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HALL, ARTHUR CRAWSHAY ALLISTON: Prot­estant Episcopal bishop of Vermont; b. at Bin­field (6 m. s.w. of Windsor), Berkshire, England, Apr. 12, 1847. He studied at Christ Church, Ox­ford (B.A., 1869), joined the Society of St. John the Evangelist (the Cowley Fathers), 1870, established a branch of the society in the diocese of Massa­chusetts, 1873; and later became provincial supe­rior of the Cowley Fathers in America. He became curate of the Church of the Advent, Boston, 1874, priest‑in‑charge of the Mission Church of St. John the Evangelist in the same city, 1882; was recalled to England by his Order, 1892, and was a licensed preacher in the diocese of Oxford for a year, but in 1894, being released from his vows to the Cowley Fathers, was consecrated third bishop of the dio­cese of Vermont. In theology he belongs to the High‑church school, and has written Confession and the Lambeth Conference (Boston, 1879); Example of the Passion: Five Meditations (New York,. 1882); Notes for Meditation upon the Collects for the Sundays and Holy Days, i. (Milwaukee, 1887); The Virgin Mother (retreat address; New York, 1894); Christ's Temptation and Ours (Baldwin lectures; 1896); The Church's Discipline concerning Marriage and Divorce (1896); Confirmation (1900); Marriage with Relatives (1901); Instructions arid Devotions on the Holy Communion (Milwaukee, 1902); Com­panion to the Prayer‑Book (New York, 1902); The Use of Holy Scripture in the Public Worship of the Church (Paddock lectures; 1903); The Christian Doctrine of Prayer (Bohlen lectures; 1904); The Relations of Faith and Life (Bedell lectures; 1906); The Example of Our Lord, especially for His Minis­ters (1906); The Work of the Holy Spirit (Milwau‑

kee, 1907); and Forgiveness of Sine (New York, 1908).

BI81doaBAP87: W. S. Perry, The Episcopate in America, p. 383, New York, 1895.

HALL, CHARLES CUTHBERT: Presbyterian; b. in New York City Sept. 3, 1852; died there March 25, 1908. He was educated at Williams Col­lege (A.B., 1872), Union Theological Seminary (1872‑74), and in London and Edinburgh (1875). He filled pastorates at the Union Presbyterian Church, Newburgh, N. Y. (1875‑77), and at the First Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1877­97) and was professor of homiletics in, and presi­dent of, Union Theological Seminary from 1897 till his death. He was Carew Lecturer at Hartford Theological Seminary (1890), Barrows Lecturer to India and the Far East under the auspices of the University of Chicago (1902‑03, 1908‑07), Haskell Lecturer on comparative religion at the University of Chicago (1903), Cole Lecturer at Vanderbilt University (1905), and William Belden Noble Lecturer at Harvard University (1906). The­ologically he was in sympathy with liberal scholar­ship, while holding firmly the Evangelical position in matters of Christian belief. His elevated tone and deep spirituality drew toward him those of all creeds who loved purity and virtue. His courtly manners, gentle ways, and generous sympathies made him a model pastor and presiding officer. He was the author of: Into His Marvellous Light (Boston, 1892); Does God Send Trouble f (1894); The Children, the Church, and the Communion (1895); Qualifications foraVinizteriadPower (Hartford,Conn., 1895); The Gospel of the Divine Sacrifice (New York, 1896); Christian Belief Interpreted by Christian Experience (Barrows lectures; Chicago, 1905); The Redeemed Life After Death (1905); The Universal Elements of the Christian Religion (the Cole lec­tures; 1905); Christ and the Human Race (Noble lectures; Boston, 1906); and The Witness of the Oriental Consciousness to Jesus Christ (second series of the Barrows lectures; Chicago, 1908).
HALL, CHRISTOPHER NEWMAN: English Congregationalist; b. at Maidstone (8 m. ex.e. of Rochester), Kent, May 22, 1816; d. at London Feb. 18, 1902. He was educated at Tottenridge and Highbury College (B.A., London University, 1841), and was minister of Albion Congregational Church, Hull (1842‑54), and of Surrey Chapel, London (1854‑92), the church being moved to Lam­beth in 1876 and its name changed to Christ Church. From 1892 until his death he devoted himself to evangelistic work. While still at Hull, he became conspicuous for his zeal in the cause of total absti­nence; and during the American Civil War he earnestly sought to secure English sympathy for the North. After the close of the war he made an extensive tour of the Northern United States, seek­ing to allay the popular bitterness then existing against Great Britain. He was the author of Come to Jesus (London, 1846; a tract of enormous popu­larity, reaching a circulation of several millions and translated into forty languages); It is 1 (1848; reaching a circulation of some 200,000); Antidote to Fear (1850); The Land of the Forum and the Vati‑


