Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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our la condamnation du livre des Maximes des Saints, Paris, 1878; L. Guerrier, Madame Guyon, sa vie, s¢ doc­trine et son influence, Paris, 1881; H. T. Cheever, Corre­spondenceee.otPaith and Views of Madame Guyon, New York, 1885; H. Delacroix. Atudes d'histoire at de p8yrhut­opie du mysticdama, Pariss, 1908.
GWAT11s1Y, HENRY MELVILL: Church of England; b. at Barrow‑on‑Soar (8 m. n. of Leices­ter), Leicestershire, July 30, 1844. He was edu­cated at St. John's College, Cambridge (B. A.,1867), where he was fellow in 1868‑74 and theological tutor in 1874‑91. Since 1891 he has been Dixie professor of ecclesiastical history in the Univer­sity of Cambridge and fellow of Emmanuel College. He was also Gifford lecturer at Edinburgh in 1903‑05 and has written Studies of Arianism (Cambridge, 1882); The Arian Controversy (London, 1889); Selections from Early Christian Writers (1893); The Eye for Spiritual Things (Edinburgh, 1906); and The Knowledge of God (Gifford lectures, 1906).

GWYNN, JOHN: Church of Ireland; b. at Larne (18 m. n:e. of Belfast), County Antrim, Ireland, Aug. 28, 1827. He was educated at Trinity Col= lege, Dublin (B.A., 1850; MA., 1854), where he was fellow in 1853‑64. He was also warden of St. Columba's College, Dublin, from 1856 to 1864, and from 1863 to 1882 was rector of Tullyaughnish, County Donegal, in addition to being dean of Raphoe in 1873,82. After being rector of Temple­more, County Derry (1882,83), he was Archbishop King's Lecturer in divinity in Dublin University (1883‑88) and since 1888 has been regius professor of divinity in the same university. He has written Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians in The ,Speaker's Commentary (London, 1881), besides ed­iting The Apocalypse of St. John in a Syriac Ver­sion hitherto Unknown (Dublin, 1897), and The Book of Arntayh (1905), and translating Selections from Ephraim and Aplnohat in The Nicene and Post­Nicene Fathers, second series (Edinburgh, 1898).

GYRUVAGI ("Circuit‑Wanderers," almost ‑"Tramps"): Vagrant monks who subsisted upon charity. Benedict of Nursia mentions them as being worse than the cenobites, eremites, or Sara­baites (q.v.), and desired their extermination (Requla, i.). Taking advantage of the general rule of hospitality they roved from one cell to another,

HAAG, EMUS: Freneh Protestant; b. at Mont­b6liard (100 m. n.e. of Cbfilon) Nov. 10, 1810; d. at Paris May 11, 1865. He studied law at Stras­burg, and after being a tutor in Poland for two years, was appointed professor of political economy in a commercial school in Leipsic. In 1836 he left Leipsic togeether with his brothel Eugene (q.v.) and went to Paris, where he supported himself by mis­cellaneous literary work. He is best kaown by his col­laboration with his brother in the preparation of La France pratestante (9 vole., Paris, 1846=59), a biographical dictionary to which he contributed the articles an the artists and poets. He likewise wrote Satires et potsies diverses (Paris, 1844).

refusing to adopt the community‑life. Even prior to Benedict's day they were common in the Occi­dent. Augustine . calls them circelliones, or Cir­cumcelliones (q.v.), and relates that they were the first monks to carry on a brisk traffic in spurious bones of martyrs. Cassisn also mentions a class of monks who were probably identical with Benedict's gyrovagi, and the circumcellimtea of Augustine. They were notorious gluttons, shrank from fasting and even beguiled the cloister brethren to break fasts of obligation. The earliest report of such unstable monks in the Orient is contained in a Greek tract on ascetic rules (cf. .MPG, xxxi. 84, 119). Nilus the Sinaite (d. after 430) complains of these "false monks" (bk. iii., epiat. 119), and Johannes Climacus ~d. 606) warns the true and settled anchorites to beware of all gyrovagi (Scala poradisi gradus, xxvii.).

