Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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last year of his life, and by that of Franz Buchholz

of Wellbergen in Westphalia, who gave a consid­

erable fund for the education of Hamann's children.

In 1784 the Princess Galitzin was won for the posi­

tive faith of Christianity by his writings and also

honored Hamann with her friendship.

Hamann's importance lies in the fact that after

a dead orthodoxy he asserted the spontaneity of a

personal religious spirit and, after the subjectiv­

ity of Pietism, pointed to the universally human.

The real essence of his spiritual tendency is to be

found in the Christianity of Luther, as expressed in

his personal life of faith and in his works, especially

in his catechisms and in the prefaces to the Epistle

to the Romans and to the Psalms. Three periods

in his literary activity may be distinguished‑first

his period of storm and stress (1759‑64), in which

he was confronted chiefly with classical and esthet­

ical subjects. In the second period (1772‑76) he

occupied himself chiefly with the philosophy of

language. The third period (1779‑86) was the

glorification of Evangelical Christianity as the

religion of the facts of revelation and the gifts of

grace. His principal works (all of few pages) are:

Sokratisehe Denkloiirdigkeiten (1759) and its apolo­

getico‑satirical postlude Wolken (1761), a combi­

nation of skepticism and childlike faith; Kleeblatt

hellenistischer Briefs (1761); Esthetics in nuce

(1761); Kreuzzuge des Philologen (1762); Ea8ai d

la mosaique (1762); Des Bitters von Roaenkreuz

letzte Willensmeinung iiber den gottlichen und menaeh­

lichen Ursprung der Sprache (1772); Philologische

Einfdlleund ZweifelilibereineakademischePreisschrift

(1772); Beilage zu den. Denkwurdigkeiten des 8eli­

gen Sokratea (1773); goyVl,rag (1779); Metakritik

uber den Puriamum der reinen Vernunft (1781?),

against the rationalism of Kant. His most mature

theological work is Golgatha and Scheblimini [Pa.

ex. 1], Erniedrigung urul Erhohung, Christentum and

Luthedum (1784), which was directed against Moses

Mendelssohn's Jerusalem oder religiose Macht and

Judentum (1783). F. Rothe edited Hamann's

Sdmmtliche Schriften (8 vols., Berlin, 1821‑43).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Schlegel, in Deutschea Museum iii (1813),

33‑52; C. H. Gildemeister J. G. Hamanm . . . Leben

and Sehri/ten, 3 vole Gotha,,‑ 1857; idem Hamann‑Stu­

dien, ib. 1873; R. Rocholl, Johann Georg Hamann, Han­

over, 1869; A. Bramel, Johann Georg Hamann, Berlin,

1870; J. Disaelhoff, Wepweieer zu J. G. Hamann, Elber­

feld, 1871; G. Poel, Johann Georg Hamann, 2 parts, Ham­

burg, 1874‑76; J. Clamsen, Johann Georg Hamanns Leben

and Werke, 3 vols., GUteraloh, 1878‑79; G. C. B. Punier,

GeschicAte der chriallichen Religionephilosophie, i. 451‑461,

Brunswick, 1880; J. Minor, J. G. Hamann in seiner Bo­

deutung far die Sturm‑ and Dranpperiode, Frankfort, 1881;

R. Gran. Hamann& Stellung zu Religion and Christentum,

GUtereloh, 1888; Lettau, in Miaeilunpen der Comsnius­

Gesallechaft, ii (1893), 201‑213.


HAMBERGER, JULIUS‑ German Protestant;

b. at Gotha Aug. 3, 1801; d. at Munich Aug. 5;