can (1852); Sacwifue, or Pardon and Purity through the Cross (1857); Conflict and Victory (1865; a biography of his father); Homeward Bound, and other Sermons (1868); From Liverpool to St. Louis (1868); Pilgrim Songs in Cloud and Sunshine (1871; poems); Prayer, its Reasonableness and Efficacy (1875); The Lord's Prayer, a Practical Meditation (1883); Songs of Earth and Heaven (1885); Geth­semane, or Leaves of Healing from the Garden of Grief (1891); Divine Brotherhood in " The Man Christ Jesus " (1892); Lyrks of a Long Life (1894); and Autobiography (1898).

HALL, FRANCIS JOSEPH: Protestant Episco­

palian; b. at Ashtabula, O., Dec. 24, 1857. He was

educated at Racine College (A.B., 1882), General

Theological Seminary (1883‑85), and Western

Theological Seminary (1886). He was ordained

priest in 1886 and since that time has been professor

of dogmatic theology in Western Theological Semi­

nary, Chicago; he was also president of the Western

Theological Seminary in 1898‑99. In theology he

is Anglo‑Catholie. He has written Theological

Outlines (3 vols., Milwaukee, 1892‑95); Historical

Position of the Episcopal Church (1896); The Ke­

notic Theory (New York, 1898); The Episcopate

of Bishop Chase (Chicago, 1902); Theology (vols.

i: ii., New York, 1907‑08).
HALL, GORDON: Congregationalist, the first American missionary to Bombay; b. at Tolland, Hampden County, Mass., Apr. 8, 1784; d. at Dur­lidhapur, Bombay, Mar. 20, 1826. He received his academic training at Williams, College (B.A., 1808), began the study of theology under Ebenezer Porter, and in 1810 entered the Andover Theological Semi­nary. After taking a course in medicine at Phila­delphia he received ordination in 1812 and went to India as a missionary of the American Board. He first attempted to establish a mission at Calcutta, but met with opposition from the East India Com­pany, which peremptorily ordered him to leave the country. In 1813 he removed to Bombay, where, in spite of the petty persecution of the governor­general, he prosecuted his labors with diligence and success till his death by cholera while ministering to the stricken natives. In 1817 he was joined at Bombay by Samuel Newell (q.v.). Hall was an eloquent preacher in the Marathi language, and was greatly esteemed among the Brahmans for his discussions and addresses. Besides a few pam­phlets he wrote, in collaboration with Newell, The Conversion of the World, or the Claims of Six Hun­dred Millions (Andover, 1818), which was widely circulated in England and America. He also trans­lated the New Testament into Marathi (Bombay, 1826).

BramOGBAmy: H. Bardwell, Gordon Hail, Andover 1834; National Cydopaedia of American Biography, z. 248‑247, New York, 1900.

HALL, ISAAC HOLLISTER: Presbyterian lay­man; b. at Norwalk, Conn., Dec. 12, 1837; d. at Mt. Vernon, N. Y., July 2, 1896. He was educated at Hamilton College (A.B., 1859), and after being a tutor there for two years (1861‑63), entered the law school of Columbia College, from which he was graduated in 1865. He then practised law in New

York City until 1875, when he went to Beirut, Syria, as professor in the Protestant college there. Re­turning to the United States two years later, he was associate editor of The Sunday School Times, Philadelphia (1877‑84). From 1884 until his death he was a curator in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, as well as lecturer on New Testa­ment Greek in Johns Hopkins University. He was one of the original decipherers of the Cypriote in­scriptions, and likewise discovered, while at Beirut, an important Syriac Biblical manuscript. He was a pioneer of Syriac scholarship in the United States, and was a member of numerous learned societies in his own country and abroad. Besides many con­tributions to Oriental periodicals, he wrote American Greek Testaments : A Critical Bibliography of the Greek New Testament as Published in America (Philadelphia, 1883).
HALL, JOHN: Presbyterian; b. at Ballygor­man, County Armagh, Ireland, July 31, 1829; d. at Bangor, County Down, Ireland, Sept. 17, 1898. He was graduated at Royal College, Belfast (1846) and the General Assembly's theological college, Belfast (1849). He was a " students' missionary " in Connaught (1849‑52), pastor of the First Presby­terian Church, Armagh (1852‑58), and of Mary's Abbey (now Rutland Square Church), Dublin (1858‑67). In 1867 he was sent as delegate from the Presbyterian Church in Ireland to the General Assemblies and other Reformed bodies in the United States, and, after his return home, accepted in the autumn of the same year a call to the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, New York City. He became one of the leading Presbyterian ministers in America and was probably equal in influence to any other clergyman in the country. His pastoral work was especially effective. He was president of the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, and chan­cellor (without salary) of New York University 1881‑91. His Lyman Beecher lectures at the Yale Divinity School in 1875 were published under the title God's Word through Preaching (New York, 1875).

