HADAD: An Aramaic anti possibly an Edomitio deity (see HADADRIMMON). In Hadadezer and Benhadad are probably traces of this divine name, which is certainly preserved in the Old Testament name Hadadrimmon. Hadad alone is the name of an Edomite. As such it is not necessarily derived from the name of the god, for nothing is known of a god Hadad among the Edomites; yet its combination with the name of the god is very natural. The reading in the versions is Hadad and Hadar, but the former is better attested. In the Old Testament the following are mentioned having the name of Hadad: (1) an Edomitic king (Gen. xxxvi. 35,36; I Chron. i. 46, 47), who smote the Midianites in the territory of Moab. (2) In I Chron i. 50, 51, a later Edomitic king is mentioned. In the parallel passage, Gen. sxsvi. 39, the Massoretic text reads Hadar (with variants Hadad, LXX. reads Arath, Arad). (3) An Edomite of royal descent (I Kings xi. 14‑22). He is hardly the same as the Hadad mentioned last. The notices concerning the wife of Hadad in (2) and the time of the kings of Edom in Gen. xxavi. 31 do not agree with those in the Kings passage. This Hadad might rather be a son or grandson of that one. This one, who was of royal blood, fled in childhood to Egypt when Joab defeated the Edomites. Pharaoh provided for him, and gave him land and also as wife the sister of Queen Tahperies. At David's death Hadad made an attempt to reconquer his native land. The Hebrew text breaks off suddenly at verse 22, and verse 25 is evidently out of place; it is better, therefore, to suppose that the conclusion of his story has, by a copyist's error, been inserted in the wrong place, and to read at verse 25 with the Septuagint, "This is the evil that Hadad did, and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Edom." He is not to be confounded with the Hadadezer (I Kings xi. 23) who was king of Zobah. From the Masoretic text I Kings xi. 25 Josephus (Ant. VIII., vii. 6) made the story of a covenant between the Edomite Hadad and the Syrian Rezon, and of the former's elevation to the throne of Syria.
BIHLIoaaAP87: On the whole subject, DB, ii. 273;ED, ii.
1929‑1930; JR, vi. 130‑131. On Hadad as a divine name E. Nestle, Die israditisehen Eipennamen,114‑116, Haarlem.
1876; E. Schrader, %ilinsehriften and GesA~or` erAung, pp. 371‑395, 538, Gieseen. 1878• idem, RAT,
pp. 42, 133, 147, 442 sqq., 538; C. P. Tiele, BabylowsA‑
HaAen THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 108
aasyrischeGeschichte, p. 626, Goths, 1888‑88; H. Winolder, Alueetamintlidhe Foraehunpen, p. 09, Leipsio, 1892; H. v. Hilprecht, Assyriaca, pp. 7ti‑78, Boston, 1894, and see under HAn6DRIMMax and Rnnsox. On the kings of that name consult: P. Cassel, in Sunen, sin Berliner Wochsnblatl, vol. vii., 1881; H. Winokler, ut sup., pp. 1‑16; F. Buhl, Geschichte der Rdomiter, pp. b7‑81, Leipsio, 1893; A. H. Sayoe, The Hiohe' Criticism and the Monuments, London, 1894; J. Lury, GewAichte der Edomiter, Bern, 1898; T. K. Cheyne, in JQR, ii (1899), bbl‑868; Schrader, RA T, pp. 240‑241, 460. HADADEZER: An Aramean king and opponent of David (II Sam. viii. 3‑12; I Kings xi. 23). The name means "Hadad helps." A variant is Hadarezer, to which the form Hadadezer is superior, since HadaA (q.v.) is the name of an Aramaic deity, and "Hadadezer" is formed on customary lines (cf. Hebr. Eliezer, Joezer; and Phenician Eshmunezer). The name occurs on a seal of the seventh century in which the letters 1 and r are clearly distinguished (Euting, 8itzungsberichte der Berliner. Akademie, 1885, p. 879). It is probable ',, that Hadadezer was the name of the king of Dama6cus whom the Old Testament mentions as the second Benhadad. The subject of this article was king of Zobah (q.v.), a principality lying south of Mt. Hermon and the chief of a group of Aramean states extending as far south as the borders of Ammon. When David was engaged in war with the Ammonites, Hadadezer assisted the latter and was defeated by David; he then secured the aid of the king of Damascus, and again met defeat. He finally summoned all the remaining Aramean states to the south of Hermon except Hamath (then an ally of Israel), only to be beaten again.
