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HADAD: An Aramaic anti possibly an Edomitio deity (see HADADRIMMON). In Hadadezer and Benhadad are probably traces of this divine name, which is certainly preserved in the Old Testament name Hadadrimmon. Hadad alone is the name of an Edomite. As such it is not necessarily derived from the name of the god, for nothing is known of a god Hadad among the Edomites; yet its com­bination with the name of the god is very natural. The reading in the versions is Hadad and Hadar, but the former is better attested. In the Old Testa­ment the following are mentioned having the name of Hadad: (1) an Edomitic king (Gen. xxxvi. 35,36; I Chron. i. 46, 47), who smote the Midianites in the territory of Moab. (2) In I Chron i. 50, 51, a later Edomitic king is mentioned. In the parallel passage, Gen. sxsvi. 39, the Massoretic text reads Hadar (with variants Hadad, LXX. reads Arath, Arad). (3) An Edomite of royal descent (I Kings xi. 14‑22). He is hardly the same as the Hadad mentioned last. The notices concerning the wife of Hadad in (2) and the time of the kings of Edom in Gen. xxavi. 31 do not agree with those in the Kings passage. This Hadad might rather be a son or grandson of that one. This one, who was of royal blood, fled in child­hood to Egypt when Joab defeated the Edomites. Pharaoh provided for him, and gave him land and also as wife the sister of Queen Tahperies. At David's death Hadad made an attempt to re­conquer his native land. The Hebrew text breaks off suddenly at verse 22, and verse 25 is evidently out of place; it is better, therefore, to suppose that the conclusion of his story has, by a copyist's error, been inserted in the wrong place, and to read at verse 25 with the Septuagint, "This is the evil that Hadad did, and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Edom." He is not to be confounded with the Hadadezer (I Kings xi. 23) who was king of Zobah. From the Masoretic text I Kings xi. 25 Josephus (Ant. VIII., vii. 6) made the story of a covenant between the Edomite Hadad and the Syrian Rezon, and of the former's elevation to the throne of Syria.

BIHLIoaaAP87: On the whole subject, DB, ii. 273; ED, ii.

1929‑1930; JR, vi. 130‑131. On Hadad as a divine name E. Nestle, Die israditisehen Eipennamen,114‑116, Haarlem.

1876; E. Schrader, %ilinsehriften and GesA~or` erAung, pp. 371‑395, 538, Gieseen. 1878• idem, RAT,

pp. 42, 133, 147, 442 sqq., 538; C. P. Tiele, BabylowsA‑



aasyrischeGeschichte, p. 626, Goths, 1888‑88; H. Winolder, Alueetamintlidhe Foraehunpen, p. 09, Leipsio, 1892; H. v. Hilprecht, Assyriaca, pp. 7ti‑78, Boston, 1894, and see under HAn6DRIMMax and Rnnsox. On the kings of that name consult: P. Cassel, in Sunen, sin Berliner Wochsn­blatl, vol. vii., 1881; H. Winokler, ut sup., pp. 1‑16; F. Buhl, Geschichte der Rdomiter, pp. b7‑81, Leipsio, 1893; A. H. Sayoe, The Hiohe' Criticism and the Monuments, London, 1894; J. Lury, GewAichte der Edomiter, Bern, 1898; T. K. Cheyne, in JQR, ii (1899), bbl‑868; Schrader, RA T, pp. 240‑241, 460.
HADADEZER: An Aramean king and oppo­nent of David (II Sam. viii. 3‑12; I Kings xi. 23). The name means "Hadad helps." A variant is Hadarezer, to which the form Hadadezer is supe­rior, since HadaA (q.v.) is the name of an Aramaic deity, and "Hadadezer" is formed on customary lines (cf. Hebr. Eliezer, Joezer; and Phenician Eshmunezer). The name occurs on a seal of the seventh century in which the letters 1 and r are clearly distinguished (Euting, 8itzungsberichte der Berliner. Akademie, 1885, p. 879). It is probable ',, that Hadadezer was the name of the king of Da­ma6cus whom the Old Testament mentions as the second Benhadad. The subject of this article was king of Zobah (q.v.), a principality lying south of Mt. Hermon and the chief of a group of Aramean states extending as far south as the borders of Am­mon. When David was engaged in war with the Ammonites, Hadadezer assisted the latter and was defeated by David; he then secured the aid of the king of Damascus, and again met defeat. He finally summoned all the remaining Aramean states to the south of Hermon except Hamath (then an ally of Israel), only to be beaten again.

