HAMILTON, JAMES: Church of Scotland; b. at Paisley (7 m. w.s.w. of Glasgow) Nov. 27, 1814; d. in London Nov. 24, 1867. He studied at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, became assistant to Robert Candlish at St. George's, Edinburgh, in 1838, took charge of the parish of Abernyte in 1839, and early in 1841 removed to Roxburgh Church, Edinburgh. In July, 1841, he became pastor of the National Scotch Church,
ENCYCLOPEDIA $ ~, Archbishopric of
Regent Square, London, and remained pastor of this congregation till his death. In 1849 he became editor of the Presbyterian Messenger, and in 1864 editor of Evangelical Christendom, the organ of the Evangelical Alliance. He was an incessant literary worker and the author of some of the most widely circulated books of his day. His beat known works are: Life in Earnest (London, 1845), of which 64,000 copies had been sold before 1852; The Mount of Olives (1846); The Royal Preacher (1851), homiletical commentary on Ecclesiastes; and Our Christian Classics (4 vols., 1857‑59). His Works were published in London (6 vols., 1869‑73); and his Select Works appeared in New York (4 vols., 1875).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Arnst, Life of James Hamilton, New York, 1871; R. Nasmith, Memoirs of Rev. James Hamilton, Glasgow, 1896; DNB, xciv. 188.
HAMILTON, JOHN TAYLOR:Moravian bishop;
b. at Antigua, W. I., Apr. 30, 1859. He was edu
cated at Moravian College, Bethlehem, Pa. (A.B.,
1875), and the Moravian Theological Seminary in
the same town (B.D.,1877). He was then a teacher
in Nazareth Hall Military Academy, Nazareth, Pa.
(1877‑81), pastor of the Second Moravian Church,
Philadelphia, Pa. (1881,86), and professor of Greek,
church history, and practical theology in the Mora
vian Theological Seminary (1886‑1903). Since
1903 he has been the American member of the Mis
sion Board of the Moravian Church, Herrnhut,
Saxony, and in 1905 was made a Moravian bishop.
He was also a member of the administrative board
of the Moravian Church in 1898‑1903 and secretary
of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in 1886
1898 and 1902‑‑03. In theology he is conserva
tively liberal and is positive, not negative. He was
associate editor of The Moravian in 1883‑93 and
sole editor in 1893‑94 and 1897‑99, and alas written
York, 1895); History o f the Moravian Church during
the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries (Bethlehem,
Pa., 1900); and History of the Missions of the Mora
vian Church during the eighteenth and nineteenth
HAMILTON, JOHN WILLIAM:Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Weston, Va., Mar. 18, 1845. He was graduated from Mount Union College, O. (1856) and from Boston University (1871), and was admitted to the Pittsburg Conference in 1868, being appointed to a pastorate at Newport, O. In the same year, however, he was transferred to the New England Conference, and in 1871 founded the People's Church in Boston, of which he was pastor until 1880. From that time until 1900 he held various positions in his denomination, and then was elected bishop. From 1892 to 1900 he was corresponding secretary of the Freedmen's Aid and Southern Education Society and also editor of The Christian Educator, and has written Memorial of Jesse Lee and the Old Elm (Boston, 1875); Lives o f the Methodist Bishops (New York, 1883); People's Church Pulpit (Boston, 1884); and American Fraternal Greetings (Chicago, 1899).