1885. He was educated at Munich and Erlangen,

and in 1828 was appointed Protestant teacher of

religion at the military school and in the school for

pages at Munich, where he remained more than fifty

years He found time to develop, an extensive

literary activity. It had been his early desire to find the true relation between reason and revelation in order to prove that the divine truth as revealed in the Bible is at the same time the only truth of reason. He heard Schelling's lectures on the phi­losophy of mythology and on the philosophy of revelation; but it was not until he came into per­sonal contact with Franz von Baader that he found what he had missed in Schelling‑the truth that the product of the evolution of the principle of nature in God is not the world, but God's own glory and corporeality, while the world itself is a freely created image of divine glory. The elements of Baader's theosophy Hamberger found in Jakob BShme (q. v.), and on the basis of Baader and Bbhme Hamberger wrote a great number of works in which he tried to show the fundamental unity of Biblical revelation and reason. His first important work was Gott and seine Otfenbarungen in Natur and Geschichte (Munich, 1836; 2d ed., Gtlteraloh, 1882), which he condensed and adapted in his Lehrbuch der chriatliehen Religion (1839; 3d ed., with the title Die bx7blische Wahrheit in ihrer Harmonie mit Natur and Geschichte, 1877). In 1844 appeared Die Lehre des deutschen Philoso­phen Jakob Bohme in which he tried to explain and popularize the writings of this obscure philosopher. With the same aim he edited the Selbstbiographie of the theosophist F. Christoph Oetinger (Stuttgart, 1845) and his Btblisches Worterbuch (1849) and translated his Theologia ex idea vine, with explana­tory notes (1852). He also made special researches in Christian mysticism, the results of which may be seen in his collection Stimmen Gus dem Heiligtum der ehristlichen Mystik and Theosophie (2 vols., 1857) and edited a revised version of Tauler's ser­mons (1864). Of other works may be mentioned Phyaica sacra (1869), anthologies of the writings of F. H. Jakobi (1870) and Johannesvon Miiller (1870). Christentum and moderne Kulbur (3 vols., Erlangen, 1865‑75) is a collection of his numerous treatises and essays which appeared in periodicals.


BIHLroa8APH7: J. Hamberger, Erinnerungen Gus meinem Leben, Stuttgart 1882; Allgemeine euanpelisch‑luthaerische Kirchenzeitung, 1885, no. 49.

HAMBURG: A free city of Germany, forming one of the states of the German Empire. It lies on the Elbe, about 70 miles from its mouth, has a land area of 157 square miles, and a population (1906) of 886,798, of whom 90 per cent are Evan­gelical Lutherans. The Roman Catholics number about 35,000, the Jews some 20,000, the German Reformed about 10,000, and other denominations, including Baptists, Methodists, Anglicans, Mennon­ites, and French Reformed, about 10,000. There is now no formal connection between Church and State in Hamburg.

Hamburg became definitely Lutheran with the introduction of the Bugenhagen church order in 1529 (see BUGExHAGEN, JoHANN) and

Church remained such till its occupation by

History the French at the beginning of the

to r86o. nineteenth century. Church and State

were so closely united that candidates

for the higher civil posts usually had to seek

promotion through the minor ecclesiastical offices;




and the older officers of the Church (called Ober­aken) were really the representatives of‑the people in the city council as distinot from the senate. Ac­cording to article lix. of the recess of 1529, which was repeated verbatim in the recess of 1603,, Lutherans only were permitted to reside within the juris­diction of the city. However, with the extension of commerce certain concessions were made to other denominations. In 1567 members of the Anglican Church, and in 1605 members of the Dutch Re­formed Church were permitted to live in the city. They were denied citizenship and the right to hold public worship, but were allowed to hold services at the homes of their respective ambassadors. As a result of the Peace of Westphalia (1648) a degree of toleration was granted to Reformed Christians, Mennonites, and Roman Catholics; but non‑Lu­therans usually.held their services in adjacent Al­tona, as the Mennonites still do. All Reformed Christians, Roman Catholics, and Mennonites were granted freedom of religious worship by the statute of Sept. 19, 1785, and after the War of Liberation they were given all the civil rights of the Lutherans, except the right of election ‑to the municipal col­legia. The new civil constitution of Sept. 28,1860, secured complete religious liberty for all, and decrees that the enjoyment of civil rights shall not be con­ditioned on, or limited by, religious confession.

The present Constitution of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hamburg came into being on

Dec. 9, 1870. At first it applied only Recent His‑ to the city, but in July, 1876, it was

tory of the amended and introduced into the six‑

Lutheran teen outlying country parishes. The

Church. Cloister of St. John, which had become

extremely wealthy by the sale of its real estate, was induced to present the Church with a large part of its fortune; and thus the claims of the Church on the State were satisfied. However, the income from this donation was found insufficient to meet the growing needs of the Church, and in 1887 a regular church‑tax was introduced. This is based on income and varies, through nine gra­dations, from one mark on an income of 1,500 marks to 300 marks on an income of 75,000 marks. This tax amounts to about 500,000 marks yearly, of which 40 per cent goes to the general treasury of the Church, and 60 per cent to the individual parishes.