BIBIaOGBAPHY: Thomas C. Hall (his eon), John Hall, Pas­

tor and Pread aer, New York, 1901.
HALL, JOHN VINE: English bookseller and religious writer; b. at Dias (18 m. s.s.w. of Nor­wich), Norfolk, Mar. 14, 1774; d. at Kentish Town, London, Sept. 22, 1860. He began work in a bookseller's shop at Maidstone in 1786, opened a shop of his own at Worcester in 1804, and in 1814 returned to Maidstone as proprietor of the shop where he had worked as a boy. He retired from business in 1850 and four years later removed to Kentish Town, where he devoted the remainder of his life to religious and temperance work. In early life he had fallen into drunken and profligate habits, but afterward reformed and in 1818 be­came a total abstainer and an ardent advocate of teetotalism. He is remembered as the author of The Sinner's Friend (1821), which was translated into thirty languages, passed through about three hundred editions, and reached a circulation of some three million copies. The first edition consisted of selections from the English transl$tion of the


Guldenes Schatzkastlein der Kinder Gottes of Karl Heinrich von Bogatzky (q.v.), with a short intro­duction by Hall; but in subsequent editions Hall gradually substituted passages from his own pen, until in the end, with the exception of a single ex­tract, the work was entirely his own. Christo­pher Newman Hall (q.v.) was his son.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Conflict and Victory; the Autobiography of the Author of the Sinner's Friend, ed. Newman Hall, London, 1874.

HALL, JOSEPH: Bishop of Norwich; b. at Ashby‑de‑la‑Zouch (16 m. n.w. of Leicester), Leices­tershire; July 1, 1574; d. at Higham, near Norwich, Sept. 8, 1656. He studied at Emmanuel College, Cambridge (B.A., 1592; M.A., 1596; B.D., 1603; D.D., 1612), and began his career as a poet and satirist, but later took orders and in 1601 accepted the living of Halsted in Suffolk. In 1608 he be­came chaplain to Henry, prince of Wales, and shortly afterward he received from the earl of Norwich the donative of Waltham. In 1616 he was sent to France as chaplain to the English am­bassador, and the following year he was summoned to attend James I. to Scotland to aid the king in his attempt to introduce there the ceremonial and liturgy of the Episcopal Church. He was made dean of Worcester in 1617 and was sent by James as one of his commissioners to the Synod of Dort in 1618. A Latin sermon preached by Hall before that assembly has been preserved. The see of Glouces­ter having been declined by him in 1624 he was elevated to that of Exeter in 1627, and translated to Norwich in 1641. With eleven other bishops he was accused of high treason and imprisoned in the Tower in Dec., 1641, but was released in June, 1642. The following year the revenues of his see were sequestered, though an allowance of £400 a year was granted him by parliament. Early in 1647 he was ejected from his palace, and his cathedral was dismantled. He then retired to a small estate at Higham.

Hall was a man of broad and tolerant sympathies,

a moderate Calvinist, and sought for a mean between

Calvinism and Arminianism. His Puritanical lean­

ings offended Laud, but, like many other Puritans,

he was strongly attached to the Church of Eng­

land. As a pulpit orator he has had few equals

among English preachers of the Established Church.

He was a prolific author, but many of his works

were purely controversial and only of ephemeral in­

terest. To be mentioned particularly are: his satires,

published under the title, Virgzdemiarum, Six Books

(2 vols., London, 1597‑98; ed. A. B. Grosart, in The

Complete Poems o f Joseph Hall, Manchester, 1879),

which are among the best in the language; Medita­

tions and Vows, Divine and Moral (London, 1606; en­

larged ed., 1621; ed. Charles Sayle, 1902), his most

popular work; Epistles (3 vols., 1608‑11; ed. W.