HAMILTON, PATRICK:Proto‑martyr of the Scottish Reformation; b. at Stanehouse, Lanark,
Hamilton THE. NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 132
or Mncavel, Linlithgow, about 1503‑04; burned at the sake at St. Andrew's Feb. 29, 1528. His father, Patrick, was a natural son of the first Lord Hamilton, knighted for his bravery, and rewarded with the above lands and barony by his sovereign, James IV. His mother, Catherine Stewart, was a daughter of Alexander, duke of Albany, second son of James II.; so that he was closely connected with some of the highest families in the land. His cousins, John and James Hamilton, before the Reformation, rose to episcopal rank in the old church; and several others of his relatives attained high promotion. Destined himself for such promotion, Patrick was carefully educated and was in 1517 appointed to the abbacy of Ferne in Rossshire, to enable him to maintain himself in comfort while studying abroad. Like many of his aristocratic countrymen at that period, he went first to the University of Paris, and probably to the College of Montaigu, where John Major, the great doctor of his country, was then teaching with so much dclat, and gathering around him, as he did afterward at St. Andrew's, an ardent band of youthful admirers, who in the end were to advance beyond their preceptor, and to lend the influence of their learning and character to the side of the Reformers. Before the close of 1520 Hamilton took the degree of M.A. at Paris, and soon after left that university for Louvain, to avail himself of the facilities for linguistic study provided there, or to enjoy personal intercourse with Erasmus, the patron of the new learning. At this date he was probably more of an Emsmian than a Lutheran, though of that more earnest school who were ultimately to outgrow their teacher and find their home in a new church. He made great progress in the languages and philosophy, and was specially drawn toward the system of Plato. With " the sophists of Louvain " he had no sympathy. But there were some there, as well as at Paris, whose hearts God had touched, to whom he could not fail to be drawn. He may even have met with the young Augustinian monks of Antwerp, whom, so soon after his departure, these sophists denounced, and forced to seal their testimony with their blood. In the course of 1522 he returned to Scotland, matriculated at St. Andrew's on June 9, 1523, the same day that his old preceptor Major was incorporated into the university and admitted as principal of the Pmdagogium, or, as it came afterward to be called, St. Mary's College. Probably he heard there those lectures on the Gospels which Major afterward published in Paris. But his sympathies were more with the young canons of the Augustinian priory than with the old scholastic; and possibly it was that he might take a place among the teachers of their college of St. Leonards that on Oct. 3, 1524, he was received as a member of the Faculty of Arts. He was a proficient, not only in the languages and philosophy, but also in the art of sacred music, which the canons and the alumni of their collcge were bound to cultivate. He composed " what the musicians call a mass, arranged in parts for nine voices," and acted himself as precentor of the choir when it was sung. In 1526 the New Testament of Tyndale's translation was brought over from the Low Countries by the Scottish traders:
A large proportion of thp copies are said to have been
taken to St. Andrew's, and circulated there. Hamil
works, but by faith; that faith, hope, and charity
are so linked together that he who hath one of them
hath all, and he that lacketh one lacketh all; and
that good works make not a good man, but a good
man doeth good works." On being challenged by
his accuser, he also affirmed it was not lawful to
worship images, nor to pray to the saints; and that
it was " lawful to all men that have souls to read
the word of God; and that they are able to under
stand the same, and in particular the latter will and
testament of Jesus Christ." These truths, which
have been the source of life and strength to many,
were then to him the cause of condemnation and
death; and the same day the sentence was passed
and executed. But, through all his excruciating
sufferings, the martyr held fast his confidence in
God and in his Savior; and the faith of many in the
truths he taught was only the more confirmed by
witnessing their mighty power on him. Nay, " the
reek of Patrick Hamilton infected all on whom it
did blow." (A. F. MITCHELLt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: The notices in the Commen‑
tary of A. Alesius on Ps. xxxvii., 1554; in the Introduc
tion to F. Lambert's Commentary on the Apocalypse,
Marburg, 1528; J. Foxe, Acts and Monuments of the
Church, many editions, e.g., London, 1871; J. Knox,
Works, ed. D. Laing i 500‑515, Edinburgh, 1895; J.
Spottiewoode, Hiet. of Church of Scotland, ed. M. Russell,
3 vole., ib. 1851‑ D. Calderwood, Hint. of the Kirk of
Scotland, ed. T. Thomson, 8 vols., ib. 1842‑49; R. Lind
say, Chronicles of Scotland, ad. J. G. Dalyell, 2 vols., ib.
1814. The only formal biography is P. Lorimer , Patrick
Hamilton, the First Preacher and Martyr of the Scottish
Reformation: a Historical Biography, collected from orig
inal sources, Edinburgh, 1857. The story of Hamilton
133 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hamilton
has been told by M. d'Aubignd, Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, vi. 14‑Sb, London, 1875; recently it has been made the subject of a veritable drama by Rev. T. P. Johnston, Patrick Hamilton, a Tragedy of the Reformation in Scotland, Fdinburgh, 1882. Consult also DNB, xaiv. 201‑203.