Such is the account of the events of David's

Aramean wars as compiled from the two accounts

in II Sam. viii. and x., which in part supplement

each other and in part are different versions of the

same event. Confusion has been introduced by

the use of the term "river" in viii. 3 and x. lg,

which has been taken to mean the Euphrates, which

indeed some manuscripts read in viii. 3 and as the

Septuagint reads in the parallel i Chron. gix. 16.

Probably, however, the Jordan is meant, and the

area of the transactions referred to in the context

was restricted to eastern Palestine and its northern

Aramean border. J. F. MCCUBDY.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Ewald, Gesthichte des Volkes Israel, iii. 202‑212, Gottingen, 1888, Eng. tranal., London, 1871; F. Hitaig, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, pp. 143‑148, Leip­ale, 1869; E. Schrader, %eilinachriften und Geschichtstor­achunp, P. 386, Giessen. 1878; A. Kohler, Lahrbuch der bibliadenn Geeschichte, 11. i. 282‑286, Stuttgart, 1884; E. Meyer, Geschichte des Alterthums, i. 383‑384, Erlangen, 1884; ,J. Euting, 3itsunpaberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1886, P. 879; B. Stale, Geschidde lea Volkes load, i. 278, Berlin, 1887; F. Baethgen, Beifraoe cur semitiachen Re­lipionepeschichta, p. 87, Berlin, 1889; E. Renan, Hint. du peuple Israel, ii. 37‑41, Paris, 1889, Eng. trand., Boston, 1889; J. F. McCurdy, History, Prophecy and the Monu­ments, i. 247‑248, New York, 1894; R. Kittel, Geschichte der Hebrder, ii. 140‑141,. Gottingen, 1892, Eng. tranal., London, 1898; DB, ii. 273‑274; BB, ii. 1930; JR, vi. 131; Schrader, RAT, pp. 231, 460.
HADADRIMMON: According to the usual inter­pretation, a place name mentioned in Zech. xii. 11. The word is the union of two names of the same deity, "Hadad" and "Rimmon " (see RIMMON); but such a formation is remarkable, and in itself