Such is the account of the events of David's
Aramean wars as compiled from the two accounts
in II Sam. viii. and x., which in part supplement
each other and in part are different versions of the
same event. Confusion has been introduced by
the use of the term "river" in viii. 3 and x. lg,
which has been taken to mean the Euphrates, which
indeed some manuscripts read in viii. 3 and as the
Septuagint reads in the parallel i Chron. gix. 16.
Probably, however, the Jordan is meant, and the
area of the transactions referred to in the context
was restricted to eastern Palestine and its northern
Aramean border. J. F. MCCUBDY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Ewald, Gesthichte des Volkes Israel, iii. 202‑212, Gottingen, 1888, Eng. tranal., London, 1871; F. Hitaig, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, pp. 143‑148, Leipale, 1869; E. Schrader, %eilinachriften und Geschichtstorachunp, P. 386, Giessen. 1878; A. Kohler, Lahrbuch der bibliadenn Geeschichte, 11. i. 282‑286, Stuttgart, 1884; E. Meyer, Geschichte des Alterthums, i. 383‑384, Erlangen, 1884; ,J. Euting, 3itsunpaberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1886, P. 879; B. Stale, Geschidde lea Volkes load, i. 278, Berlin, 1887; F. Baethgen, Beifraoe cur semitiachen Relipionepeschichta, p. 87, Berlin, 1889; E. Renan, Hint. du peuple Israel, ii. 37‑41, Paris, 1889, Eng. trand., Boston, 1889; J. F. McCurdy, History, Prophecy and the Monuments, i. 247‑248, New York, 1894; R. Kittel, Geschichte der Hebrder, ii. 140‑141,. Gottingen, 1892, Eng. tranal., London, 1898; DB, ii. 273‑274; BB, ii. 1930; JR, vi. 131; Schrader, RAT, pp. 231, 460. HADADRIMMON: According to the usual interpretation, a place name mentioned in Zech. xii. 11. The word is the union of two names of the same deity, "Hadad" and "Rimmon " (see RIMMON); but such a formation is remarkable, and in itself
furnishes a difficult problem, perhaps the best explanation being that it is an abbreviation for Haaladbaal‑Rim»wn, "Hadad, lord of (the place) Rim= mon." The passage, which is one of unusual difficulty, reads: "In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon." This may be construed to mean mourning at a place named Hadadrimmon, or for an event which occurred there, or for a person of that name. The ancient and most modern commentators accept the word as a place name. Thus Jerome states in his commentary on the passage that Adadremmon was a village near Jezreel to which the name Maximianopolis (identified with the Roman Legio and the, modern Lejjun) had been given. On the other hand the most usual identification is with Rummaneh (n.w. of Jenin and near Lejjun; cf. G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of Palestine, p. 389, London, 1897). But after it is granted that the word is a place name, the identification of the event referred to is uncertain. Reference has been seen to the mourning of Sisera's mother for her son who suffered defeat nearby (Judges iv.‑v.). But the passage seems to allude to an event which was notable for the grief it caused, and the reference to Sisem's mother seems exceedingly far‑fetched. Others have thought of a mourning for Ahaziah of Judah, who died at Megiddo (II Kings ix. 27); but Ahaziah had not so great importance for Judah as to make his death particularly noteworthy, and was also. overshadowed by the great slaughter of princes which followed. The favorite hypothesis has been to refer it to the mourning for Josiah, who also died at Megiddo (II Kings xxiii. 29). This seems best for two reasons: (1) on account of the importance for the development of the religion of the king in whose reign the Deuteronomic reform took place, the ruler from whom so much was hoped, whose death therefore became an important event to be kept in sorrowful remembrance; (2) it falls in with the testimony of the Chronicler (II Chron. xxxv. 2b), who was nearly or quite a contemporary of the author of Zech. xii., to an established custom of mourning for Josiah which had persisted to his own time. The objection of Cheyne (EB, ii. 1930) that the mourning for Josiah (and, of course, for Ahaziah) would be at Jerusalem, not at Hadadrimmon, has no force against those explanations which see a reference not to a mourning which took place in Hadadrimmon, but to a mourning for an event which occurred there. The Targum combines a mourning for Ahab, whom it declares a Syrian named Hadadrimmon slew, and for Josiah. The critical school is inclined against all these interpretations, sees in Hadadrimmon a divine name, brings the passage into connection with Ezek. viii. 14, reads in an identification of the Phenician Adonis (the Babylonian Tammuz) with the SyrianAramean deity Hadad (Rimmon) or a confusion of the two, and refers the mourning to the yearly lament for that deity on the waning of the sun (cf. Schrader, KAT, pp. 399, 450). In that case this is the only reference to such a cult and is against all that is known of the worship of Had ad
and Rimmon. GEO. W. GILMORE.