H. Hale, 1840); Contemplations upon the Principal

Passages o f the Holy Story (8 vols:, 1612‑26; ed.,

with a Memoir, by C. Wordsworth, 1871), a valuable

devotional work; The Old Religion (1628; ed. J.

Brogden, in Catholic Safeguards, vol. ii., 1846), au

exposition of the corruption in the Roman Catholic

Church; Explication. of All the Hard Texts of .

Scripture (Exeter, 1633; new ed., 2 vols., London,

1837); Episcopacy by Divine Right Asserted (1640;

new ed., 1838), written at the suggestion of Laud;

An Humble Remonstrance to the High Court o f par­

liament (1640), a skilful vindication of liturgies and

episcopacy which called forth the reply from the

Puritans " written by Smectymnuus " and led to a

famous controversy (see SMEOTYMNUUs); and the

posthumous Contemplations on the New Testament

(1662). There are a number of collected editions of

his works, the best being those of P. Hall (12 vols.,

Oxford, 1837‑39) and P. Wynter (10 vols., Oxford,


BIBLIoaBAPHT: Besides the biographical material already mentioned, consult: G. Lewis, Life of Joseph Hall, Lon­don, 1886 John Jones, Memoirs of Bishop Hall, ib. 1828; T. Fuller, Hist. of Use Worthies of England, ii. 230‑231, ed. P. A. Nuttall, ib. 1840; J. H. Overton The Church in Eng­land, ii. 31, 73 et passim, ib. 1897; W. H. Hutton, The English Church 1826‑171.¢, pp. 79 et passim, ib. 1903; DNB, mv. 75‑$0.

HALL, RANDALL COOK: Protestant Episco­palian; b. at Wallingford, Conn., Dec. 18, 1842. He was educated at Columbia College (A.B., 1863) and the General Theological Seminary (1866), and was ordained priest in 1870. He was instructor in Hebrew in the General Theological Seminary from 1869 to 1871, and from 1871 until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1899 was professor of He­brew and Greek in the same institution. Since 1904 he has been chaplain of the House of the Holy Comforter, New York City. He has written Some Elements of Hebrew Grammar (New York, 1895).

HALL, ROBERT: Baptist; b. at Arnesby (7 m. s.s.e. of Leicester), Leicestershire, May 2, 1764; d. at Bristol Feb. 21, 1831. His father was Robert Hall (d. 1791), a Particular Baptist minister of some eminence, who joined Andrew Fuller and John Ryland (qq.v.) in opposing hyper‑Calvinistic anti­nomianism in his denomination. The son was the youngest of a family of fourteen and as an infant was so frail that his life was despaired of. At the age of nine, however, he delighted to read the works of Jonathan Edwards. After a year and a half of classical study under Ryland and a period of theo­logical study under his father, he entered Bristol College in 1778, and accomplished the course re­quired in three years. He then entered Aberdeen University (M.A., 1784). In 1785 he returned to Bristol to assist Dr. Caleb Evans in the work of instruction in the college. His ministry in the Broadmead Church attracted great audiences; but the liberal tone of his teachings alarmed Dr. Evans and other conservative brethren, and Hail's con­sciousness of the possession of superior gifts and attainments, not being coupled with due humility of spirit, brought about such strained relations between him and the aged principal as to necessi­tate his withdrawal (1790). He had greatly of­fended his conservative brethren by expressing the conviction that God would not damn Joseph Pries
Unitarian the tarian leanings. The and death about this time of

Robert Robinson (q.v.) of Cambridge, who from

being a Calvinist had become Arminian and then

Socinian, left vacant a church that was glad to

secure the services of the brilliant young preacher.

His fifteen years' pastorate in Cambridge was by



far the most strenuous period of his life. His tend­ency toward excessive liberalism soon disappeared. The members of the church and congregation that were aggressively Sociman gradually withdrew. His ministry was thronged by professors and stu­dents of the university and by lovers of pulpit eloquence of all denominations. He soon gained recognition as the foremost preacher of the time, and in majesty of thought and expression and im­pressiveness of delivery it is doubtful whether he has ever heen surpassed. His Apology for Freedom of the Press (London, 1793) increased his popularity with lovers of liberty. His sermon on Modern In­fidelity (Cambridge, 1800) passed through many editions and was regarded as the most powerful antidote to current skepticism of the French type. Successive attacks of extreme nervous prostration led to his resignation of the Cambridge pastorate in 1805. After a year of rest he accepted the charge of a church in Leicester, where for twenty years he ministered with remarkable power. In 1826 he accepted an often repeated call to the pastorate of Broadmead Church, Bristol, and spent the last five years of life amid the scenes of his earliest ministry. He followed in the footsteps of Robinson in his advocacy of open communion. His Works were collected in six volumes (London, 1832) and have been republished both in England and America. A. H. NEwMAN.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His biography by 0. G. Gregory is in vol. vi. of the Works, ut sup. Consult also the Life by E. P. Hood, London, 1881, and DNB, xiv. 85‑87.