furnishes a difficult problem, perhaps the best ex­planation being that it is an abbreviation for Haal­adbaal‑Rim»wn, "Hadad, lord of (the place) Rim= mon." The passage, which is one of unusual diffi­culty, reads: "In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadad­rimmon in the valley of Megiddon." This may be construed to mean mourning at a place named Hadadrimmon, or for an event which occurred there, or for a person of that name. The ancient and most modern commentators accept the word as a place name. Thus Jerome states in his commentary on the passage that Adadremmon was a village near Jezreel to which the name Maximianopolis (iden­tified with the Roman Legio and the, modern Lejjun) had been given. On the other hand the most usual identification is with Rummaneh (n.w. of Jenin and near Lejjun; cf. G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of Palestine, p. 389, London, 1897). But after it is granted that the word is a place name, the identification of the event referred to is uncer­tain. Reference has been seen to the mourning of Sisera's mother for her son who suffered defeat near­by (Judges iv.‑v.). But the passage seems to al­lude to an event which was notable for the grief it caused, and the reference to Sisem's mother seems exceedingly far‑fetched. Others have thought of a mourning for Ahaziah of Judah, who died at Megiddo (II Kings ix. 27); but Ahaziah had not so great importance for Judah as to make his death particu­larly noteworthy, and was also. overshadowed by the great slaughter of princes which followed. The favorite hypothesis has been to refer it to the mourning for Josiah, who also died at Megiddo (II Kings xxiii. 29). This seems best for two rea­sons: (1) on account of the importance for the development of the religion of the king in whose reign the Deuteronomic reform took place, the ruler from whom so much was hoped, whose death therefore became an important event to be kept in sorrowful remembrance; (2) it falls in with the testimony of the Chronicler (II Chron. xxxv. 2b), who was nearly or quite a contemporary of the author of Zech. xii., to an established custom of mourning for Josiah which had persisted to his own time. The objection of Cheyne (EB, ii. 1930) that the mourning for Josiah (and, of course, for Ahaziah) would be at Jerusalem, not at Hadadrimmon, has no force against those explanations which see a reference not to a mourning which took place in Hadadrimmon, but to a mourning for an event which occurred there. The Targum combines a mourning for Ahab, whom it declares a Syrian named Hadadrimmon slew, and for Josiah. The critical school is inclined against all these inter­pretations, sees in Hadadrimmon a divine name, brings the passage into connection with Ezek. viii. 14, reads in an identification of the Phenician Adonis (the Babylonian Tammuz) with the Syrian­Aramean deity Hadad (Rimmon) or a confusion of the two, and refers the mourning to the yearly lament for that deity on the waning of the sun (cf. Schrader, KAT, pp. 399, 450). In that case this is the only reference to such a cult and is against all that is known of the worship of Had ad

and Rimmon. GEO. W. GILMORE.


BIHwoosAPBT: On Hadadrimmon: W. W. von Baudissin,

Studien Sur semitdschen Relvionapaehiehts, i. 293‑325, of. ii. 215, Leipsic, 1876‑78; DB, ii. 274; EB, ii. 1930‑31; JE, vi. 130. On the location of Megiddo and ifiaxI­mianopolis: Roland, Palmetina, pp. 873, 893‑895, Utrecht, 1714; Robinson, Researches, vol. iii; g. von Raumer, Paldstina, pp. 448‑448, Leipsio, 1880; C. R. Conder, in PEF, Quarterly Statement, 1877, pp. 13‑30, cf. 190‑192; F. Buhl, Geopraphie des alten PaUakaa,‑pp. 208‑209, Tiibingen, 1896. On Rummane, V. Gudrin, Description pfraphique, historique . . . de is PaleAna, 11. ii. 228­230, Paris, 1875.

HADDAN, ARTHUR WEST: English church historian; b. at Woodford (5 m. n.n.e. of London), Essex, Aug. 31, 1816; d. at Barton‑on‑the‑Heath (15 m. s.s.e. of Stratford), Warwickshire, Feb. 8, 1873. He was educated at Brasenose College and Trinity College, Oxford (B.A., 1837; M.A., 1840; B.D., 1847). He was a scholar of Trinity College 1835‑40, fellow 1840‑58, classical tutor and dean 1841, and vice‑president 1848. He was deeply affected by the Tractarian movement, and was particularly influenced by Isaac Williams, then a tutor at Trinity College, and also by J. H. Newman, whose curate he was in 1840 at St. Mary's, Oxford. Despite his eminent attainments the only prefer­ments he ever received were the small college living of Barton‑on‑the‑Heath, to which he retired in 1857, and the barren title of honorary canon of Worcester, which he received in 1870: In 1865 he was appointed Bampton lecturer, but was forced by ill health to resign the appointment. He was a thorough scholar, and all his writings are marked by extreme accuracy. The two works by which he will be remembered are, Apoatolical Succession. in the Church of England (London, 1869), the final au­thority on the subject; and Councils arid Ecclestae­tical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, in collaboration with W. Stubbs (3 vols., Oxford, 1869‑78), an extremely valuable collection of sources for the early ecclesiastical history of England, based upon the works of H. Spelman and D. Wilkins. Haddan wrote much for the Guuardian and the Christian Remembrancer, contributed to the various reviews, wrote a number of articles for the DCA, edited for the Library of Anglo‑Catholic Theology the works of John Bramhall (5 vols., Oxford, 1842­1845) and Herbert Thorndike (6 vols., 1844‑56), and translated for NPNF (1 ser., vol. iii.) St. Augustine's De trinitate. His Remains were edited by A. P. Forbes (London, 1876).