BIHwoosAPBT: On Hadadrimmon: W. W. von Baudissin,
Studien Sur semitdschen Relvionapaehiehts, i. 293‑325, of. ii. 215, Leipsic, 1876‑78; DB, ii. 274; EB, ii. 1930‑31; JE, vi. 130. On the location of Megiddo and ifiaxImianopolis: Roland, Palmetina, pp. 873, 893‑895, Utrecht, 1714; Robinson, Researches, vol. iii; g. von Raumer, Paldstina, pp. 448‑448, Leipsio, 1880; C. R. Conder, in PEF, Quarterly Statement, 1877, pp. 13‑30, cf. 190‑192; F. Buhl, Geopraphie des alten PaUakaa,‑pp. 208‑209, Tiibingen, 1896. On Rummane, V. Gudrin, Description pfraphique, historique . . . de is PaleAna, 11. ii. 228230, Paris, 1875.
HADDAN, ARTHUR WEST: English church historian; b. at Woodford (5 m. n.n.e. of London), Essex, Aug. 31, 1816; d. at Barton‑on‑the‑Heath (15 m. s.s.e. of Stratford), Warwickshire, Feb. 8, 1873. He was educated at Brasenose College and Trinity College, Oxford (B.A., 1837; M.A., 1840; B.D., 1847). He was a scholar of Trinity College 1835‑40, fellow 1840‑58, classical tutor and dean 1841, and vice‑president 1848. He was deeply affected by the Tractarian movement, and was particularly influenced by Isaac Williams, then a tutor at Trinity College, and also by J. H. Newman, whose curate he was in 1840 at St. Mary's, Oxford. Despite his eminent attainments the only preferments he ever received were the small college living of Barton‑on‑the‑Heath, to which he retired in 1857, and the barren title of honorary canon of Worcester, which he received in 1870: In 1865 he was appointed Bampton lecturer, but was forced by ill health to resign the appointment. He was a thorough scholar, and all his writings are marked by extreme accuracy. The two works by which he will be remembered are, Apoatolical Succession. in the Church of England (London, 1869), the final authority on the subject; and Councils arid Ecclestaetical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, in collaboration with W. Stubbs (3 vols., Oxford, 1869‑78), an extremely valuable collection of sources for the early ecclesiastical history of England, based upon the works of H. Spelman and D. Wilkins. Haddan wrote much for the Guuardian and the Christian Remembrancer, contributed to the various reviews, wrote a number of articles for the DCA, edited for the Library of Anglo‑Catholic Theology the works of John Bramhall (5 vols., Oxford, 18421845) and Herbert Thorndike (6 vols., 1844‑56), and translated for NPNF (1 ser., vol. iii.) St. Augustine's De trinitate. His Remains were edited by A. P. Forbes (London, 1876).
BIBLIoafiAPHY: Article by R. W. Church in Remains, ut
sup.; DNB,,xsiii: 424‑425.
HADES: The abode of departed spirits.
The Hebrew name for the abode of the dead is Sheol, and from the Hebrew the word passed into the Aramaic and Syriac versions of the Old Testament. The Septuagint has almost always translated it by Hades, registering thereby the close resemblance of the Hebrew and Greek ideas in regard to the dwelling‑place of the dead.
