool),

Lancashire, Dec. 1, 1867. He was educated at

Queen's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1890), and, after

being assistant master at Warrington Grammar­

school in 1890‑91, was ordered deacon in 1892, and

ordained priest in the following year. He was

chaplain and tutor in St. John's College, Battersea

(1892‑95 ),and since 1895 has been principal of

the Norwich and Ely Diocesan Training College at


HANRE, h8n'e, JOHAftN WII,HELM:German Prot­

estant; b. at Harber (near Liineburg, 68 m. n.n.e.

of Hanover) Dec. 29, 1813; d. at Eppendorf (a sub­

urb of Hamburg) Nov. 21,1889. He attended gym­

nasiums at Hildesheim and Brunswick, and the uni­

versities of GSttingen, Halls, and Berlin, receiving

his degree of Ph.D. from Jena in 1840, after having

devoted three years to private patristic studies at

Wolfenbiittel. From 1840 to 1848 he was at Bruns­wick, where he incurred the enmity of the rationalis­tic clergy of the city, who succeeded in debarring him from position after position, so that, in 1851, he was compelled to accept a country pastorate at the Hanoverian village of Betheln. He removed to a similar position at Salzhemmendorf in 1854. His fortune changed, however, in 1861, when he was called to Greifswald as pastor of St. James's and also as professor of practical theology at the univer­sity of the same city. He retained these positions until his retirement from active life in 1886, after which he spent the remainder of his life at Eppen­dorf.

Hanne's theological position was essentially pos­itive, although his poetic.and philosophical tend­encies brought him into frequent conflict with the strictly orthodox as well as with the rationalists. At a later period he entered the Protestantenverein, but in his concluding years he maintained a dis­tinctly irenic attitude, particularly toward younger colleagues whose views differed essentially from his own. His writings comprise the following works:

Rationaliamua and speculative Theolopte in Braunschweig

(Brunswick, 1838); Featreden an Gebaldete 41xr daa Weaen

ilea chriatLschen Glau6ena, %nbeaondere caber das VerhSltnia den

peach%chtZichenPeraon Christi scar Ides dee ChriatenEuma (1839):

Friedrich Schleiennacher ale relipro6eer Genius Deutachlanda

(1840); Sokratea ala Genius den Humaniffit (1841); Den

moderns Nih%Zatmua and die Strauaa'eche Glaubertalehre im

Verhiiltn%a our Ides den chriaUiehen Religion (Bielefeld, 1842);

Anti‑orthodox, oiler gepen BuchatabendienaE and P/aJjentum

and for den freien Geist den HumanitZst and ilea Chriatentuma

(Brunswick, 1848); Der freie Glaube in Xampf mrot den the­

ologiadven Halbhe%dett unarer Tags (1848); ReZigiBae Mahn­

unpen zur Siihne (1848); Yorhbfe sun Glauben, oiler daa

blunder ilea Chriatentuma %m Einklanpe mit Yernuntt and

Natur (3 parts, Jena, 1850‑51); Zeitapsepelungen (Hanover,

1852); Bekenntniaae, oiler drei BUCher vom Glauben (1881);

Die Ides den abaoluten PeraiinZichkeit, oiler Gott and aein Yar­

httltnie scar Welt, inbeaondere zur menachlichen PeraonlicJr

ke%t (2 vols., 1861‑82): Die Zeit den deutachen Freiheita­

kriepe in ihrer Bedeutung ffir die Zukunft ilea Reichea Gotten

and minor Gerechtipkeit (1883); Anti‑Henpatenberg (Elber­

feld, 1887); Der Geist ilea Chriatentuma (1887); Die chriah

lithe Kirdu naeh ihrer Steldunp and Aufpabe sin Reichs den

Sittlielakait (Berlin, 1888); and Die Kirche im neuen Reiche

(1s71). (O. ZSc$LExt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His own Drei BiirJvar room Glauben, pp. 79­

122, Hanover, 1885, contains autobiographical material.