BIBLIoafiAPHY: Article by R. W. Church in Remains, ut

sup.; DNB,,xsiii: 424‑425.

HADES: The abode of departed spirits.

The Hebrew name for the abode of the dead is Sheol, and from the Hebrew the word passed into the Aramaic and Syriac versions of the Old Testa­ment. The Septuagint has almost always trans­lated it by Hades, registering thereby the close resemblance of the Hebrew and Greek ideas in regard to the dwelling‑place of the dead.

The Israelitic conception of Sheol rests upon the belief that the decomposition of the dead body, by means of which dust returns to dust (Gen. iii. 19; Ps. cxivi. 4; Eccles. xii. 7), does not involve complete annihilation, only that in death the "shade" of the living man separates from the body and takes up its abode in Sheol. Neither

soul (nephesh) nor spirit (rush) dwells in Hades, only the rephaim, "the shades" (Job xxvi. 6; Ps. lxxxviii. 11; Isa. xiv. 9), who lack everything which according to Hebrew thought could be called life. The care taken to preserve the bodies of the dead from insult or injury does not seem to have been prompted by the thought that the shades could suffer thereby. Sheol is a land of forgetfulness (Pa. Ixxxviii. 12), where nothing is known of what happens in the upper world (Job xiv. 21). The only instance of an evocation (I Sam. xxviii.) im­plies that a man gifted with supernatural knowledge, as was Samuel, did not lose his power even in death. That Sheol was located beneath the earth's surface is clear from the expression "down into Sheol" (Gen. xxxvii. 35; Isa. xiv. 11, 15; Ezek. xxxi. 15). It lies deeper than thought can reach, and to it no light of‑ sun penetrates. Yet it is compared to a house, has chambers; and gates with bars. In poetry it is likened to an insatiable beast. Yet it is subject to God's power; though man can not praise God there (lea. xxxviii. 18) and God's reproof does not reach it (Ecclus. x1i. 4Y. About the tbdrd cen­tury before Christ the idea of Sheol was modified by the‑ Pharisaic doctrine of a return of all or a part of the pious dead to this life at the end of the, world­period (Isa. xxvi. 19: Dan. xii. 2; Enoch; xc. 33); and also, by the Essenic doctrine that the pious were, like Enoch (Gen. v. 24), taken up to God (Ps. lxxui. 24; Wisd. of Sol. iii. 1; Enoch xxxix. 5; see REsIIRRECT70N; and GEHENNA). When the doctrine of a punishment immediately after death began to prevail, the idea that there was a place of. punishment and a place of bliss superseded the old conception of Sheol. Since, however, the ex­pressions used by the Old Testament in regard to Sheol could be applied only to the place of punish­ment, Sheol and Gehenna came to mean the same thing.