HALL, THOMAS CUKIRG : Presbyterian; b. at

Armagh, County Armagh, Ireland, Sept. 25, 1858.

He was educated at Princeton (A.B., 1879) and

Union Theological Seminary (1882). Ile then

studied in Berlin and GSttingen, after which he was

pastor in Omaha (1883‑86) and Chicago (1886‑97).

Since 1898 he has been professor of Christian ethics

in Union Theological Seminary. He has written

The Power of an Endless Life (Chicago, 1893); The

Social Significance o f the Evangelical Revival' in

England (New York, 1899); The Synoptic Gospels

(1900); and John Hall, Pastor and Preacher: A

Biography by his Son (Chicago, 1901).
HALL, SECT OF: A sect which appeared in 1248 at SchwAbisch‑Hall (in Wihttemberg, 35 m. n.e. of Stuttgart). Albert of Stale, the only authority, gives the following summary of its tenets: " The pope is a heretic, and all bishops and prelates are simoniacs and heretics; the entire clergy, taken cap­tive in vices and mortal sins, has neither power to bind and to loose nor to celebrate the mass nor to impose an interdict. All monks, especially Fran­ciscans and Dominicans, lead a bad life and seduce the people by their preaching. Only the members of the sect and their preachers have the truth and prove it by their works. The pardon of sin which they offer comes therefore not from men but from God. One should pay no attention to the pope, but should pray for Emperor Frederick and his son Conrad who are perfect and righteous." Though it is asserted that Conrad favored them, they had to migrate to Bavaria on account of the opposition of the clergy. The characteristic belief regarding

the clergy shows affinity with the views of the

Arnoldists and Waldensians, especially the Italian

group, and renders it probable that the Hall sect

had a similar character if not origin. V6lter has

shown a probability in favor of the view that the

EPistola fratris Arnoldi and the Le7iellus Anonymi

de Innocentio IV. Antichriato refer to this heretical

movement. In both of these writings there is

an apocalyptic and a social train of thought closely

akin to the prevalent Joachimistic notions, viz.,

the expectation of a judgment upon the hierarchy

and the demand for a restoration of church prop­

erty to the poor. The connection of the Hall sect

with Arnold's ides is not demonstrated; and the

questions of the duration of the movement must

remain unsettled. E. LEmrr.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are Annalee Stadenaes, in MGR, Script., avi (1859), 371; Arnold De corrections eccleaim epiatola et anonymi de Innocentio IV., ed. E. Winkelmann, Berlin, 1885. Consult: C. Jager, Ueber die religibse Be­wepung in den achmabiarhen Stddten, IV., i. 69‑107; V61­ter, in ZKG, iv (1881), 360 sqq.; Welter, in Vierteljahra­he/te for Landeapeachichte, vi (1897), 147 sqq.; cf. Bos­sert in W9rttemberpische $ircherageachichte, pp. 179 sqq., Stuttgart, 1893.

HALLEL: A name applied to certain psalms. It is derived from the phrase Halleluyah, " Praise ye Yah (weh)," found at the beginning of the indi­vidual psalms of the principal group, or at the end, or in both places. It is commonly given to the group Ps. cxiii.‑cxviii.; less frequently it is applied to four groups, viz., civ.‑cvu., exi.‑cxvii. (cxviii.), exxxv.‑cxxxvi., cxlvi.‑,d., originally placed to­gether, but later separated in the editing of the psalter. In later usage Pa. exix. was included among the Hallels. The name " Great Hallel " was sometimes given to Ps. cxiii.‑exviii., sometimes to Pa. exix.‑caxavi., sometimes to Ps. cxxxvi. alone. To Ps. exui.‑exviii. was also given the name " Egyptian Hallel " on the alleged ground that they were chanted in the temple while the lambs for the Passover were being slaughtered. The Egyptian Hallel was doubtless originally a single compo­sition, according to internal evidence of late date, written for some occasion of thanksgiving (accord­ing to tradition, the Fast of Dedication) and sub­sequently divided for liturgical use, The ancient practise was to recite it every morning during the Feast of Dedication, on the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, on Pentecost, at the Feast of Booths, and on the night of the Passover.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. A. Briggs, Commentary on Psalms, i.; pp•

blrviiiAama, New York, 1907; J. W. Thirtle, Old Tea‑

lament Problems, ib. 1907; DB, ii. 287; ED, ii. 1942‑43; JE, vi. 176‑178.