HAMILTON, THOMAS:Irish Presbyterian; b.
at Belfast Aug. 28, 1842. He was educated at the
Royal Academical Institution, Belfast, Queen's Col
lege, Belfast, and Queen's University (B.A., 1863),
and was ordained in 1865. From that year until
1889 he was a pastor in Belfast, and since 1889 has
been president of Queen's College. He has like
wise been a senator of the Royal University since
1890, and has written Faithful unto Death : A
Memoir o f Rev. David Hamilton (his father; Belfast,
1875); Irish Worthies (1875); Our Rest Day (prize
essay; Edinburgh, 1886); History of the Irish
Presbyterian Church (1887); and Beyond the Stars
HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM:Scotch philosopher; b. at Glasgow Mar. 8, 1788; d. at Edinburgh May 6, 1856. He studied first in
Wilson (Christopher North), but was elected to the
professorship of civil history in 1821. About 1826
he took up the study of phrenology, and in 1826
and 1827 he read before the Royal Society of Edin
burgh several papers antagonistic to the alleged
science. He made his reputation as a philosopher
by a series of articles that began to appear in the
Edinburgh Review in 1829. In 1836 he was elected
to the chair of logic and metaphysics in the Uni
versity of Edinburgh, and held the position till his
death. In 1843 he contributed to the lively eccle
siastical controversy of the time (see PRESBY
TERIANS) by publishing a pamphlet against the
principle of non‑intrusion. He was answered by
William Cunningham. In July, 1844, he suffered
a stroke of paralysis, which made him practically
an invalid for the rest of his life.
Hamilton was an exponent of the Scottish common‑sense philosophy and a conspicuous defender and expounder of Thomas Reid (q.v.), Position in though under the influence of Kant he
Philosophy. went beyond the traditions of the common‑sense school, combining Rzth a naive realism a theory of the relativity of knowledge. His psychology, while marking an advance on the work of Reid and Stewart, was of the " faculty " variety and has now been largely superseded by other views. His contribution to logic was the now well‑knowm.theory of the quantification of the
predicate, by which he became the forerunner of the present algebraic school of logicians.
It is his law of the conditioned, with his correlative philosophy of the unconditioned, which comes into nearest relation with theology. This law is " that all that is conceivable in thought lies between two extremes, which, as contradictory of
His Law of each other, can not both be true, but the Con‑ of which, as mutually contradictory, ditioned. one must be true . . . . The law of the mind, that the conceivable is in every relation bounded by the inconceivable, I call the law of the conditioned." This involved his position as to the Infinite‑ti at the Infinite is " incog‑
able and inconceivable." This doctrine on its philosophic side is a protest against Kant's skeptical result affirming that reason lands in hopeless contradictions; on its theological side it proclaims the impossibility, of knowing the Absolute Being. Only by taking first the philosophic aspect can we correctly interpret its theological relations. Kant had made a priori elements only forms of the mind: and accordingly, the ideas of self, the universe, and God, became only regulative of our intellectual procedure, and in no sense guaranties of truth. Accordingly, Kant has dwelt on " the self‑contradiction of seemingly dogmatical cognitions (thesis cum antithesi) in none of which we can discover any decided superiority." These were, that the world had a beginning, that it had not; that every composite substance consists of simple parts, that no composite thing does consist of simple parts; that causality according to the laws of nature is not the only causality operating to originate the world, that there is no other causality; that there is an absolutely necessary being, that there is not any such being. Hamilton's object was to maintain that such contradictions are not the product of reason, but of an attempt to press reason beyond its proper limits. If, then, we allow that the conceivable is only of the relative and bounded, we recognize at once that the so‑called antinomies of reason are the result of attempts to push reason beyond its own province, to make our conceptions the measure of existence, attempting to bring the incomprehensible within the limits of comprehension.
Thus far a real service was rendered by Hamilton in criticizing the skeptical side of Kant's Critique
o f Pure Reason. He estimated this re‑
Agnostic sult so highly as to say of it, " If I
Conse‑ have done anything meritorious in
quences. philosophy, it is in the attempt to ex
plain the phenomena of these contra
dictions." At this point Hamilton ranks Reid su
perior to Kant; the former ending in certainty,
the latter in uncertainty. But there remain for
Hamilton's philosophy the questions: If we escape
contradiction by refusing to attempt to draw the
inconceivable within the limits of conception, what
is the source of certainty as to the infinite? How are
knowledge and thought related to the existence and
attributes of the Infinite Being? Here Hamilton
is entangled in the perplexity of affirming that to
be certain which is yet unknowable. That there
is an Absolute Being, source of all finite existence, is,
Hammurabi end His Code
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
according to him, a certainty; but that we can have any knowledge of the fact is by him denied. Reid had maintained the existence of the Supreme Being as a necessary truth; and Hamilton affirms that the divine existence is at least a natural inference; but he nevertheless holds that the Deity can not be known by us. This is with him an application of the law of the conditioned‑a conclusion inevitable under admission that all knowledge implies the relative, the antithesis of subject and object. This doctrine of ignorance was developed by H. L. Mansel, and eagerly embraced by the experientialists, J. S. Mill and Herbert Spencer. This gave an impulse to Agnosticism (q.v.), the influence of which must be largely credited to Kant, who reduced the a priori to a form of mental procedure, and to Hamilton, who rejected Kant's view, yet regarded the absolute as incognizable. However, while insisting that " the infinite God can not by us, in the present limitation of our faculties, be comprehended or conceived," Hamilton adds that "faith‑belief‑is the organ by which we apprehend what is beyond our knowledge."