The Church soon.recognized the duty of restrain­ing the excesses of these vagrants. The Gallican synods at Angers in 453 (cannon viii.), and at Vannes in 465 (canons vi. and vii.) ruled that the roving monks should be debarred from communion and on occasion should be strictly disciplined; the two Spanish synods at Toledo in 633 (canon liii.) and 646 (canon v.) demanded that the religiosi vaga­bundi should either be coordinated with the clergy or else consigned to the cloister. The monastic foundations of Cfesarius of Arles, Benedict of Nur­sia, and Cassiodorus in the sixth century served to repress wandering monks, expressly .binding their inmates to persevere in the monastic estate until death, and to remain in the cloister first selected. The triumph of the Benedictine rule in the eighth century brought Western monasticism under the fixed cen­obite form. In the East measures to suppress ro­ving monks were taken by the Council of Chaloedon in 451 (canon iv.), also by Justinian, and later by the Second Trullan Council in 692 (canon xlii.). Not­withstanding these enactments, there were roving impostors in monks' garb throughout the Middle Ages. Later the term "gyrovagi" was sometimes applied to unsettled and migratory clerics.


BzHLrooRAPBt: E. Martbne, Commentarius in reouta S. BenediA pp. 53 sqq., Paris, 1890; A. Calmet, Commen‑

tsire sw la r~pte do S. Benoit, pp. 26 sqq., ib. 1734; Heim‑

buohea:Orden urd Konpropationen, i. 149; HL, vi. 1403‑04.

HAAG, EUGENE: French Protestant; brother of the preceding; b. at Montbi6liard (100 m. n.e. of Chhlon) Feb. 11, 1808; d. at Paris Mar. 5, 1868. After studying theology at Strasburg, he conducted a boarding‑school at Cernay, and was then ap­pointed professor of literature at a commercial school in Leipsic. In 1836 he went with his brother to Paris, and there supported himself by translating and by contributing to the periodical press. He also prepared a report on German military science for the Duke of Orldans, assisted in A. J. Matter's revision of the Bible (Paris, 1850) and in editing several periodicals, not only religious but even medical. Among his works special mention may



be made of his Vie de Luther (Valence, 1840); Vie

de Calvin (Paris, 1840); Histoire des dogmes ehrc­

dens (2 vols., Paris, 1862); and the posthumous

Th6ologie biblique (1870). His chief fame, however,

rests upon his La France protestante (9 vols., Paris,

1846‑59), to which he contributed all the articles

except those on artists and poets. Together with

C. Weiss, A. Coquerel, jr., and C. Read he also

founded in 1852 the Social d'histoire du protestan­

tisme franfais, of which he was secretary and vice­

president, as well as editor of the journal of the



b. at Philadelphia, Aug. 31, 1862. He was educated

at the University of Pennsylvania (A.B., 1884),

the Lutheran Seminary at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia

(1887), and the University of Leipsic (1887‑88).

He then held pastorates at Grace Lutheran Church,

New York City, in 1388‑96, and St. Paul's Lutheran

Church in the same city in 1896‑1904. Since 1904

he has been president of Muhlenberg College, Allen­

town Pa., where he is also professor of religion and

philosophy. In theology his position is conserva­

tively Lutheran, although he makes allowance for

modern positions, especially with regard to Biblical

research and the doctrine of inspiration and atone­

ment. He has written Commentary on the Gospel of

Mark (New York, 1895); BZlical Criticism (Phila­

delphia, 1902); and Bible Literature (1903), and

was also a coeditor and contributor of the Lutheran

Cyclopedia (New York, 1899).