In the New Testament the word Hades is rarely used (Matt. xi. 23). That the gates of Hades would not prevail against Christ's community (Matt. xvi. I8) means simply that death can not harm it. In Luke xvi. 23, the rich man while in torment in Hades beholds thence Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, so that Hades and the place of punishment are the same. For Paul, "the deep" (Rom. x. 7) is the dwelling‑place of the dead; according to Eph. iv. 9, Christ descended "into the lower parts of the earth "; the dead are inhabitants of the. under­world (Phil. u. 10). To Hades all men must go, to await the decision of their lot. Christians, after their death, dwell in Hades until the resurrection (I Thess. iv. 16; I Cor. xv. 23), but cf. Phil. i. 23, where believers are with Christ in death. Accord­ing to Revelation believers who have departed this life are in heaven (vi. 9, vii. 9, xv. 2), and at the resurrection their souls will be clothed with a body (xx. 4, 5). The other dead dwell in Hades (xx. 13). The bottomless pit (ix. 1, 2,11, xi. 7) is distinguished from Hades as the place whence came the evil spirits under their leader Abaddon (ix. 11); there Satan will be otlained a thousand, years. At the end the evil, both men and angels, will be cast into a "lake of fire" (xix: 20, xx. 10). The Gospel of John lays stress upon the conception that believers






are from the beginning partakers of eternal life [but cf. v. 28‑29]. Death and resurrection are only phases of that life. I Pet. iii. 19 makes mention of the "prison" in which the dead were found at Christ's death.

Christianity did not so much modify the Jewish ideas of death and the abode of the dead as give to them a new foundation. The real victory of life over death was won when Jesus rose from the dead. (G. DALMAN.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. Btade, Usber die allftWoomdgdien Vor­etellunpsn son Zustande sack deco Tode, Leipsic, 1877; idem, Bibiisdhe The»lopie des A. T., pp. 183 en., Tabin­;en, 1906; T. Buraek Concerning the State of Departed Scale, 2 vole„ London, 1738; J. R. Oertel. Hades, Leip­sic, 1883; F. W. Farrar, Eternal Hope, London, 1878; idem, How and Judgmenk lb. 1882; E. White. Life in Christ, .ib. 1878; H. oort, in TAT, xv. (1881), 850 eqq.; 1. A. Beet, The Lad Things, London, 1905; F. 8chwslly, Das Lsben naeh dome Tale, Giessen. 1892; J. Frey. TOO, Sealenplaubs and Sesunkult ire alter Israel Leipsio, 1898; R. H. Charles, Critical Hisc of the Doctrine e/ a Future Lifer London, 1899; A. Berth dltDie israditisrhsn 1or­Nelluyan sun Zutande nad rods, Freibur& 1899; DB, ii. 274‑278, 843‑348; EB, ii. 1338‑41, iv. 4453‑&l; JB, xi. 282‑283; DCa, i. 527‑528, 538‑538; the lexicons under the words Hades, Sheol; the treatises on Biblical theology; and the literature under Dmmczirr or CBuis'r nrro Hrnn; EscasToLoar; and Garl=xA.
HADORAM: ha‑do'ram. The name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament.

1. One of the sons of Joktan mentioned in Gen. x. 27 (Septuagint Odorro, Lucian 0dorram) and I Chron. i. 21 (Septuagint %edouran, Lucian Adoram). The entire context points to an Arabian environ­ment, and the name is to be taken as the name of an eponymous progenitor of an Arabian tribe. It is to be remembered that the Arabs claim Joktan (Kaftan) as their progenitor (see TABLE oa NA­TioNs). The name Hadoram has been found on a Sabean inscription (CIS, IV. i. 1) in the form Hdrwm. Miller and Glaser refer to Dauram in Yemen as possibly from the same origin.

2. Sons of Toi (Tou), king of Hamath, mentioned in I Chron. xviii. 10. as sent by his father to con­gratulate David upon his conquest of Hadarezer, a common foe. The parallel account in II Sam. viii. 10 gives Joram instead of Hadoram‑a name of the same formation but substituting the abbreviated form of Yahweh for Hado (the shorter form of Addu in the Amarna Tablets). The form in Chron­icles is regarded as probably the original (cf. Sep­tuagint ln, and S. R. Driver, Hebrew Text of . . . Samuel, pp. 217, 287 "a Hamathite name ").