HANNIlYGTOft, JAMES: Anglican missionary bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa; b. at Hurst­pierpoint (8 m. from Brighton), England, Sept. 3, 1847; d. in Uganda, Africa, Oct. 29, 1885. He studied at St. Mary's Hall, Oxford (B.A., 1873; M.A., 1875; D.D., 1884); was ordained deacon and became curate at Martinhoe and Trentishoe 1874, and of St. George's, Huratpierpoint, 1875; was or­dained priest 1876. In 1882 he offered himself to the Church Missionary Society for the Central Africa mission at Rubaga for a period of five years, was accepted, and reached Msahlla on the Victoria, Nyanza the same year, when a severe illness com­pelled his return. He resumed his duties at Hurst­pierpoint but in 1884 was offered the bishopric named above, then newly created, accepted it, was consecrated June 24, 1884, and sailed the same year, reaching Mombasa Jan. 24, 1885. He determined to open up a new road by a healthier route through



the Masai country to Lake Victoria, Nyanza, which he reached Oct. 17. This approach from a new direction alarmed the natives, who feared encroach­ments from the whites, and the bishop and his com­pany were seized by Chief Mwanga of Uganda, on Oct. 21, and were put to death eight days later.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. C. Dawson, James Hannington, First Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, London, 1887; DNB, xxiv. 307‑308.


HANSIZ, hdn'sits, MARCUS: Jesuit church his­torian; b. near V61kermarkt (47 m. s.w. of Graz), Carinthia, Apr. 23, 1683; d. at Vienna Sept. 5,1766. He was educated at Eberndorf and Vienna, and became a teacher of philqsophy and history, first at Graz and later at various other places. Inspired by special histories of the Church in France, Italy, and England, he began a comprehensive Germania sacra, commencing with the history of the church at Lorch the diocese of Passau, and the archbishop­ric of Salzburg, which formed the first two volumes (Augsburg, 1727‑29). After 1731 he occupied him­self partly with minor works and partly with the collection of materials for the third volume of his great work, which was designed to comprise the history of the diocese of Regensburg, as well as with gathering data for the bishoprics of Vienna, Neu­stadt, Seckau Gu rk, Lavant, and the history of Carinthia. He was able, however, to publish only the introduction to this volume (Vienna, 1754), for the controversy in which his researches involved him with the canons of St. Emmeram led him to retire from all literary activity. Nevertheless, his interest in the work was unabated until his death. After his decease appeared his Analecta pro hiBtorid Carinthite (Klagenfurt, 1872). Even in its frag­mentary state, the Germania sacra forms a note­worthy product of German industry and a valuable preliminary for the history of Germany and its Church; and its author was characterized not only by learning, diligence, and perspicuity, but also by love of truth and historical critical ability.


B133LIOGRAPHY: A. and A. de Backer Aerivains de la com­papnie de JEsus, ii. 285, 7 vols., Lidge, 1853‑B1; H. Hur. ter, Nomenclator literarius recentioris theologise catholic, iii. 109‑111, Innsbruck, 1883.
HAPAX LEGOMENOft or EIREMENON (Gk. " Once said " or " spoken ") : An expression used in exegetical or text‑critical works signifying that the word, phrase, 9r combination is not known to exist elsewhere, or at least is singular in the book or author under discussion.
HAPHTARAH, haf‑ta'rd (" conclusion," pl. HaplN faroth): Reading lessons or paragraphs taken from the Prophets, read after the Law in the morning ser­vices of the synagogues on Sabbaths and feast­days, and in the afternoon services on fast‑days. The passage chosen has some relation, which, how­ever, is often very indirect, to the section previously read from the Law. See BIBLE TExT, I., 2, 1 2; SYNAGOGUE.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. A. Briggs, Study of Holy Scripture, p. 179, New York, 1899.



RAPPER, ANDREW PATTON:, Presbyterian; b. near Monongahela City, Penn., Oct. 20, 1818; d. at Wooster, O., Oct. 27, 1894. He was graduated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., 1835, at Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., 1843, and in medicine at the University of Penn­sylvania 1844. In 1844 he became a missionary of the Presbyterian Church in Canton, China. While on a visit to America in 1885‑86 he raised funds to establish the Christian College of China, now the Canton Christian College at Honglok opposite the city of Canton. In 1891 he returned to America to live.
HAPPINESS: This is not a simple sensation, like

the enjoyment of a piece of good fortune; it is rather

a state of complete satisfaction; again, it is not,

like bliss, a part of some other‑worldly good, and

therefore to find its realization in the other life;