As to the organization and government of the Church, there are thirty‑three parishes, forming

four church‑districts (Karchenkreise). Government The affairs of the individual parish are

of the managed by a board (Karclaenvor­Lutheran stand), composed of the pastors of the

Church. parish, three elders, who are elected

for life; twelve trustees (twenty‑four in the first church‑district), who are elected by the congregations for a term of ten years; and two Evangelical Lutheran members of the senate, who preside over the meetings of the board. In the third and fourth church‑districts the organization is similar, except that there are no elders. In each case the current business of a parish is left to an executive committee, composed of members of this governing board. The pastors of the first V ‑9

church‑district (the city) form the ministry; and the five so‑called head pastors compose the examining board. From their number the Patronat (the Lutheran members of the senate) selects the Senior, who presides over all ecclesiastical collegia. The clergy of the other .three church‑districts form collegia similar to the ministry. They have the power to discipline their members, and also have a voice in matters pertaining to changes in liturgy and church service. Corresponding to the four church‑districts are four convocations (Konvente), which are composed of the Senior, the two senators of the ecclesiastical council (in the third and fourth districts simply two specially appointed senators), and clerical and lay members of the parochial boards. The convocations of the first and second districts, together with nine representatives from the third and three deputies from the fourth, form the synod, which is composed of eighty members, viz., twenty‑four ecclesiastics. and fifty‑six laymen. The acts of this body, which usually meets twice a year, require the sanction of the Patronat. The administration of the entire Church is in the hands of the ecclesiastical council, which consists of nine members, viz., the Senior, two senators, and two ecclesiastics and four laymen elected by the synod. Ministers are elected by the parochial boards, though every election has to be approved by the Patronat.

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hamburg has about one hundred clergymen and some forty churches, besides the three so‑called

Statistics. chapels, the Anacharkapelle, estab­

lished 1856, the Stiftskirche (1852),

which grew out of the St. George Sunday‑school,

and the Kreuzkirche (1866). These were estab­

lished privately in the overcrowded parishes of the

inner city to meet the needs of the time, and while

they are reckoned to the Lutheran Church, they 1 re

not represented in any of its ecclesiastical bodies.

It should be added that church attendance is very

poor, and that less than 10 per cent of the nominal

membership take tile communion. Similarly, a cer­

tain indifference toward the Church is shown in

the matter of marriages and funerals. About 13

per cent of contracting couples neglect entirely the

church service, contenting themselves with the

civil marriage; and, though the attendance of a

Lutheran minister at a funeral is now gratis, inter­

ments with clerical attendance are comparatively

rare. Sunday‑schools are now common throughout

the city. The oldest is the St. George Sunday­

achool (1825; now the Stiftskirche), which is also

the oldest Sunday‑school on the Continent. The

first Sunday‑school organized in a church was that

established in St. James's in 1884. There are now

thirty‑two Sunday‑schools in Hamburg, twenty­

five of which are conducted by pastors, seven by

state missionaries. The total attendance of chil­

dren is about 10,000, and the number of teachers

and assistants is about 400. (A. voN BROECBER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. C. W. Sillem, Die Binfahrunp der Refor­mation in Hamburg, Halle, 1886; Stati8tik des Hamburger Staates (annual); Statisldachea Handbueh for don hambur­p6arhen Stoat, Hamburg, 1891; A. von Broecker, in Zeit­achrift fQr die evanpeliacWutherische Kirche Hamburpe, vols. i.‑iv., 1894‑98 (this periodical contains yearly re­turns in one of its numbers).