HAAS, LORENZ : German Roman Catholic: b.

at Hungenberg, a village of Germany, Dec. 18,

1844. He was educated at the universities of

Munich and Wurzburg, after which he was vicar

of Erlangen (1868‑71), teacher of religion at Bam­

berg (1871 73), and a member of the foundation of

St. Stephen's, Augsburg, where he was also occu­

pied at the lyceum and gymnasium (1873‑79).

He then taught at Burghausen (1880,88) and at

Munich for a portion of a year (1888), after which

he was a professor at the lyceum in Passow in 1888­

1900. Since 1900 he has held a similar position

in the lyceum of Bamberg. He has written Die

notmendVe Intention des Ministers zur gultigen Ver­

waltung der heiligen Sakramente (Bamberg, 1869);

De philosopharum sceptieorum ruccessionabua eoru»r

que usque ad Seatum Empirieum acriptis (Wurzburg,

1875); Ueber Hypnotismus and Suggestion (Augs­

burg, 1893); and Die immaterielle Substanzialitat

der menschlichen Seele (Regensburg, 1903).

HABAIKVUg (LXX., Ambakoum; Vulgate,

Habacuc): The eighth of the Minor Prophets.

From the subscription to the third chapter it has

been inferred that the author was a Levite, and in

the superscription of Bel and the Dragon in Codex

Chisianus this is stated as a fact. The subscrip­

tion mentioned suggests personal official partici­

pation in the song service of the Temple. While

there is no certain knowledge of Habakkuk's life,

a very rich body of legend clusters about his name

(F. Delitzseh, De Habacuci prophets vita atque

state, Leipsic, 1842). The titles of chaps. i. and

iii. show that he was a well‑known prophet of Judah.

The book is cast in the form of dialogue. Chap. i. 2‑1 contains the prophet's complaint against the corruption among his people; i. :rll is the di­vine answer foretelling the impending judgment through the Chaldeans; i. 12‑17 expresses the prophet's wonder at their use by the Almighty; the divine answer follows in a fivefold "wo" presaging the overthrow of the enemy (ii. 2‑20); chap. iii. is the answer of the trusting community to this double revelation, closing with an expression of perfect confidence in God. The kernel of the book is in the second announcement, ii. 2‑3.

Against the early and persistent interpretation that in i. 2‑4 the prophet has the Chaldeans in mind are: (1) that the same sins are denounced by other prophets (e.g., Ezek. xiii. 8); (2) that as com­ponent parts of the prophecy appear the sin, the punishment, forgiveness, and restoration; (3) the use of "law" in i. 4, which must mean the divine law. Also that the punishment of the Hebrews by the Chaldeans involves retribution of the instru­ment also is an integral part of the prophecy. The interpretation given avoids any necessity for con­sidering i. 5‑11 an interpolation, or for taking ii. 9‑20 as a later addition, or for regarding the whole as a short preexilic prophecy worked over in the Exile.

There is only internal evidence upon which to determine the date either of the prophet or of his writing. Delitzsch's date, after the twelfth regnal year of Josiah, involving the assumption that Zeph. i. 7 depends on Hab. ii. 20, is doubtful‑the de­pendence may be the other way. It is better to ac­cept the verdict of most of the later critics and place it shortly before the battle of Carchemish. De­litzach's later placing of Habakkuk under Manasseh is against i. 5 "in your days."

The diction of Habakkuk is classical, the words

are rare and often peculiar to himself, the style is

artistic and independent of earlier models. Chap.

iii., an example of the highest art in Hebrew poetry,

pictures Yahweh coming forth from Sinai in the­

ophany to judge the foes of his people. All creation

is in consternation at his presence; the earth is

shaken to its foundations, sun and moon withdraw

before the bright glow of his arrows and spear. Even

the prophet, to whom the purpose of this coming is

known, is stricken with terror until he recovers in

view of the end which he sees and breaks off in a

song of triumph. There is a close relationship be­

tween parts of the song and Ps. lxxvii. 16‑20, and

between Jer. iv. 13, v. 6, and Hab. i. 8. The passage

ii. 4 is used by Paul in Rom. i. 17 and Gal. iii. 11;

it is used also in Heb. x. 37‑38, but in much altered

form. (W. VOLCxt.)