The Israelitic conception of Sheol rests upon the belief that the decomposition of the dead body, by means of which dust returns to dust (Gen. iii. 19; Ps. cxivi. 4; Eccles. xii. 7), does not involve complete annihilation, only that in death the "shade" of the living man separates from the body and takes up its abode in Sheol. Neither
soul (nephesh) nor spirit (rush) dwells in Hades, only the rephaim, "the shades" (Job xxvi. 6; Ps. lxxxviii. 11; Isa. xiv. 9), who lack everything which according to Hebrew thought could be called life. The care taken to preserve the bodies of the dead from insult or injury does not seem to have been prompted by the thought that the shades could suffer thereby. Sheol is a land of forgetfulness (Pa. Ixxxviii. 12), where nothing is known of what happens in the upper world (Job xiv. 21). The only instance of an evocation (I Sam. xxviii.) implies that a man gifted with supernatural knowledge, as was Samuel, did not lose his power even in death. That Sheol was located beneath the earth's surface is clear from the expression "down into Sheol" (Gen. xxxvii. 35; Isa. xiv. 11, 15; Ezek. xxxi. 15). It lies deeper than thought can reach, and to it no light of‑ sun penetrates. Yet it is compared to a house, has chambers; and gates with bars. In poetry it is likened to an insatiable beast. Yet it is subject to God's power; though man can not praise God there (lea. xxxviii. 18) and God's reproof does not reach it (Ecclus. x1i. 4Y. About the tbdrd century before Christ the idea of Sheol was modified by the‑ Pharisaic doctrine of a return of all or a part of the pious dead to this life at the end of the, worldperiod (Isa. xxvi. 19: Dan. xii. 2; Enoch; xc. 33); and also, by the Essenic doctrine that the pious were, like Enoch (Gen. v. 24), taken up to God (Ps. lxxui. 24; Wisd. of Sol. iii. 1; Enoch xxxix. 5; see REsIIRRECT70N; and GEHENNA). When the doctrine of a punishment immediately after death began to prevail, the idea that there was a place of. punishment and a place of bliss superseded the old conception of Sheol. Since, however, the expressions used by the Old Testament in regard to Sheol could be applied only to the place of punishment, Sheol and Gehenna came to mean the same thing.
In the New Testament the word Hades is rarely used (Matt. xi. 23). That the gates of Hades would not prevail against Christ's community (Matt. xvi. I8) means simply that death can not harm it. In Luke xvi. 23, the rich man while in torment in Hades beholds thence Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, so that Hades and the place of punishment are the same. For Paul, "the deep" (Rom. x. 7) is the dwelling‑place of the dead; according to Eph. iv. 9, Christ descended "into the lower parts of the earth "; the dead are inhabitants of the. underworld (Phil. u. 10). To Hades all men must go, to await the decision of their lot. Christians, after their death, dwell in Hades until the resurrection (I Thess. iv. 16; I Cor. xv. 23), but cf. Phil. i. 23, where believers are with Christ in death. According to Revelation believers who have departed this life are in heaven (vi. 9, vii. 9, xv. 2), and at the resurrection their souls will be clothed with a body (xx. 4, 5). The other dead dwell in Hades (xx. 13). The bottomless pit (ix. 1, 2,11, xi. 7) is distinguished from Hades as the place whence came the evil spirits under their leader Abaddon (ix. 11); there Satan will be otlained a thousand, years. At the end the evil, both men and angels, will be cast into a "lake of fire" (xix: 20, xx. 10). The Gospel of John lays stress upon the conception that believers
THE NEW HCHAFF‑HERZOG
are from the beginning partakers of eternal life [but cf. v. 28‑29]. Death and resurrection are only phases of that life. I Pet. iii. 19 makes mention of the "prison" in which the dead were found at Christ's death.
Christianity did not so much modify the Jewish ideas of death and the abode of the dead as give to them a new foundation. The real victory of life over death was won when Jesus rose from the dead. (G. DALMAN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. Btade, Usber die allftWoomdgdien Voretellunpsn son Zustande sack deco Tode, Leipsic, 1877; idem, Bibiisdhe The»lopie des A. T., pp. 183 en., Tabin;en, 1906; T. Buraek Concerning the State of Departed Scale, 2 vole„ London, 1738; J. R. Oertel. Hades, Leipsic, 1883; F. W. Farrar, Eternal Hope, London, 1878; idem, How and Judgmenk lb. 1882; E. White. Life in Christ, .ib. 1878; H. oort, in TAT, xv. (1881), 850 eqq.; 1. A. Beet, The Lad Things, London, 1905; F. 8chwslly, Das Lsben naeh dome Tale, Giessen. 1892; J. Frey. TOO, Sealenplaubs and Sesunkult ire alter Israel Leipsio, 1898; R. H. Charles, Critical Hisc of the Doctrine e/ a Future Lifer London, 1899; A. Berth dltDie israditisrhsn 1orNelluyan sun Zutande nad rods, Freibur& 1899; DB, ii. 274‑278, 843‑348; EB, ii. 1338‑41, iv. 4453‑&l; JB, xi. 282‑283; DCa, i. 527‑528, 538‑538; the lexicons under the words Hades, Sheol; the treatises on Biblical theology; and the literature under Dmmczirr or CBuis'r nrro Hrnn; EscasToLoar; and Garl=xA.
HADORAM: ha‑do'ram. The name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament.
