religion at the military school and in the school for
pages at Munich, where he remained more than fifty
years He found time to develop, an extensive
literary activity. It had been his early desire to find the true relation between reason and revelation in order to prove that the divine truth as revealed in the Bible is at the same time the only truth of reason. He heard Schelling's lectures on the philosophy of mythology and on the philosophy of revelation; but it was not until he came into personal contact with Franz von Baader that he found what he had missed in Schelling‑the truth that the product of the evolution of the principle of nature in God is not the world, but God's own glory and corporeality, while the world itself is a freely created image of divine glory. The elements of Baader's theosophy Hamberger found in Jakob BShme (q. v.), and on the basis of Baader and Bbhme Hamberger wrote a great number of works in which he tried to show the fundamental unity of Biblical revelation and reason. His first important work was Gott and seine Otfenbarungen in Natur and Geschichte (Munich, 1836; 2d ed., Gtlteraloh, 1882), which he condensed and adapted in his Lehrbuch der chriatliehen Religion (1839; 3d ed., with the title Die bx7blische Wahrheit in ihrer Harmonie mit Natur and Geschichte, 1877). In 1844 appeared Die Lehre des deutschen Philosophen Jakob Bohme in which he tried to explain and popularize the writings of this obscure philosopher. With the same aim he edited the Selbstbiographie of the theosophist F. Christoph Oetinger (Stuttgart, 1845) and his Btblisches Worterbuch (1849) and translated his Theologia ex idea vine, with explanatory notes (1852). He also made special researches in Christian mysticism, the results of which may be seen in his collection Stimmen Gus dem Heiligtum der ehristlichen Mystik and Theosophie (2 vols., 1857) and edited a revised version of Tauler's sermons (1864). Of other works may be mentioned Phyaica sacra (1869), anthologies of the writings of F. H. Jakobi (1870) and Johannesvon Miiller (1870). Christentum and moderne Kulbur (3 vols., Erlangen, 1865‑75) is a collection of his numerous treatises and essays which appeared in periodicals.
HAMBURG: A free city of Germany, forming one of the states of the German Empire. It lies on the Elbe, about 70 miles from its mouth, has a land area of 157 square miles, and a population (1906) of 886,798, of whom 90 per cent are Evangelical Lutherans. The Roman Catholics number about 35,000, the Jews some 20,000, the German Reformed about 10,000, and other denominations, including Baptists, Methodists, Anglicans, Mennonites, and French Reformed, about 10,000. There is now no formal connection between Church and State in Hamburg.
Hamburg became definitely Lutheran with the introduction of the Bugenhagen church order in 1529 (see BUGExHAGEN, JoHANN) and
Church remained such till its occupation by
History the French at the beginning of the
to r86o. nineteenth century. Church and State
were so closely united that candidates
for the higher civil posts usually had to seek
promotion through the minor ecclesiastical offices;
and the older officers of the Church (called Oberaken) were really the representatives of‑the people in the city council as distinot from the senate. According to article lix. of the recess of 1529, which was repeated verbatim in the recess of 1603,, Lutherans only were permitted to reside within the jurisdiction of the city. However, with the extension of commerce certain concessions were made to other denominations. In 1567 members of the Anglican Church, and in 1605 members of the Dutch Reformed Church were permitted to live in the city. They were denied citizenship and the right to hold public worship, but were allowed to hold services at the homes of their respective ambassadors. As a result of the Peace of Westphalia (1648) a degree of toleration was granted to Reformed Christians, Mennonites, and Roman Catholics; but non‑Lutherans usually.held their services in adjacent Altona, as the Mennonites still do. All Reformed Christians, Roman Catholics, and Mennonites were granted freedom of religious worship by the statute of Sept. 19, 1785, and after the War of Liberation they were given all the civil rights of the Lutherans, except the right of election ‑to the municipal collegia. The new civil constitution of Sept. 28,1860, secured complete religious liberty for all, and decrees that the enjoyment of civil rights shall not be conditioned on, or limited by, religious confession.
The present Constitution of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hamburg came into being on
Dec. 9, 1870. At first it applied only Recent His‑ to the city, but in July, 1876, it was
tory of the amended and introduced into the six‑
Lutheran teen outlying country parishes. The
Church. Cloister of St. John, which had become
extremely wealthy by the sale of its real estate, was induced to present the Church with a large part of its fortune; and thus the claims of the Church on the State were satisfied. However, the income from this donation was found insufficient to meet the growing needs of the Church, and in 1887 a regular church‑tax was introduced. This is based on income and varies, through nine gradations, from one mark on an income of 1,500 marks to 300 marks on an income of 75,000 marks. This tax amounts to about 500,000 marks yearly, of which 40 per cent goes to the general treasury of the Church, and 60 per cent to the individual parishes.