it rather belongs to the mundane, and is enjoyed in

the present life. In this sense the idea is often

utilized in ancient ethics as the ruling principle of

action. Plato alone regarded as the object of effort

participation in an other‑worldly good through the

knowledge of " ideas," especially of the highest

" idea," viz., God. Consequently, Plato's notion

approximates that of Christianity, but without be­

ing able to bring this bliss into connection with the

ethics which has its motive force within. In the

development of Christian ethics, the connection of

ethics with the striving for happiness was restated

in the time of the " Enlightenment," but resulted

only in a refined Epicureanism. On the other hand,

Kant energetically opposed this eudemonism by

emphasizing the absolute and independent worth of

the moral law apart from its utilitarian bearing.

To be sure, he regarded as man's highest good the

union of virtue and happiness, and derived there­

from the notions of immortality and God. But his

demand for morality, according to Kant, is to be

satisfied for its own sake without reference to these

moral postulates. Many efforts were made to

mitigate this vigorous legalism, and as a result

happiness was brought again into close relations

with morality. That happiness is not the highest

end of man is emphatically affirmed by that pes­

simism whose extreme assertion is that man is des­

tined to unhappiness‑a position which is at the other

extreme from that of a false optimism (see OrTI­

mists; PEBsIMisM). The Christian doctrine rejects

both extremes. It teaches that man may obtain

full self‑satisfaction only as something other­

worldly, as Blessedness (q.v.). By that bliss which

is established in his life and perfected in the life

to come, besides obtaining a relative mundane

blessedness (cf. Matt. vi. 33), he helps to usher in

the kingdom of God with its gifts of peace and joy

and its laws of love to God and to neighbor, and so

to further the complete development of humanity

in this world. F. SIEFFERT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Massie, in Expositor, ser. 1 vols. ix.­x.; idem in DB, ii. 300‑301; G. Hodges, The Pursuit of Happiness, New York, 1906; L. Abbott, Christ's Secret of Happiness, ib. 1907; DCl3, i. 702‑703.

HARAN, h6'ran (Hebr. ,Haran; Gk. Karrai): The name of the most important city in North Meso‑



potamia, situated in the valley of the Upper Balich, early celebrated as a seat of worship of the moon­god. Its ruins, three English miles in circuit, lie a day's journey southeast of Urfa‑Edessa. The etymology of the name is obscure; the Assyrian form of the word, Bdrranu, connects it with the word for road, end with its location on the caravan route between Syria end the East.

Sources for the pre‑Assyrian history of North Mesopotamia unfortunately still lie buried in the mounds of the valleys of the Chabor end the Balich. Slight investigations by Layard along the Chabor brought to light some pre‑Assyrian monuments. The course of Babylonian end Assyrian history shows that from prehistoric times North Meso­potamia was a region of great Babylonian‑Semitic states; end Winckler places here the state of Kis­shati, a region which gave one of the titles much used by Babylonian kings, of which region Haran was perhaps the capital end most important city. The " land of Haran " of the Assyrian inscriptions had great importance both for the commerce of Assyria end Babylonia end for the religious development of Assyria. The oldest reports of North Mesopo­tamia are in the Amarna Tablets (q.v.), and show the region as being at the time under the control of the Mitanni. The rule of the mitanni was over­thrown by Assyria 200 years later, when Shal­maneser I. assumed the title king of Kisshati. Tiglath‑pileser 1. hunted elephants in the land of Haran; Shalmaneser 11. built a temple to Sin in the city. Later the district took part in the revolt against Assyria, end paid a heavy penalty therefor. After the downfall of Assyria the region came under Chaldean control, after devastation by the Umman­Manda, end Nabonidusrebuiltthecityof Haran end the temple for the moon‑god. In Christian times it was an important center of heathenism until the Middle Ages.

There are still indications in traces of roads of the importance of Haran for trade in early times, end Ezek. xxvii. 23 speaks of its commerce with Phe­nicia. Of its influence in religion over alarge region there are monuments from near Aleppo end Senjirli.

