his De sola fide iusti fieante nos in oculis dei (1534;
reprinted 1556). In the beginning of 1535 Haner
had to leave Nuremberg and went to Bamberg,
where he was accepted as preacher of the cathedral
church late in 1541. In 1535 he sent a treatise on
the council to Vergerio and in 1537 made new
propositions to the pope. In 1539 he published in
Leipsie Theses Joannis Haneri Noribergensis de
pwnitmtia, in which he attacked Luther and tried
to influence the antinomian controversy (see ANTI
NOMIANISM AND ANTINOMIAN CONTROVERSIES, II).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. J. 1. von D811inger, Reformation, i. 130 eqq., Regensburg, 1851; idem, Beitrage zur politiaden, kirchdichen and Kulturpeschichte der seeks letzten Jahrhunderte, iii. 105 sqq., Vienna, 1882; F. F. von Soden, Beetrape zurGesehichte der Reformation, p.354, Nuremberg, 1855; A. Baur, Zwinplis Theolopie, ii. 418 sqq., Halle, 1889; W. Friedensburg, in Beitrdpe zur baYereschen Kircheweschiehte, v. (1899) 167. Prof. Kolde purposes to write a biography.
143 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA dicrafte, Hebrew
HANNA, WILLIAM: Free Church of Scotland;
b. at Belfast, Ireland, Nov. 26, 1808; d. in London
May 24, 1882. He was educated at the universities
of Glasgow and Edinburgh, was ordained pastor of
the parish of East Kilbride, near Glasgow, in 1835,
and was translated to the parish of Skirling, Peeble
ahire, in 1837. He was an active supporter of
Thomas Chalmers in the ecclesiastical controversy
of the time; and at the disruption of 1843 he joined
estant; b. at Harber (near Liineburg, 68 m. n.n.e.
of Hanover) Dec. 29, 1813; d. at Eppendorf (a sub
urb of Hamburg) Nov. 21,1889. He attended gym
nasiums at Hildesheim and Brunswick, and the uni
versities of GSttingen, Halls, and Berlin, receiving
his degree of Ph.D. from Jena in 1840, after having
devoted three years to private patristic studies at
Wolfenbiittel. From 1840 to 1848 he was at Brunswick, where he incurred the enmity of the rationalistic clergy of the city, who succeeded in debarring him from position after position, so that, in 1851, he was compelled to accept a country pastorate at the Hanoverian village of Betheln. He removed to a similar position at Salzhemmendorf in 1854. His fortune changed, however, in 1861, when he was called to Greifswald as pastor of St. James's and also as professor of practical theology at the university of the same city. He retained these positions until his retirement from active life in 1886, after which he spent the remainder of his life at Eppendorf.
Hanne's theological position was essentially positive, although his poetic.and philosophical tendencies brought him into frequent conflict with the strictly orthodox as well as with the rationalists. At a later period he entered the Protestantenverein, but in his concluding years he maintained a distinctly irenic attitude, particularly toward younger colleagues whose views differed essentially from his own. His writings comprise the following works:
Rationaliamua and speculative Theolopte in Braunschweig
(Brunswick, 1838); Featreden an Gebaldete 41xr daa Weaen
ilea chriatLschen Glau6ena, %nbeaondere caber das VerhSltnia den
peach%chtZichenPeraon Christi scar Ides dee ChriatenEuma (1839):
Friedrich Schleiennacher ale relipro6eer Genius Deutachlanda
(1840); Sokratea ala Genius den Humaniffit (1841); Den
moderns Nih%Zatmua and die Strauaa'eche Glaubertalehre im
Verhiiltn%a our Ides den chriaUiehen Religion (Bielefeld, 1842);
Anti‑orthodox, oiler gepen BuchatabendienaE and P/aJjentum
and for den freien Geist den HumanitZst and ilea Chriatentuma
(Brunswick, 1848); Der freie Glaube in Xampf mrot den the
HANNIlYGTOft, JAMES: Anglican missionary bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa; b. at Hurstpierpoint (8 m. from Brighton), England, Sept. 3, 1847; d. in Uganda, Africa, Oct. 29, 1885. He studied at St. Mary's Hall, Oxford (B.A., 1873; M.A., 1875; D.D., 1884); was ordained deacon and became curate at Martinhoe and Trentishoe 1874, and of St. George's, Huratpierpoint, 1875; was ordained priest 1876. In 1882 he offered himself to the Church Missionary Society for the Central Africa mission at Rubaga for a period of five years, was accepted, and reached Msahlla on the Victoria, Nyanza the same year, when a severe illness compelled his return. He resumed his duties at Hurstpierpoint but in 1884 was offered the bishopric named above, then newly created, accepted it, was consecrated June 24, 1884, and sailed the same year, reaching Mombasa Jan. 24, 1885. He determined to open up a new road by a healthier route through
the Masai country to Lake Victoria, Nyanza, which he reached Oct. 17. This approach from a new direction alarmed the natives, who feared encroachments from the whites, and the bishop and his company were seized by Chief Mwanga of Uganda, on Oct. 21, and were put to death eight days later.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. C. Dawson, James Hannington, First Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, London, 1887; DNB, xxiv. 307‑308.