As to the organization and government of the Church, there are thirty‑three parishes, forming
four church‑districts (Karchenkreise). Government The affairs of the individual parish are
of the managed by a board (KarclaenvorLutheran stand), composed of the pastors of the
Church. parish, three elders, who are elected
for life; twelve trustees (twenty‑four in the first church‑district), who are elected by the congregations for a term of ten years; and two Evangelical Lutheran members of the senate, who preside over the meetings of the board. In the third and fourth church‑districts the organization is similar, except that there are no elders. In each case the current business of a parish is left to an executive committee, composed of members of this governing board. The pastors of the first V ‑9
church‑district (the city) form the ministry; and the five so‑called head pastors compose the examining board. From their number the Patronat (the Lutheran members of the senate) selects the Senior, who presides over all ecclesiastical collegia. The clergy of the other .three church‑districts form collegia similar to the ministry. They have the power to discipline their members, and also have a voice in matters pertaining to changes in liturgy and church service. Corresponding to the four church‑districts are four convocations (Konvente), which are composed of the Senior, the two senators of the ecclesiastical council (in the third and fourth districts simply two specially appointed senators), and clerical and lay members of the parochial boards. The convocations of the first and second districts, together with nine representatives from the third and three deputies from the fourth, form the synod, which is composed of eighty members, viz., twenty‑four ecclesiastics. and fifty‑six laymen. The acts of this body, which usually meets twice a year, require the sanction of the Patronat. The administration of the entire Church is in the hands of the ecclesiastical council, which consists of nine members, viz., the Senior, two senators, and two ecclesiastics and four laymen elected by the synod. Ministers are elected by the parochial boards, though every election has to be approved by the Patronat.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hamburg has about one hundred clergymen and some forty churches, besides the three so‑called
Statistics. chapels, the Anacharkapelle, estab
lished 1856, the Stiftskirche (1852),
which grew out of the St. George Sunday‑school,
and the Kreuzkirche (1866). These were estab
lished privately in the overcrowded parishes of the
inner city to meet the needs of the time, and while
they are reckoned to the Lutheran Church, they 1 re
not represented in any of its ecclesiastical bodies.
It should be added that church attendance is very
poor, and that less than 10 per cent of the nominal
per cent of contracting couples neglect entirely the
church service, contenting themselves with the
civil marriage; and, though the attendance of a
Lutheran minister at a funeral is now gratis, inter
ments with clerical attendance are comparatively
rare. Sunday‑schools are now common throughout
the city. The oldest is the St. George Sunday
achool (1825; now the Stiftskirche), which is also
the oldest Sunday‑school on the Continent. The
first Sunday‑school organized in a church was that
established in St. James's in 1884. There are now
thirty‑two Sunday‑schools in Hamburg, twenty
five of which are conducted by pastors, seven by
state missionaries. The total attendance of chil
dren is about 10,000, and the number of teachers
and assistants is about 400. (A. voN BROECBER.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY:H. C. W. Sillem, Die Binfahrunp der Reformation in Hamburg, Halle, 1886; Stati8tik des Hamburger Staates (annual); Statisldachea Handbueh for don hamburp6arhen Stoat, Hamburg, 1891; A. von Broecker, in Zeitachrift fQr die evanpeliacWutherische Kirche Hamburpe, vols. i.‑iv., 1894‑98 (this periodical contains yearly returns in one of its numbers).