HALLER, ALBRECHT VON: Swiss botanist, physiologist, and poet; b. at Bern Oct. 16, 1708; d. there Dec. 12, 1777. After a thorough medical training, first with a physician at Biel and then at Tabingen and Leyden, he returned to his native city in 1729 and speedily attracted general atten­tion both by his poems and by his scientific attain­ments. In 1736 he accepted a call to the Univer­sity of Gbttingen, but returned in 1753 to Bern, where he held various offices of state. His verse is not devoid of the rationalism of his period, but the




antireligious attitude of the French freethinkers

became so offensive to him that he adhered more

and more closely to the objective facts of eccle­

siastical creeds and institutions. He was pro­

foundly interested in foreign missions, and, both as

a poet and a scientist, was impelled to set forth the

reasonableness of Christianity and the necessity of

religious convictions in moral and social life. In

this spirit he wrote his Briefe fiber die vornehmsten

Wahrheiten der Offenbarung (Bern, 1772; Eng.

transl., Letters from Baron Haller to his Daughteron

the Truths of the Christian Religion, London, 1780)

and his Briefs fiber einige Einwiarfe nosh lebender

Freigeistcr wider die Offenbarung (3 vols., 1775‑77),

while his repeated polemics against Voltaire were

comprised in the Antivoltaire ou diecours eur la relig­

ion (Bern, 1755). His Tagebuch seiner Beobachtungen

uber Schriftsteller and fiber sick selbst was published

posthumously (2 vols., Bern, 1787), and reveals the

doubts against which he was obliged to contend, the

struggle finally leading to religious melancholy.

Haller's religion was moralistic rather than dog­

matic, so that his faith was a belief in God and

providence, expressed in reverence for the Bible and

the Church, instead'of in redemption and the person

of Christ. (E. Bn68Cat.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Hirael. A. 90n Hailer's GBdkhte, nit bf0­praphischer Binleitany, Frauenfeld, 1882; T. Henry, Mem­oirs o/ A. de Haller, M.D., Warrington, 1783; C. A. R. Baggeeen, A won oller ale Christ and Apolopet, Bonn, 1885; C. G. KBnig Peak‑ade auf A. von Holler, Bern, 1877; Guder A. von Haller ale Christ, Basel, 1878; A. Frey, A. von Holler and seine B®deutunp far die dsutede Ldteratur, Leipsic, 1879.

HALLER, BERTHOLD: Reformer of Bern; b. at Aldingen (60 m. s.w. of Stuttgart), W ilrttemberg, 1492; d. at Bern Feb. 25, 1536. In 1510 he en­tered the University of Cologne to study theology, but before he finished his studies, he took a position as teacher in Rottweil, and when Rubellus, his for­mer teacher, was called to a school in Bern, he accompanied him as assistant. Here he advanced rapidly. In 1517 he became spiritual notary, and soon an assistant of Thomas Wyttenbach (q.v.) at the Church of St. Vincent. The daily association with this man, who had already influenced Zwingli and Leo Jud, undoubtedly had a considerable effect upon Haller's views. Through Myconius he became acquainted with Zwingli, whom he visited in 1521 and who became his friend and teacher. On the resig­nation of Wyttenbach in 1520, Holler received his position as canon and secular priest.

His chief efforts were now directed to the intro­duction of the Reformation in Bern, and in union with the Franciscan Sebastian Meyer he succeeded

in gathering a small circle of Evan­The Refor‑ gelically inclined men. The first pub­mation in lie attack upon the Evangelicals was

Bern. made in 1522 when the chapter of

Mtlnaingen accused the priest of Klein­

h6chstetten, Georg Brunner, of blasphemy against

the Church and the clergy. A commission insti­

tuted by the government acquitted Brunner, not

so much for the sake of Evangelicalism as to check

the encroachments of the clergy. Evangelical

preaching was also permitted until, in 1523, a man­

date was issued to check the progress of heresy.