HANOVER. See PRussIA.
HANSIZ, hdn'sits, MARCUS: Jesuit church historian; b. near V61kermarkt (47 m. s.w. of Graz), Carinthia, Apr. 23, 1683; d. at Vienna Sept. 5,1766. He was educated at Eberndorf and Vienna, and became a teacher of philqsophy and history, first at Graz and later at various other places. Inspired by special histories of the Church in France, Italy, and England, he began a comprehensive Germania sacra, commencing with the history of the church at Lorch the diocese of Passau, and the archbishopric of Salzburg, which formed the first two volumes (Augsburg, 1727‑29). After 1731 he occupied himself partly with minor works and partly with the collection of materials for the third volume of his great work, which was designed to comprise the history of the diocese of Regensburg, as well as with gathering data for the bishoprics of Vienna, Neustadt, Seckau Gu rk, Lavant, and the history of Carinthia. He was able, however, to publish only the introduction to this volume (Vienna, 1754), for the controversy in which his researches involved him with the canons of St. Emmeram led him to retire from all literary activity. Nevertheless, his interest in the work was unabated until his death. After his decease appeared his Analecta pro hiBtorid Carinthite (Klagenfurt, 1872). Even in its fragmentary state, the Germania sacra forms a noteworthy product of German industry and a valuable preliminary for the history of Germany and its Church; and its author was characterized not only by learning, diligence, and perspicuity, but also by love of truth and historical critical ability.
B133LIOGRAPHY: A. and A. de Backer Aerivains de la compapnie de JEsus, ii. 285, 7 vols., Lidge, 1853‑B1; H. Hur. ter, Nomenclator literarius recentioris theologise catholic, iii. 109‑111, Innsbruck, 1883. HAPAX LEGOMENOft or EIREMENON(Gk. " Once said " or " spoken ") : An expression used in exegetical or text‑critical works signifying that the word, phrase, 9r combination is not known to exist elsewhere, or at least is singular in the book or author under discussion.
HAPHTARAH, haf‑ta'rd (" conclusion," pl. HaplN faroth): Reading lessons or paragraphs taken from the Prophets, read after the Law in the morning services of the synagogues on Sabbaths and feastdays, and in the afternoon services on fast‑days. The passage chosen has some relation, which, however, is often very indirect, to the section previously read from the Law. See BIBLE TExT, I., 2, 1 2; SYNAGOGUE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. A. Briggs, Study of Holy Scripture, p. 179, New York, 1899.
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
RAPPER, ANDREW PATTON:, Presbyterian; b. near Monongahela City, Penn., Oct. 20, 1818; d. at Wooster, O., Oct. 27, 1894. He was graduated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., 1835, at Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., 1843, and in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania 1844. In 1844 he became a missionary of the Presbyterian Church in Canton, China. While on a visit to America in 1885‑86 he raised funds to establish the Christian College of China, now the Canton Christian College at Honglok opposite the city of Canton. In 1891 he returned to America to live.
HAPPINESS: This is not a simple sensation, like
the enjoyment of a piece of good fortune; it is rather
worldly, as Blessedness (q.v.). By that bliss which
is established in his life and perfected in the life
to come, besides obtaining a relative mundane
blessedness (cf. Matt. vi. 33), he helps to usher in
the kingdom of God with its gifts of peace and joy
and its laws of love to God and to neighbor, and so
to further the complete development of humanity
in this world. F. SIEFFERT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Massie, in Expositor, ser. 1 vols. ix.x.; idem in DB, ii. 300‑301; G. Hodges, The Pursuit of Happiness, New York, 1906; L. Abbott, Christ's Secret of Happiness, ib. 1907; DCl3, i. 702‑703.
HARAN, h6'ran (Hebr. ,Haran; Gk. Karrai): The name of the most important city in North Meso‑
145 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Tram°°er
potamia, situated in the valley of the Upper Balich, early celebrated as a seat of worship of the moongod. Its ruins, three English miles in circuit, lie a day's journey southeast of Urfa‑Edessa. The etymology of the name is obscure; the Assyrian form of the word, Bdrranu, connects it with the word for road, end with its location on the caravan route between Syria end the East.
Sources for the pre‑Assyrian history of North Mesopotamia unfortunately still lie buried in the mounds of the valleys of the Chabor end the Balich. Slight investigations by Layard along the Chabor brought to light some pre‑Assyrian monuments. The course of Babylonian end Assyrian history shows that from prehistoric times North Mesopotamia was a region of great Babylonian‑Semitic states; end Winckler places here the state of Kisshati, a region which gave one of the titles much used by Babylonian kings, of which region Haran was perhaps the capital end most important city. The " land of Haran " of the Assyrian inscriptions had great importance both for the commerce of Assyria end Babylonia end for the religious development of Assyria. The oldest reports of North Mesopotamia are in the Amarna Tablets (q.v.), and show the region as being at the time under the control of the Mitanni. The rule of the mitanni was overthrown by Assyria 200 years later, when Shalmaneser I. assumed the title king of Kisshati. Tiglath‑pileser 1. hunted elephants in the land of Haran; Shalmaneser 11. built a temple to Sin in the city. Later the district took part in the revolt against Assyria, end paid a heavy penalty therefor. After the downfall of Assyria the region came under Chaldean control, after devastation by the UmmanManda, end Nabonidusrebuiltthecityof Haran end the temple for the moon‑god. In Christian times it was an important center of heathenism until the Middle Ages.