S. The name given by II Chron. to the officer of

tribute sent by Rehoboam to collect taxes from the

people, by whom he was stoned to death. The

parallel passage in I Kings xii. 8 gives the name as

Adoram; possibly the text in both should be

Adoniram. GEo. W. GILMORE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. E. Glaser, Skins der Geschichta and Geopraphie Arabiens, ii. 426‑427, 435, Berlin, 1890; D. H. Mallor, Die Burpenund Sehlasser SUdarabiene, i. 380‑361, Vienna, 1879. On $.‑S: H. V. Hiiprecht, Babylonian Expedition, ix. 27, 48, Philadelphia, 1898; A. H. Ssyoe, Early Hist. o/ the Hebrews, p. 428, London, 1898.

HADRACH, had'rac: A place name occurring in Zech. ix. 1. The word (Hebr. ,Hadrak) occurs nowhere else in Scripture, unless Cheyne's plausible

conjecture (EB, ii. 1933) be correct that it is to be

found in the haderek ("the way ") of Ezek. xlvii.

15. The place was almost lost to knowledge until

the Assyrian inscriptions were discovered and read.

A saying is preserved in the Yalkuf Shimoni on

Zech. ix. 1 by a rabbi Jose to the effect that his

mother, a Damascene, recognised Hadrach as the

name of a place near Damascus; and David ben­

Abraham, a Jewish lexicographer of the tenth cen­

tury, also locates it there. In the Assyrian inscrip­

tions the name, written Fatarika, occurs several

times in connection with the western campaigns of

Amur‑Dan III. in 772, 785, and 755 B.c., and is

mentioned as tributary to Assyria in the inscrip­

tions of Tiglath‑Pileser dealing with the western

campaign of the year 738 B.C. (see AssYRIA, VI., 3,

if 8‑9). The Assyrian mention is always in con­

nection with the region in which Damascus, Arpad,

and Hamath are situated. The early interpreta­

tions, making it the name of a king or a deity, a

symbolical term "strong weak," a name of Caele­

syria or of the Hauran, or as referring to a Chat­

racharta in Assyria mentioned by Ptolemy and

Strabo (cf. W. Baudissin in Hauck‑Herzog, RE,

viii. 300‑301), are by the cuneiform inscriptions

rendered obsolete, and Hadrach may be identified

with a city or region not far from Damascus.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult, besides the commentaries on Zeoh‑

saiah, Schrader, %AT, p. 33; F., Gems", p.

538, LeipAe, 1872; F. Delitaseh, Wo lap due Paradise? p

279, ib. 1881; H. Winckler, Alttestamenaiahs UnterescA­unpen, pp. 120‑134, ib. 1892.

HADRIAft (Popes). See ADRIAN.

Life (11). The Rescript Concerning the

Character (1 2). Christians (¢ 4).

Hadrian and Christianity Policy Toward the Jews

($ 3). (15).

Publius Mus Hadrianus, Roman emperor 117­138, was born at Italics, in the Spanish province of Booties, Jan. 24, A.D.; d. at Baiae July 10, 138. After the early death of his father, he was educated under the care of his kinsman, the subsequent em­peror Trajan, and early entered the

I. Life. service of the State. Upon the death

of Trajan, in Aug., 117, he obtained

the imperial dignity, probably on the ground of a

simulated adoption by the empress and her party.

He strove effectually to raise the standard of offi­

cial life, to procure well‑regulated financial conditions

and to shape the laws by his own humane spirit.

One dominant object of his government was the

welfare of the provinces. In 120 or 121 he began a

series of extensive journeys, which led him into all

the domains of his empire, and were prompted alike

by the deeply felt need of seeing the situation with

his own eyes, and by a very marked interest on his

part in behalf of science, archeology in particular.

From 138, a grave dropsical affection seriously in­

terrupted his activity, and led him, unsuccessfully,

to attempt to put a violent end to his life. The

present Castle of St. Angelo or the Mole of Hadrian

(moles Hadriani) in Rome became his imposing


The effectiveness of Hadrian's excellent natural

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