Hamilton's principal works are: Discussions on Philosophy and Literature, Education and University Reform (London, 1852), containing his articles published in the Edinburgh Review ; Notes and Dissertations, published with his edition of T. Reid's Works (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1846‑63); and his Lectures on Metaphysics and Logic (ed. H. L. Mansel and J. Veitch, 4 vols., 1859‑60), of which an abridgment of the metaphysical portion (vols. i. and ii.) was edited by F. Bowen (Boston, 1870).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For the life consult: J. Veitoh, Memoir of Sir William Hamilton, Edinburgh, 1869; idem, Sir William Hamilton the Man and his Philosophy, ib. 1883; articles in St. Paul's Magazine, iv. 685, Eclectic Magazine, lmaII. 570, and Living Age, eiii. 222; DNB, 224‑232. On his philosophy consult: J. 8. Mill An Examination of Sir William Hamilton 'a Philosophy, 2 vole., London, 1878; T. S. Baynes, in Edinburgh Essays, pp. 241‑300, London, 1857; H. Calderwood. The Philosophy of the Infinite, with special Reference to the Theories of Sir William Hamilton, Edinburgh, 1861; H. L. Mansel, The Philosophy of the Conditioned, London, 1866; J. McCosh, Scottish Philosophy, pp. 415‑454 New York, 1875; G. 8. Morris, British Thought and Thinkers, pp 25‑301, London, 188; W. i3. H. Monck, Sir William Hamilton, ib. 1881. HAMLIN, CYRUS:Congregationalist; b. at Waterford, Me., Jan. 5, 1811; d. at Portland, Me., Aug. 8, 1900. He was graduated from Bowdoin College (A.B., 1834) and at Bangor Theological Seminary (1837). In the following year he went to Turkey under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and in 1840 opened Bebek Seminary on the shores of the Bosphorus, which he successfully conducted for twenty years, also finding an opportunity to aid the Protestant Armenians of Constantinople during the Crimean War. In 1860 he resigned from all relations with the American Board because of his theories on vernacular education, and founded Robert College, Constantinople, finally securing an imperial imde placing the institution under the protection of the United States. After a successful presidency of the new college for sixteen years, he returned to the United States in 1876 as professor of dogmatic theology in Bangor Theological Semi‑
nary, a position which he retained until 1880, when he was chosen president of Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vt. In 1885 he resigned this office and retired to private life. He wrote Among the Turks (New York, 1877) and the autobiographic My Life and Times (Boston, 1893), as well as numerous sermons, lectures, reviews, and similar brief contributions.
HAMMOND, CHARLES EDWARD:Church of England; b. at Bath (12 m. ex.e. of Bristol), SOmersetshire, Jan. 24, 1837. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford (B.A., 1858), where he was fellow in 1859‑73, tutor in 1861‑73, and bursar and lecturer in 1873‑82. He was ordained priest in 1862, and was chaplain of the Oxford Female Penitentiary from 1$70 to 1882. From 1882 to 1887 he was rector of Wootton, Northamptonshire, and since 1887 has been vicar of Menheniot, Cornwall. He was likewise rural dean of East from 1889 to 1890 and from 1893 to 1899, and has been honorary canon of Truro since 1893, examining chaplain to the bishop since 1903, and proctor in convocation for the diocese of Truro since 1905. He has written: Outlines of Textual Criticism applied to the New Testament (Oxford, 1872); Liturgies, Eastern and Western (1878); and The Ancient LMcrgy of Antioch, and Other Liturgical Fragments (an appendix to the preceding volume; 1879).
HAMMOND, EDWARD PAYSON:Evangelist; b. at Ellington, Conn., Sept. 1, 1831. He was educated at Williams College (A.B., 1858), Union Theological Seminary (1858‑59), and the Free Church College, Edinburgh, where he completed his education in 1861. In 1862 he was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry, and since that time has devoted himself to Evangelistic work, particularly among the young, in the United States and Great Britain. He has written, among other works: Child's Guide to Heaven (Boston, 1863); The Better Life and How to Find it (1869); Jesus the Lamb of God (1872); The Conversion of Children (New York, 1878); Roger's Travels (1887); and Early Conversion (1901).