There are still indications in traces of roads of the importance of Haran for trade in early times, end Ezek. xxvii. 23 speaks of its commerce with Phenicia. Of its influence in religion over alarge region there are monuments from near Aleppo end Senjirli.
According to the Old Testament, Haran in Aramnaharaim was the place of the theophany which directed Abraham to leave his country and kindred, of Eliezer's wooing of Rebekah for Isaac, of Jacob's fourteen years of servitude, and the place of departure of the migrations of the Terahites to Canaan. According to another tradition, Harare is merely the second point of departure, the original place being Ur of the Chaldees. The version in P, giving the derivation from Ur, is probably based on earlier reports in E, since not without cogent reasons would a narrator of that time derive the Hebrew origins from the land of their foes. The two traditions have a connection in so far as both cities were noted seats of the same cult, though in Ur the moon‑god was called Nannar, in Harare, Sin. Laban is itself a poetical name for the deity of Haran, while Sarah recalls the Assyrian Sarratu, the consort of the moon‑god, end Milcah, the name of the wife of Nahor, is reminiscent of the Assyrian malkatu, " princess," a title under which Ihtr was wor‑
shiped in Harare, A. JEItEMIA9.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. A. Chwoleon, Die Saabier' and der Saabiamua,~part i.. $t. Petersburg, 1858; J. Ha16vy, Mdlangee d'EpipraP)OascldCAEsforachung, Giessen, 1878; idem, in KAT, pp. 29 eqq., et passim; R,. Kittel, in Theologiacha 3Eudien sue WUraemberp, 1888, pp. 193 eqq.; idem. aeachichte der Habrtlar, pp. 135, Goths, 1888, Eng. travel.. London, 1895; Ainsworth, in PBBA, 1891, pp. 387 eqq.t A. Mea, Oeac7tichEe der Stadt Harran, Strasburg, 1892; H. Winokler, AtRorientatiacha Forachungen, parts i.‑ii., Leipeio, 1892; idem, Oeachichte Babylonians and Assyrians, pp. 148 eqq., ib. 1892; A. H. $syoe, The Higher Criticism end the Monuments, London, 1894; H. F. Helmolt, Wedtgeachichte, vol. iii., part 1, Leipaio, 1899; DB, 1301; EB, ii. 1981‑83.
HARBAUGH, HENRY: German Reformed Church; b. near Wayneaborough, Pa., Oct. 28, 1817; d. at Mercersburg, Pa., Dec. 28, 1867. After studying at Marshall College (1840‑43), he held pastorates at Lewisburg, Pa. (1843‑b0), Lancaster (1850‑60), end Lebanon (1860‑63). From 1863 till his death he was professor of theology at the Mercersburg Seminary. He was a man of indefatigable industry, and a prominent exponent of the Mercersburg theology (q.v.). He edited the Guardian 1849‑66, contributed to the Reformed Church Messenger 1861‑67, edited the Merceraburg Review for some time before his death, compiled numerous almanacs for the board of publication of the German Reformed Church, end wrote a number of books. His more important works are: Heaven, or the Sainted Dead (Philadelphia, 1848); Heavenly Recognition (1851); The Heavenly Home (1853); Life of Michael Schtatter (1857); Fathers of the German Reformed Church in Europe end America (2 vols.,1857); Hymns end Chants (Lebanon, 1861), of which the best known is the hymn, Jesus, 1 live to thee; and the collection of poems written in " Pennsylvania German," called Harbaugh's Harfe (Philadelphia, 1870), which enjoyed a wide popularity.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lion Harbaugh, Life of Rev. Henry Harbauph, Philadelphia, 1900.
HARDEftBERG, ALBERT RIZAEUS: German Lutheran theologian; b. at Hardenberg (75 m. n.e.
of Amsterdam), Holland, 1510; d. Early Life. at Emden (120 m. w. of Hamburg)
May 18,1574. His name was assumed from his birthplace; possibly the family name was RiAus. At the age of seven he attended the school of the Brethren at Groningen, where Gesewin von Helen was his teacher (see Com>aort LzFz, BRETHREN OF THE). There he must have learned the views of Wessel. In 1527 he went to the't red school " of the famous Aduard monastery, where he read diligently the classics, the Fathers, and, more than anything else, the Bible, end was also a close student of history. By 1530, when he entered the University at Louvain, he had become familiar with the writings of Wessel, end shrank from the quibbles of the scholastic theologians, though he had not consciously joined the Reformation. Although at Louvain the atmosphere was entirely against the Reformation, yet Hardenberg and his friends, through their private reading, became zealous advocates of the new ideas. When he had obtained his degree he left Louvain end turned his steps toward Italy, but, falling ill on the road, betook