It is scarcely possible to regard as a unit the prophecy ascribed to Habakkuk. At any rate chap. iii. gives no indication of a close relation with the first two chapters. The inscription (iii. 1) and the musical note (iii. 19) indicate the use of the chapter in the second temple, while the style and contents correspond to those of some of the latest psalms (e.g., Ps. lxviii:). The Chaldeans of i. 6 are not mentioned or suggested, and the fact that in verse 13, as the parallelism shows, it is the people of Israel that is called the "anointed" indi‑



cates that the regal period is past and that the

community has taken the place of the king as the

theocratic representative. The poem does not give

information regarding the nature of the impending

danger which is to bring about the intervention of

Yahweh (as in the days of old). This danger can

hardly be a drought and failure of the crops, such

as is suggested in verses 17‑19; hence many recent

critics assume that these verses constitute an addi­

tional hymn, also by an unknown late author. If

this be the am, these two compositions had appar­

ently been written on the same roll and thus came

to be used as a single liturgical psalm. Before the

canonical limitation of the Psalter this composite

psalm was plated alongside the prophecy contained

in the first two chapters on account of their general

internal kinship.

The first two chapters are not very easily ex­

plained as an original unit. It is not plain how

the several sections of which they are composed

are related to one another; and whsle it is possible

to connect them as is done in the teat above, such

an explanation seems somewhat forced and is rather

to be accepted as tentative than as final. On the

other hand, it must be admitted that no alternative

view of the composition of the prophecy has as yet

met general approval. J. F. McCuRny.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Delitasch, Der Prophet Habakkuk, Leip­

sie, 1843; L. Reinke, Der Prophet Habakuk, Briaen. 1870

(contains full list of earlier works); A. G. Baumgartner,

Le Prophhto Habakkuk, Leipsie, 1885; F. W. Farrar, The

Minor Prophets, in Men of the Bible Series, London 1890;

F. Giesebreeht, Beitrape sur Jesaiakritik. DP. 170 eqq.,

GSttingen, 1890; R. Sinker, The Psalm of Habakkuk.

Cambridge, 1890; K. Budde; in Expositor, May, 1895;

A. B. Davidson, in Cambridge Bible for Schools, 1898;

W. Nowaek, Die kleinen Propheten, Gbttingen, 1897 G.

A. Smith, The Book of as Twelve, vol. ii., London, 1898;

DB, ii. 269‑273; EB, ii. 1921‑28; JR, vi. 117‑118; B.

Duhm, Dos Buch Habakkuk, Tilbingen, 1906; F. Nicolar

dot, La Composition du livre d'Habacuc, Paris, 1908.

HABERKORN, ha'barkern, PETER: Lutheran

theologian and controversialist; b. at Butzbach

(24 m. n. of Frankfort), Hesse, May 9, 1604; d. at

Giessen Apr. 1676. In 1625 he went to Marburg,

where he acquitted himself with such success as to

win the approval and friendship of Mentzer. After

passing some time at Leipsic and Strasburg, and at

Cologne to acquaint himself with the Roman Catho­

sic polemic, he became in 1632 professor of physics

at Marburg, but resigned in the following year to

become court preacher at Giessen, where in 1650

he was made professor of theology in the reorgan­

ized university. After the death of his father‑in‑law, Justus Feuerborn, in 1658 he held the rank of

senior professor in theology and was the recognized

head of the faculty. His importance rests in the

fact that he may be said to have held the Univer­

sity of Giessen and with it Upper Hesse faithful to

the doctrines of the orthodox Lutheranism. Most

noteworthy of his writings against the Roman

Catholics is the Vindicatio Ltdherante fulei contra

Hetfericum Ulrieum Hunnium (Marburg, 1633).