Haller was accused of heretical teachings on mar­riage of the clergy and on monastic vows and regu­lations, but was not found guilty. His clerical friends, however, were compelled to leave the city, so that Haller stood altogether alone, and the whole work of the Reformation rested upon his shoulders. But under the weight of responsibility his powers grew, and the consciousness of his position gave him a sagacity and courage which would hardly have been expected from his naturally timid nature. Under the influence of Zwingli, he ceased reading mass at the end of 1525, and laid the whole stress of his activity upon preaching. But in 1525 and 1526 edicts against the Evangelicals were issued, and a disputation took place in Baden (see BADEN, CONFERENCE OP) for the suppression of the heretical teachings of Zwingli, where Haller defended his cause to the best of his ability, although alone he could not prevail against the united force of his opponents. On his return to Bern he was requested to resume the reading of the mass, but he adhered to his former decision, and his firmness was not without effect upon the town council. He was allowed to remain and received a salary as preacher although he was deprived of his canonry. He resumed hiss preaching with new zeal and success, and under the constant encouragement of Zwingli the Evangelical cause began to assume larger and larger dimensions. In 1527 Haller received an important aid in Franz Kolb (q.v.) who some years before had left Bern on account of the unfavorable prospects of the Evangelical cause, but returned now when the tide had turned. The resentment of the people against the encroachments of the clergy in­duced the council to make more and more conces­sions to the Evangelical cause. Most of the Roman members of the council were converted to the new faith. Freedom of preaching was allowed, and a disputation was ordered to take place in Bern (see BERN, DISPUTATION OF).

With the introduction of the Reformation the proper work of Haller's life was completed; but he was prominently connected with the drawing up of the reformatory edict of Feb. 7, 1528, and, with the aid of theologians called from Zurich, continued his reformatory work through sermons, visitations, and examinations. He also held lectures for ignorant clergymen. A catechism which he

Later wrote at the request of the council, has Activity. not been preserved. Haller's reform­atory efforts in Solothurn (1530) were without success. In the time of the unfortu­nate Kappel wars he strove for a peaceable settle­ment of the difficulties, and thus was involved in strained relations with his colleagues Kolb and Megander, who advocated war. In 1531 Haller disputed successfully with Hans Pfister Meyer of Aamu, but the other preachers of Bern were less successful in their disputation with the Anabaptists which took place in July, 1532, at Zofingen. In 1532 Haller became dean of the chapter of Bern. His last anxiety was caused by the dangerous position of Geneva, which was the ally of Bern and at this time hard pressed by the duke of Savoy. Haller feared a new war, which would have endan­gered the Evangelical cause in both cities, but he



lived long enough to witness the deliverance of

Geneva. He has left no writings. (E. BLOsCHt.)

BIBwoaBAmy: Many of Haller's letters are in vole. vii.

and viii. of Zwingli's works, ed. Schuler and Schulthess,

cf. A. L. Herminjard, Correspondancs des riforewteure, 9

vols., Paris, 1878‑97 (consult the Indexes). Consult:

M. Kirchhofer, B. Halter odor die Reformation won Bern,

Zurich, 1828; G. J. Kuhn, Die Reformatmnn Beau, Bern,

1828; C. Peetalosai, B. Haller, FIberfeld, 1867; S. M.

Jackson, Huldreich Xwinpli, paweim, New York, 1903.

HALLEY, ROBERT: English non‑conformist; b.

at Blackheath (5 m. s.e. of St. Paul's, London) Aug.

13, 1796; d. at Batworth Park, near Arundel (50

m. s.s.w. of London), Sussex, Aug. 18, 1876. He

was educated at the Maze Hill School, Greenwich,

and at the Homerton Academy, London, and on

June 11,1822, was ordained pastor of the independ­

ent congregation at St. Neots, Huntingdonshire.

He was classical tutor in Highbury College during

1826‑‑39, returning then to the ministry as pastor

of the Mosley Street Chapel, Manchester. He was

principal and professor of theology at New College,

St. John's Wood, London, from 1857 to 1872, when

he retired to Clapton. His principal works are:

The Improved Version Truly Designated a Creed

(London, 1834), a reply to a defense by James Yates

(q.v.) of an " Improved Version " of the New Testa­

ment issued by Unitarians, which secured Halley

the degree of D.D. from Princeton; An Inquiry into

the Nature of the . . . Sacraments (2 vols.,1844‑51),

the Congregational Lecture for. 1843 on baptism,

and that for 1850 on the Lord's Supper; Baptism

the Designation of the Catechumens (1847); sad

Lancashire : Its Puritanism and Nonconformity (2

vols., 1869; 2d ed., 1872).