Hamburg, Archbishopric of Hamilton


HAMBURG, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF: The Saxon territory north of the Elbe made a stubborn resist­ance to Christianity. It is not till 780 that the Nordleudi submitted to baptism, and even then it was rather an act of submission to Charle­magne than the result of missionary labor. , The first church in Hamburg was certainly not built till after 804, for it was consecrated by Amalarius of Treves, who had been in charge of the mission there, and who entered on his episcopate ‑in that year. Later a priest named Heridac took his place in this district. When Louis the Pious completed the organization of the Saxon bishoprics, he divided the territory between Bremen' and Verden. Later, however, he conceived the idea of erecting an arch­bishopric on the northern frontier in connection with the Scandinavian nusaion, and in 831 he had Ansgar (q.v.) consecrated by his brother Drogo of Metz as the head of a diocese formed out of parts of Bremen and Verden. Christianity was still in a rudimentary stage here; there were only four " baptismal churches," at Hamburg, Heiligensted­ten, Sch6nefeld, and Meldorf. The archbishopric of Hamburg at first had no suffragans. Gregory IV. named him papal legate for the north and east of Europe; but this was at first rather an empty title. After Hamburg was destroyed by the North­men in 845, the existence of the bishopric was possible only by a union with Bremen (q.v.), which gave rise to a long controversy with Hermann of Cologne, to whose metropolitan jurisdiction Bremen had been subject. Pope Formosus decided in 892 that Hamburg and Bremen should be united until the former had suffragan sees of its own. These were not erected until 947, when Adaldag was con­secrated bishop for Sleswick, Ripen and Aarhus; Oldenburg apparently came later. Bremen, how­ever, still remained united with Hamburg, Bruno of Cologne renouncing his claims. Archbishop Unwan asserted metropolitan rights over Denmark, Norway and Sweden; but it was only a question of time when these countries should have national churches of their own, which was finally brought to pass when Paschal II. raised Lund to an archbish­opric in 1104. Archbishop Adalbero succeeded in checking the progress of separation for the moment at the Lateran Council of 1123, and Innocent II. in 1133 confirmed the old rights of Hamburg; but the same pope in 1137 finally dissolved the con­nection of the northern countries with Hamburg, which, however, kept Oldenburg and increased its jurisdiction by the foundation of new dioceses of Mecklenburg (Schwerin) and Ratzeburg.


BIBLIOGRAPB:7: The sources are: J. M. Lappenberl<, Ham­bureiscAes Urkundenbueh, Hamburg, 1842; Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburpensia ecclesias yontifcum, in MGH, Script., vii (1846), 267; Series Bremenaium et Hammaburpenaium episcoporum, in the same, p. 389; An­nales Hamburgensea, in MGH, Script., xvi (1859), 38o; P. Hasse, Regeaten and Urkunden Schleawig‑Holatein­Lavenburp, Hamburg, 1885 Bqq. Consult Rettberg, KD, ii. 490; K. Koppmann, Die 4lteaten Urkunden des Erzbis­tuma Hamburg‑Bremen, Hamburg, 1866; G. Dehio,Geachichte des Erzbiatums Hamburg‑Bremen, 2 vole., Berlin, 1878; Hauck, KD, ii. 675 aqq. et passim; T. Tamm, Die An­fringe des Embiseuma Hamburg‑Bremen, Jena, 1888; Nean­der, Christian Church, iii. 271‑290 et passim; and the literature under ADALBEaT and ANaaAR.

HAMBURGER, JAKOB: German Jewish rabbi; b. at Loslau (100 m. s.e. of Breslau), Silesia, Nov. 10, 1826. He was educated at the rabbinical schools of Rotzenplotz, Presburg, and Nikolaburg, and at the universities of Breslau and Berlin (Ph.D., Leipsic, 1852). He was then rabbi at Neustadt‑bei­Pinne (1852‑59), and since 1859 has been rabbi at Mecklenburg‑Strelit.z. He has written Geist and Ursprung der aramaischen Uebersetzung des Penta­teuchs, bekannt enter dem Namen Targum Onkelos (Leipsie, 1852); Der Geist der Hagada, Sammlung hagadischer Ausspruchhe aus den Talmudim and Midraschim (1859); and the important Realency­clopadie des Judentums (3 vols., Strelitz and Leipsic, 1865‑91, n. e. completed 1901).
HAMEL, h8"mel', JEAN BAPTISTE DU: French Roman Catholic; b. at Vire (36 m. s.w. of Caen), Normandy, 1624; d. Aug. 6, 1706. He studied at Paris and in 1643 entered the congregation of the Oratory, which he left ten years later to become pastor at Neuilly‑sur‑Marne. He was secretary of the Academy of Sciences at Paris from 1666 till 1699. In 1668 he attended the peace negotiations at Aachen and then accompanied the French am­bassador to England. He was held in high esteem by the leading scholars of his time. Aside from writings on physics and mathematics, his principal works are: De eonsensu veteris et nova= philosophice .(Paris, 1663); Philosophia vetus et nova ad usum scholm accommodata (4 vola., 1678); and Theologia speculatrix et practica juxta sanctorum patrum dog­mata pertractata (7 vols.,1691), which he abbreviated as Theologia cleriaorum seminariis accommodates summarium (5 vols., 1694). All of these works have been frequently edited and reprinted. Other works are, Institutiones biblicte see scripturte sacrw prolegomena (2 vols:, 1698); and a large edition of the Vulgate, with notes (2 vols., 1706).