Against the Syncretists he wrote: Fidelis contra

Syncretismum indituta admonitio (Giessen, 1665);

Enodatio errorum Syncretiaticorum (1665); Vindicue

Syncretie»w Casselano opposites de S. Cwna (1669).

(F. BossE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. W. Strieder, Grundlaye su einer heesiaehan Gelehrten‑ and Schriftetellerfiewhichte, vol. v., 21 vole.. GSttingen, 1781‑1888; H. L. J. Heppe, Kirehenpeaehichts beider Hamm vol. ii., Marburg, 1878; dDB, vol. z


NES AVENARIITS) : German Protestant theologian;

b. at Eger (92 m. w. of Prague) Aug. 10, 1516; d.

at Zeitz (23 m. s.w. of Leipsic) Dec. 5, 1590. He

went over to the Evangelical Church about 1540,

studied theology, and filled a number of pastorates.

After a brief academic activity at Jena and Witten­

berg, in 1575, he accepted a call as superintendent

of Naumburg‑Zeitz. Though praised by his con­

temporaries as an Old Testament exegete, his sig­

nificance lies in the practical field. He published

a number of sermons, a Trm"chlein, a life of Christ,

and above all the prayer‑book, Chrietliche Gebett fur

allerley Not and Stende der gantzen Chrmtenheit

(Wittenberg, 1567), in which, for the first time, the

prayers for various Christian needs were appor­

tioned among the several days of the week. With

a few exceptions the prayers are written in plain

Biblical language, without ornament. The work

was translated into Latin, English (The Enimie

of Securitie, London, 1580), and French, and was

widely circulated in Protestant circles. Despite its

occasional crudities of expression the book is still

used; and some of the prayers have passed into

church books. HERmANN BECK.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are the funeral sermon by J. Oer­tel, Leipsie, 1591; Zeuner, Vito professorum Jenensium, i. 88 eqq., Jena, 1711. Consult: H. Beek Die Erbau‑

unpalitteratur der evanpetisehen Kirche Deutachlands, i. 270 eqq., Erlangen, 1883; idem, J. Habarmann. sin Gedenk­blatt, Pfarrhaus, 1890.
HABERT, ha"bar', ISAAC: Bishop of Vabres; b. in Paris at the end of the sixteenth century; d. at Pont de Salara, near Rodez (230 m. s.w. of Lyons) Sept. 15, 1668. He was educated in Paris and in 1626, on receiving his doctorate in theology from the Sorbonne, was made a canon in the cathedral at Paris. In 1641, probably at the instigation of Richelieu, he started the attack on Jansenism and subsequently provoked Antoine Arnauld to pub­lish his two apologies for the doctrine, which led to numerous polemic writings pro and con. He was responsible for the letter sent to Pope Innocent X. in 1650, signed by eighty‑five bishops, praying him to suppress the Jansenistic heresy. He was bishop of Vabres from 1645 till his death. His principal writings are: De consenau hierarcha:Ie et tlwnurchiw (Paris, 1640); De cathedru sew primatu sancti Petri (1645); and Theologi‑ gra;corum Ixitrum trindicofce circa universam materiam graha= perpetua eolWione acripturce eonctaiorum . . . sari tree (1646; reprinted, Warzburg, 1863), his chief work against Jansenism.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Besoign^ Hist. de 1'abbaye de Port Royal, Vol. vi., Cologne, 1753; C. Cl6menoet, Hilt. ohdrale de Port Roial, vol. iri., 10 vole., Amsterdam. 1755‑57; W. H. Jervis, The Gallican Church, London, 1872; Lichtenberger, ESR, vi. 56‑57.