BiauooaArar: A Short Biography. with Select Sawwna, ed.

B‑ Halley, London, 1879; DNB, xxiv. 109‑110.


byterian; b. at Holiday's Cove, W. Va., Jan. 28,

1856. He was graduated from Princeton College

(A.B., 1882) and Princeton Theological Seminary

(1885). He was then pastor of the Wheatland

Presbyterian Church, Scottsville, N. Y., until 1890,

and since 1890 has been associate pastor of the Brick

Presbyterian Church, Rochester, N. Y. Theo­

logically he is an orthodox member of his denomi­

nation and accepts all its Scriptural teachings. He

has written Upward Steps (Philadelphia, 1899);

The Model Prayer (New York, 1900); Sermon Seeds

(Reacting, Pa., 1900); God's Whispered Secrets

(New York, 1901); Beauty in God's Word (Phila­

delphia, 1902); The Homiletic Year (Cleveland,

1903); Journeying in the Land where Jesus Lived

(New York, 1903); Growing Toward God (New

York, 1904); The Teaching of Jesus concerning the

Christian Life (New York, 1907).


alist; b. at Franklinville (now Laurel), N. Y., July

4, 1834. He was educated at Yale (A.B., 1857)

and at Yale Divinity School, which he left in 1859

at the end of the middle year. He then taught

school on Long Island until 1865 when he became a

book publisher in New York City. Since 1880 he

has been editor‑in‑chief of The Christian Work and

Evangelist, with which he has been associated edi‑

torially since 1876, In 1897 he declined the prof‑

fered presidency of Westminster University, Denver, Col. He has written: The Christian Life (New York, 1890); Family Worship (1892); What is Heresy t (1894); Mormonism (1896); and Life of D. L. Moody (1900).

HALLOCg, WILLIAM ALLEN: American editor

and author; b. at Plainfield, Mass., June 2, 1794;

d. in New York City, Oct. 2, 1880. He was grad­

uated at Williams in 1819, and at Andover Theo­

logical Seminary in 1822. In the latter year he

became agent for the New England Tract Society.

In 1825 he took a prominent part in organizing the

American Tract Society and became its first corre­

sponding secretary, a position which he filled till

1870. Under his care the publications of the so­

ciety increased greatly in number and usefulness.

He edited The American Messenger for forty years,

and The Child's Paper for twenty‑five years. His

publications include a Memoir o f Harlan Page (New

York, 1835); Life and Labors of the Rev. Justin

Edwards (1856); and a number of tracts. Three

of these, The Only Son, The Mountain Miller, and

The Mother's Last Prayer, together reached a cir­

culation of over a million copies.

Bn9woa8Apffr: Mrs. H. C. Knight, Memorial of Rev. W. A. Hallock, Boston, 1884.


HAMANN, ha'mdn, JOHANN GEORG: German author, called the " Magician of the North," one of the pioneers in the transition from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century; b. at Konigsberg Aug. 27,1730; d. at Milnster June 21,1788. He received a many‑sided but desultory and deficient education, and in 1746 entered the University of Konigsberg, but on account of a defect of speech gave up the study of theology, devoting himself to philosophy, antiquities, critical investigations, and belles‑lettres. He then became tutor in a private family and en­tered into friendship with Johann Christoph Berens, the son of a rich merchant in Riga. Under his influence he studied economics and gained such knowledge of commercial affairs that he was sent with an important secret mission to London. Here he fell in with bad company and lost his money. In his destitution he turned to the Bible and was converted. After fourteen months he went back to Riga, where he was kindly received by the family of Berens, and in 1759 he returned to Konigsberg to nurse his sick father. During this period his studies were of astonishing comprehensiveness. Above all he devoted himself to the Bible and Luther's works. Penetrated by the conviction of the high importance of classical antiquity, he strove to master its whole literary tradition and to grasp its leading ideas. He also studied Oriental and modern literature, thus acquiring the most comprehensive knowledge of literature in general of all his contemporaries. After the death of his father in 1766 Kant obtained employment for him in the excise office, which he exchanged in 1777 for an unremunerative office in the custom‑house. His life was full of hardships and embarrassments as he was always in financial difficulties and burdened with domestic troubles. His latter days were brightened by the friendship of F. H. Jakobi, with whom he lived during the

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