According to the Old Testament, Haran in Aram­naharaim was the place of the theophany which directed Abraham to leave his country and kindred, of Eliezer's wooing of Rebekah for Isaac, of Jacob's fourteen years of servitude, and the place of depar­ture of the migrations of the Terahites to Canaan. According to another tradition, Harare is merely the second point of departure, the original place being Ur of the Chaldees. The version in P, giving the derivation from Ur, is probably based on earlier reports in E, since not without cogent reasons would a narrator of that time derive the Hebrew origins from the land of their foes. The two traditions have a connection in so far as both cities were noted seats of the same cult, though in Ur the moon‑god was called Nannar, in Harare, Sin. Laban is itself a poetical name for the deity of Haran, while Sarah recalls the Assyrian Sarratu, the consort of the moon‑god, end Milcah, the name of the wife of Nahor, is reminiscent of the Assyrian malkatu, " princess," a title under which Ihtr was wor‑

shiped in Harare, A. JEItEMIA9.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. A. Chwoleon, Die Saabier' and der Saa­biamua,~part i.. $t. Petersburg, 1858; J. Ha16vy, Mdlangee d'EpipraP)OascldCAEsforachung, Giessen, 1878; idem, in KAT, pp. 29 eqq., et passim; R,. Kittel, in Theologiacha 3Eudien sue WUraemberp, 1888, pp. 193 eqq.; idem. aeachichte der Habrtlar, pp. 135, Goths, 1888, Eng. travel.. London, 1895; Ainsworth, in PBBA, 1891, pp. 387 eqq.t A. Mea, Oeac7tichEe der Stadt Harran, Strasburg, 1892; H. Winokler, AtRorientatiacha Forachungen, parts i.‑ii., Leipeio, 1892; idem, Oeachichte Babylonians and Assyrians, pp. 148 eqq., ib. 1892; A. H. $syoe, The Higher Criticism end the Monuments, London, 1894; H. F. Helmolt, Wedtgeachichte, vol. iii., part 1, Leipaio, 1899; DB, 1301; EB, ii. 1981‑83.
HARBAUGH, HENRY: German Reformed Church; b. near Wayneaborough, Pa., Oct. 28, 1817; d. at Mercersburg, Pa., Dec. 28, 1867. After studying at Marshall College (1840‑43), he held pastorates at Lewisburg, Pa. (1843‑b0), Lancaster (1850‑60), end Lebanon (1860‑63). From 1863 till his death he was professor of theology at the Mercersburg Seminary. He was a man of indefatigable industry, and a prominent exponent of the Mercersburg theology (q.v.). He edited the Guardian 1849‑66, contributed to the Reformed Church Messenger 1861‑67, edited the Merceraburg Review for some time before his death, compiled numerous almanacs for the board of publication of the German Reformed Church, end wrote a number of books. His more important works are: Heaven, or the Sainted Dead (Philadelphia, 1848); Heavenly Recognition (1851); The Heavenly Home (1853); Life of Michael Schtatter (1857); Fathers of the German Reformed Church in Europe end America (2 vols.,1857); Hymns end Chants (Lebanon, 1861), of which the best known is the hymn, Jesus, 1 live to thee; and the collection of poems written in " Pennsylvania German," called Harbaugh's Harfe (Philadelphia, 1870), which enjoyed a wide popu­larity.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lion Harbaugh, Life of Rev. Henry Har­bauph, Philadelphia, 1900.

HARDEftBERG, ALBERT RIZAEUS: German Lutheran theologian; b. at Hardenberg (75 m. n.e.

of Amsterdam), Holland, 1510; d. Early Life. at Emden (120 m. w. of Hamburg)

May 18,1574. His name was assumed from his birthplace; possibly the family name was RiAus. At the age of seven he attended the school of the Brethren at Groningen, where Gesewin von Helen was his teacher (see Com>aort LzFz, BRETHREN OF THE). There he must have learned the views of Wessel. In 1527 he went to the 't red school " of the famous Aduard monastery, where he read diligently the classics, the Fathers, and, more than anything else, the Bible, end was also a close student of history. By 1530, when he entered the University at Louvain, he had become familiar with the wri­tings of Wessel, end shrank from the quibbles of the scholastic theologians, though he had not con­sciously joined the Reformation. Although at Louvain the atmosphere was entirely against the Reformation, yet Hardenberg and his friends, through their private reading, became zealous ad­vocates of the new ideas. When he had obtained his degree he left Louvain end turned his steps toward Italy, but, falling ill on the road, betook

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