HACBET, JOHN: Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield; b. in London Sept. 1, 1592; d. at Lich­field Oct. 28, 1670. He was educated at West­minster School, London; and at Trinity College, Cambridge (B. A.,1612; M.A., 1615), where he was


elected to a fellowship. He was ordained in 1618 and soon afterward became chaplain to John Williams, through whose patronage he was insti­tuted to the rectories of Stoke Hammond (Buck­ingbsmehire) and Kirkby Underwood m 1621. In 1623 he became proctor for the diocese of Lin­coln, prebendary in Lincoln Cathedral, and chaplain to James I., and the following year he received the livings of St. Andrews, Holborn, and Cheam in Surrey. In 1631 he became archdeacon of Bedford, and in 1642 canon residuary of St. Paul's. He was a member of the committee for religion appointed by the House of Lords in Mar., 1641, to reconcile the Puritans by making certain concessions regard­ing church service and discipline; and in May, 1641, at the request of this committee, he spoke in the House of Commons against the so‑called "root and branch" bill for the abolition of all offices connected with the episcopal form of church government. In 1643 he became a member of the Westminster Assembly, but, with other episcopal divines, he soon withdrew from that body. During the civil war he lost all of his preferments except his small benefice at Cheam. At the Restoration he was made chaplain to Charles II., and was consecrated bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, Dec. 22, 1661. He restored the cathedral at Lichfield, a work of eight years, and contributed largely to this and other causes. His only important book is his life of Archbishop Williams, Scrinia reserata: a Me­morial Wered to the Great Desemngs of John W%U­iams, D.D. (London, 1693; abridged by A. Philips, 1715), an excellent biography, which S. T: Coleridge considered invaluable for the insight it gives into the times preceding the civil war.

B;HLIOaaA?87: T. Plume, An Account of the Life and Death of . . . John Hacket, ad. with . . . Additions and . . . Notes, by M. E. C. Walcott, London, 1885; John Walker, Sufferings of the Clergy, ib. 1714; Diary of Samuel Pepys, vol. iii., ib. 1858; DNB, mil. 418‑920.

HACKETT, HORATIO BALCH: Baptist; b. in Salisbury, Mass., Dec. 27, 1808; d. in Rochester, N. Y., Nov. 2, 1875. He was graduated from Am­herst College in 1830 and studied theology at An­dover 1830‑‑31 and 1832‑34, having been tutor at Amherst during the year 1831‑32. Extended studies on infant baptism during his senior year in the semi­nary shook his confidence in his denomination and prevented him from entering on the work of the Congregational ministry immediately after grad­uation from the seminary. He was instructor in Mount Hope College, Baltimore, 1834‑35 and was immersed in Baltimore in July, 1835. The same year he became professor of languages in Brown Uni­versity, and in 1839 professor of Biblical literature and interpretation in Newton Theological Insti­tution. He was also ordained to the ministry in 1839. During 1841‑42 he studied at Berlin and Halls. Pressure of literary work led him to resign at Newton in 1868. From 1870 till his death he occupied the New Testament chair in Rochester Theological Seminary. His first publications were translations from the German. In 1844 he pub­lished an annotated edition of Plutarch's De sera niniums vindida (Andover, 1844). This was fol­lowed by a translation, with improvements, of

Winer's Grammar of the Chaldee Language (1845); a Hebrew Grammar (1847); Commentary on Ads (Boston, 1851; new ads., 1858 and 1877); Mua.. trotiona of Scripture; Suggested by a Tour through the Holy Land (1855; also 1868 and 1882); Ph" mon (1860); Christian Memorials of the War (1864); a translation with additions of Van Oosterzee's Philemon (1868) and of Braune's ,Philippians (1870) for Schaff's edition of Lange; an edition of Raw­linson's Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament (1873). With Ezra Abbot, he edited the American edition of Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1868‑70). He also collaborated in the Bible version of the American Bible Union (see BiB1.B Soc1BTiEs, III., 2), before which he delivered a memorable address on Bible revision in 1859. (A. H. NEwMAN.)

Bmwoowsrar: G. H. Whittemore, Memorials of H. B. HackeU, Rochester, 1878.

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