1. One of the sons of Joktan mentioned in Gen. x. 27 (Septuagint Odorro, Lucian 0dorram) and I Chron. i. 21 (Septuagint %edouran, Lucian Adoram). The entire context points to an Arabian environment, and the name is to be taken as the name of an eponymous progenitor of an Arabian tribe. It is to be remembered that the Arabs claim Joktan (Kaftan) as their progenitor (see TABLE oa NATioNs). The name Hadoram has been found on a Sabean inscription (CIS, IV. i. 1) in the form Hdrwm. Miller and Glaser refer to Dauram in Yemen as possibly from the same origin.
2. Sons of Toi (Tou), king of Hamath, mentioned in I Chron. xviii. 10. as sent by his father to congratulate David upon his conquest of Hadarezer, a common foe. The parallel account in II Sam. viii. 10 gives Joram instead of Hadoram‑a name of the same formation but substituting the abbreviated form of Yahweh for Hado (the shorter form of Addu in the Amarna Tablets). The form in Chronicles is regarded as probably the original (cf. Septuagint ln, and S. R. Driver, Hebrew Text of . . . Samuel, pp. 217, 287 "a Hamathite name ").
S. The name given by II Chron. to the officer of
tribute sent by Rehoboam to collect taxes from the
people, by whom he was stoned to death. The
parallel passage in I Kings xii. 8 gives the name as
Adoram; possibly the text in both should be
Adoniram. GEo. W. GILMORE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. E. Glaser, Skins der Geschichta and Geopraphie Arabiens, ii. 426‑427, 435, Berlin, 1890; D. H. Mallor, Die Burpenund Sehlasser SUdarabiene, i. 380‑361, Vienna, 1879. On $.‑S: H. V. Hiiprecht, Babylonian Expedition, ix. 27, 48, Philadelphia, 1898; A. H. Ssyoe, Early Hist. o/ the Hebrews, p. 428, London, 1898.
HADRACH, had'rac: A place name occurring in Zech. ix. 1. The word (Hebr. ,Hadrak) occurs nowhere else in Scripture, unless Cheyne's plausible
conjecture (EB, ii. 1933) be correct that it is to be
found in the haderek ("the way ") of Ezek. xlvii.
15. The place was almost lost to knowledge until
the Assyrian inscriptions were discovered and read.
A saying is preserved in the Yalkuf Shimoni on
Zech. ix. 1 by a rabbi Jose to the effect that his
mother, a Damascene, recognised Hadrach as the
name of a place near Damascus; and David ben
Abraham, a Jewish lexicographer of the tenth cen
tury, also locates it there. In the Assyrian inscrip
tions the name, written Fatarika, occurs several
times in connection with the western campaigns of
Amur‑Dan III. in 772, 785, and 755 B.c., and is
mentioned as tributary to Assyria in the inscrip
tions of Tiglath‑Pileser dealing with the western
campaign of the year 738 B.C. (see AssYRIA, VI., 3,
if 8‑9). The Assyrian mention is always in con
nection with the region in which Damascus, Arpad,
and Hamath are situated. The early interpreta
tions, making it the name of a king or a deity, a
symbolical term "strong weak," a name of Caele
syria or of the Hauran, or as referring to a Chat
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult, besides the commentaries on Zeoh‑
saiah, Schrader, %AT, p. 33; F. Detits.ch, Gems", p.
538, LeipAe, 1872; F. Delitaseh, Wo lap due Paradise? p
279, ib. 1881; H. Winckler, Alttestamenaiahs UnterescAunpen, pp. 120‑134, ib. 1892.
HADRIAft(Popes). See ADRIAN.
Life (11). The Rescript Concerning the
Character (1 2). Christians (¢ 4).
Hadrian and Christianity Policy Toward the Jews
($ 3). (15).
Publius Mus Hadrianus, Roman emperor 117138, was born at Italics, in the Spanish province of Booties, Jan. 24, A.D.; d. at Baiae July 10, 138. After the early death of his father, he was educated under the care of his kinsman, the subsequent emperor Trajan, and early entered the
I. Life. service of the State. Upon the death
of Trajan, in Aug., 117, he obtained
the imperial dignity, probably on the ground of a
simulated adoption by the empress and her party.
He strove effectually to raise the standard of offi
cial life, to procure well‑regulated financial conditions
and to shape the laws by his own humane spirit.
One dominant object of his government was the
welfare of the provinces. In 120 or 121 he began a
series of extensive journeys, which led him into all
the domains of his empire, and were prompted alike