Hamburg, Archbishopric of Hamilton
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
HAMBURG, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF: The Saxon territory north of the Elbe made a stubborn resistance to Christianity. It is not till 780 that the Nordleudi submitted to baptism, and even then it was rather an act of submission to Charlemagne than the result of missionary labor. , The first church in Hamburg was certainly not built till after 804, for it was consecrated by Amalarius of Treves, who had been in charge of the mission there, and who entered on his episcopate ‑in that year. Later a priest named Heridac took his place in this district. When Louis the Pious completed the organization of the Saxon bishoprics, he divided the territory between Bremen' and Verden. Later, however, he conceived the idea of erecting an archbishopric on the northern frontier in connection with the Scandinavian nusaion, and in 831 he had Ansgar (q.v.) consecrated by his brother Drogo of Metz as the head of a diocese formed out of parts of Bremen and Verden. Christianity was still in a rudimentary stage here; there were only four " baptismal churches," at Hamburg, Heiligenstedten, Sch6nefeld, and Meldorf. The archbishopric of Hamburg at first had no suffragans. Gregory IV. named him papal legate for the north and east of Europe; but this was at first rather an empty title. After Hamburg was destroyed by the Northmen in 845, the existence of the bishopric was possible only by a union with Bremen (q.v.), which gave rise to a long controversy with Hermann of Cologne, to whose metropolitan jurisdiction Bremen had been subject. Pope Formosus decided in 892 that Hamburg and Bremen should be united until the former had suffragan sees of its own. These were not erected until 947, when Adaldag was consecrated bishop for Sleswick, Ripen and Aarhus; Oldenburg apparently came later. Bremen, however, still remained united with Hamburg, Bruno of Cologne renouncing his claims. Archbishop Unwan asserted metropolitan rights over Denmark, Norway and Sweden; but it was only a question of time when these countries should have national churches of their own, which was finally brought to pass when Paschal II. raised Lund to an archbishopric in 1104. Archbishop Adalbero succeeded in checking the progress of separation for the moment at the Lateran Council of 1123, and Innocent II. in 1133 confirmed the old rights of Hamburg; but the same pope in 1137 finally dissolved the connection of the northern countries with Hamburg, which, however, kept Oldenburg and increased its jurisdiction by the foundation of new dioceses of Mecklenburg (Schwerin) and Ratzeburg.
BIBLIOGRAPB:7: The sources are: J. M. Lappenberl<, HambureiscAes Urkundenbueh, Hamburg, 1842; Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburpensia ecclesias yontifcum, in MGH, Script., vii (1846), 267; Series Bremenaium et Hammaburpenaium episcoporum, in the same, p. 389; Annales Hamburgensea, in MGH, Script., xvi (1859), 38o; P. Hasse, Regeaten and Urkunden Schleawig‑HolateinLavenburp, Hamburg, 1885 Bqq. Consult Rettberg, KD, ii. 490; K. Koppmann, Die 4lteaten Urkunden des Erzbistuma Hamburg‑Bremen, Hamburg, 1866; G. Dehio,Geachichte des Erzbiatums Hamburg‑Bremen, 2 vole., Berlin, 1878; Hauck, KD, ii. 675 aqq. et passim; T. Tamm, Die Anfringe des Embiseuma Hamburg‑Bremen, Jena, 1888; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 271‑290 et passim; and the literature under ADALBEaT and ANaaAR.
HAMBURGER, JAKOB: German Jewish rabbi; b. at Loslau (100 m. s.e. of Breslau), Silesia, Nov. 10, 1826. He was educated at the rabbinical schools of Rotzenplotz, Presburg, and Nikolaburg, and at the universities of Breslau and Berlin (Ph.D., Leipsic, 1852). He was then rabbi at Neustadt‑beiPinne (1852‑59), and since 1859 has been rabbi at Mecklenburg‑Strelit.z. He has written Geist and Ursprung der aramaischen Uebersetzung des Pentateuchs, bekannt enter dem Namen Targum Onkelos (Leipsie, 1852); Der Geist der Hagada, Sammlung hagadischer Ausspruchhe aus den Talmudim and Midraschim (1859); and the important Realencyclopadie des Judentums (3 vols., Strelitz and Leipsic, 1865‑91, n. e. completed 1901).