(R. SEEKER().)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Niceron, Mhmoiree, i. 265 eqq.; C. G. Hein­rich, Geechichte der roerachitdanen Lehrarten der Ariatlichen Glaubsnewahrheiten, pp. 382 eqq., lApeic, 1780; Journal dea savane, 1707, supplement, pp. 88 eqq.; KL, v. 148081.
HAMEL, JEAN DU: Jesuit theologian of the second half of the sixteenth century. He taught theology at Louvain, where, on account of his Semi­Pelagian views concerning predestination and grace, he came into conflict with Michael Bajus (q.v.), then chancellor of the university. The result was that in 1587 thirty‑four theses taken from the lec­tures of Hamel and his Jesuit colleague, Leonardus Lessius (q.v.) were condemned by the theological faculty at Louvain. This action was indorsed by the University of Dousi. After the two Jesuits had received the support of several other universities, Rome interfered and declared that their teachings were dogmatically unobjectionable.


HAMELMA", ha'mel‑mall, HERMAN 1Y: Ger­man reformer; b. at Osnabrilek (74 m. w.s.w. of Hanover) 1525; d. at Oldenburg (24 m. w.n.w. of Bremen) June 26, 1595. He was educated at Osnabriick, Monster, Emmerich, and Dortmund, was ordained priest at Miinatcr, and at first signal­ized himself as a violent opponent of Luther. In

1552, however, he became a convert to Protestant­ism, and was deposed as parish priest at Camen and expelled from the town. After two years of wan­dering, partly spent at Wittenberg with Melanch­thon, he was appointed preacher at Bielefeld. His savage opposition to the carrying of the Host in procession caused the Roman Catholics to require him to dispute at Diisaeldorf before the ducal court of Cleves, and there he was again deposed. From 1554 to 1568 he was at Lemgo, where he labored unceasingly for the establishment of Lutheranism as far as Antwerp, and in 1568 he was appointed superintendent of Gandersheim to further the prog­ress of the Reformation in Brunswick, though the interference of the duke caused him to resign four years later. For the remainder of his life he was general superintendent of Oldenburg. Hamel­mann'a numerous writings contain abundant ma­terial for the history of the Reformation in Weat­phalia and lower Saxony, but can be used only with caution on account of his strong prejudices. His most noteworthy work was his Historia ecclesias­tics renati Evangdii (Altenburg, 1586). The manu­scripts of his books are preserved at Wolfenbuttel. (G. UHLHORNt.) BIRLIOGRAPRy: A. E. Rauachenbusch, H. Hamdmann's Lebea, Schwelm, 1830; J. G. Leuckfeld, Historia Hameh mann, Quedlinburg, 1720; M. Goebel, Gewhichte des chriab liden Ldena in der rheinaoaslphaliachen Kirchs, i. 449­459, Coblena, 1849; A. D6ring, J. Zambaeh and das Gym­nasium zu Dortmund, 164,3‑8,2, 64 eqq., 103 sqq., Berlin, 1875; KL, v. 1481‑84.

HAMILTON, EDWARD JOHN: Presbyterian; b. at Belfast, Ireland, Nov. 29, 1834. He emigrated to the United States in early life, and was graduated from Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. (B.A., 1853), and Princeton Theological Seminary (1858). He was ordained to the ministry (1858), was pastor at Oyster Bay, N. Y. (1858‑61), in charge of a con­gregation at Dromore West, Ireland (1861‑62), and chaplain of the Seventh New Jersey Vet­eran Infantry in the Army of the Potomac (1863­1865). He was then pastor at Hamilton, O. (1866­1868), professor of mental philosophy in Hanover College (1868‑79), acting professor of ethics, eco­nomics, and logic in Princeton College (1882‑83), and professor of philosophy in Hamilton College (1883‑91). He was then on the staff of the Stand­ard Dictionary (1891‑94), after which he was pro­fessor of philosophy in Whitworth College (1894‑95) and of the same subject in the State University of Washington (1895‑1900), when he retired from active life. He has written: A New Analysis in Fundamental Morale (New York, 1870); The Hu­man Mind (1883); The Modalist (Boston, 1883); The Perceptianalist : or, Mental Science (New York, 1899); and The Moral Law : or, The Theory and Practise of Duty (1902).

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