HAMEL, h8"mel', JEAN BAPTISTE DU: French Roman Catholic; b. at Vire (36 m. s.w. of Caen), Normandy, 1624; d. Aug. 6, 1706. He studied at Paris and in 1643 entered the congregation of the Oratory, which he left ten years later to become pastor at Neuilly‑sur‑Marne. He was secretary of the Academy of Sciences at Paris from 1666 till 1699. In 1668 he attended the peace negotiations at Aachen and then accompanied the French ambassador to England. He was held in high esteem by the leading scholars of his time. Aside from writings on physics and mathematics, his principal works are: De eonsensu veteris et nova= philosophice .(Paris, 1663); Philosophia vetus et nova ad usum scholm accommodata (4 vola., 1678); and Theologia speculatrix et practica juxta sanctorum patrum dogmata pertractata (7 vols.,1691), which he abbreviated as Theologia cleriaorum seminariis accommodates summarium (5 vols., 1694). All of these works have been frequently edited and reprinted. Other works are, Institutiones biblicte see scripturte sacrw prolegomena (2 vols:, 1698); and a large edition of the Vulgate, with notes (2 vols., 1706).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Niceron, Mhmoiree, i. 265 eqq.; C. G. Heinrich, Geechichte der roerachitdanen Lehrarten der Ariatlichen Glaubsnewahrheiten, pp. 382 eqq., lApeic, 1780; Journal dea savane, 1707, supplement, pp. 88 eqq.; KL, v. 148081. HAMEL, JEAN DU: Jesuit theologian of the second half of the sixteenth century. He taught theology at Louvain, where, on account of his SemiPelagian views concerning predestination and grace, he came into conflict with Michael Bajus (q.v.), then chancellor of the university. The result was that in 1587 thirty‑four theses taken from the lectures of Hamel and his Jesuit colleague, Leonardus Lessius (q.v.) were condemned by the theological faculty at Louvain. This action was indorsed by the University of Dousi. After the two Jesuits had received the support of several other universities, Rome interfered and declared that their teachings were dogmatically unobjectionable.
HAMELMA", ha'mel‑mall, HERMAN 1Y: German reformer; b. at Osnabrilek (74 m. w.s.w. of Hanover) 1525; d. at Oldenburg (24 m. w.n.w. of Bremen) June 26, 1595. He was educated at Osnabriick, Monster, Emmerich, and Dortmund, was ordained priest at Miinatcr, and at first signalized himself as a violent opponent of Luther. In
1552, however, he became a convert to Protestantism, and was deposed as parish priest at Camen and expelled from the town. After two years of wandering, partly spent at Wittenberg with Melanchthon, he was appointed preacher at Bielefeld. His savage opposition to the carrying of the Host in procession caused the Roman Catholics to require him to dispute at Diisaeldorf before the ducal court of Cleves, and there he was again deposed. From 1554 to 1568 he was at Lemgo, where he labored unceasingly for the establishment of Lutheranism as far as Antwerp, and in 1568 he was appointed superintendent of Gandersheim to further the progress of the Reformation in Brunswick, though the interference of the duke caused him to resign four years later. For the remainder of his life he was general superintendent of Oldenburg. Hamelmann'a numerous writings contain abundant material for the history of the Reformation in Weatphalia and lower Saxony, but can be used only with caution on account of his strong prejudices. His most noteworthy work was his Historia ecclesiastics renati Evangdii (Altenburg, 1586). The manuscripts of his books are preserved at Wolfenbuttel. (G. UHLHORNt.) BIRLIOGRAPRy: A. E. Rauachenbusch, H. Hamdmann's Lebea, Schwelm, 1830; J. G. Leuckfeld, Historia Hameh mann, Quedlinburg, 1720; M. Goebel, Gewhichte des chriab liden Ldena in der rheinaoaslphaliachen Kirchs, i. 449459, Coblena, 1849; A. D6ring, J. Zambaeh and das Gymnasium zu Dortmund, 164,3‑8,2, 64 eqq., 103 sqq., Berlin, 1875; KL, v. 1481‑84.
HAMILTON, EDWARD JOHN:Presbyterian; b. at Belfast, Ireland, Nov. 29, 1834. He emigrated to the United States in early life, and was graduated from Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. (B.A., 1853), and Princeton Theological Seminary (1858). He was ordained to the ministry (1858), was pastor at Oyster Bay, N. Y. (1858‑61), in charge of a congregation at Dromore West, Ireland (1861‑62), and chaplain of the Seventh New Jersey Veteran Infantry in the Army of the Potomac (18631865). He was then pastor at Hamilton, O. (18661868), professor of mental philosophy in Hanover College (1868‑79), acting professor of ethics, economics, and logic in Princeton College (1882‑83), and professor of philosophy in Hamilton College (1883‑91). He was then on the staff of the Standard Dictionary (1891‑94), after which he was professor of philosophy in Whitworth College (1894‑95) and of the same subject in the State University of Washington (1895‑1900), when he retired from active life. He has written: A New Analysis in Fundamental Morale (New York, 1870); The Human Mind (1883); The Modalist (Boston, 1883); The Perceptianalist : or, Mental Science (New York, 1899); and The Moral Law : or, The Theory and Practise of Duty (1902).