our la condamnation du livre des Maximes des Saints, Paris, 1878; L. Guerrier, Madame Guyon, sa vie, s¢ doctrine et son influence, Paris, 1881; H. T. Cheever, Correspondenceee.otPaith and Views of Madame Guyon, New York, 1885; H. Delacroix. Atudes d'histoire at de p8yrhutopie du mysticdama, Pariss, 1908. GWAT11s1Y, HENRY MELVILL: Church of England; b. at Barrow‑on‑Soar (8 m. n. of Leicester), Leicestershire, July 30, 1844. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge (B. A.,1867), where he was fellow in 1868‑74 and theological tutor in 1874‑91. Since 1891 he has been Dixie professor of ecclesiastical history in the University of Cambridge and fellow of Emmanuel College. He was also Gifford lecturer at Edinburgh in 1903‑05 and has written Studies of Arianism (Cambridge, 1882); The Arian Controversy (London, 1889); Selections from Early Christian Writers (1893); The Eye for Spiritual Things (Edinburgh, 1906); and The Knowledge of God (Gifford lectures, 1906).
GWYNN, JOHN: Church of Ireland; b. at Larne (18 m. n:e. of Belfast), County Antrim, Ireland, Aug. 28, 1827. He was educated at Trinity Col= lege, Dublin (B.A., 1850; MA., 1854), where he was fellow in 1853‑64. He was also warden of St. Columba's College, Dublin, from 1856 to 1864, and from 1863 to 1882 was rector of Tullyaughnish, County Donegal, in addition to being dean of Raphoe in 1873,82. After being rector of Templemore, County Derry (1882,83), he was Archbishop King's Lecturer in divinity in Dublin University (1883‑88) and since 1888 has been regius professor of divinity in the same university. He has written Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians in The ,Speaker's Commentary (London, 1881), besides editing The Apocalypse of St. John in a Syriac Version hitherto Unknown (Dublin, 1897), and The Book of Arntayh (1905), and translating Selections from Ephraim and Aplnohat in The Nicene and PostNicene Fathers, second series (Edinburgh, 1898).
GYRUVAGI ("Circuit‑Wanderers,"almost ‑"Tramps"): Vagrant monks who subsisted upon charity. Benedict of Nursia mentions them as being worse than the cenobites, eremites, or Sarabaites (q.v.), and desired their extermination (Requla, i.). Taking advantage of the general rule of hospitality they roved from one cell to another,
HAAG, EMUS: Freneh Protestant; b. at Montb6liard (100 m. n.e. of Cbfilon) Nov. 10, 1810; d. at Paris May 11, 1865. He studied law at Strasburg, and after being a tutor in Poland for two years, was appointed professor of political economy in a commercial school in Leipsic. In 1836 he left Leipsic togeether with his brothel Eugene (q.v.) and went to Paris, where he supported himself by miscellaneous literary work. He is best kaown by his collaboration with his brother in the preparation of La France pratestante (9 vole., Paris, 1846=59), a biographical dictionary to which he contributed the articles an the artists and poets. He likewise wrote Satires et potsies diverses (Paris, 1844).
refusing to adopt the community‑life. Even prior to Benedict's day they were common in the Occident. Augustine . calls them circelliones, or Circumcelliones (q.v.), and relates that they were the first monks to carry on a brisk traffic in spurious bones of martyrs. Cassisn also mentions a class of monks who were probably identical with Benedict's gyrovagi, and the circumcellimtea of Augustine. They were notorious gluttons, shrank from fasting and even beguiled the cloister brethren to break fasts of obligation. The earliest report of such unstable monks in the Orient is contained in a Greek tract on ascetic rules (cf. .MPG, xxxi. 84, 119). Nilus the Sinaite (d. after 430) complains of these "false monks" (bk. iii., epiat. 119), and Johannes Climacus ~d. 606) warns the true and settled anchorites to beware of all gyrovagi (Scala poradisi gradus, xxvii.).
The Church soon.recognized the duty of restraining the excesses of these vagrants. The Gallican synods at Angers in 453 (cannon viii.), and at Vannes in 465 (canons vi. and vii.) ruled that the roving monks should be debarred from communion and on occasion should be strictly disciplined; the two Spanish synods at Toledo in 633 (canon liii.) and 646 (canon v.) demanded that the religiosi vagabundi should either be coordinated with the clergy or else consigned to the cloister. The monastic foundations of Cfesarius of Arles, Benedict of Nursia, and Cassiodorus in the sixth century served to repress wandering monks, expressly .binding their inmates to persevere in the monastic estate until death, and to remain in the cloister first selected. The triumph of the Benedictine rule in the eighth century brought Western monasticism under the fixed cenobite form. In the East measures to suppress roving monks were taken by the Council of Chaloedon in 451 (canon iv.), also by Justinian, and later by the Second Trullan Council in 692 (canon xlii.). Notwithstanding these enactments, there were roving impostors in monks' garb throughout the Middle Ages. Later the term "gyrovagi" was sometimes applied to unsettled and migratory clerics.
BzHLrooRAPBt: E. Martbne, Commentarius in reouta S. BenediA pp. 53 sqq., Paris, 1890; A. Calmet, Commen‑
tsire sw la r~pte do S. Benoit, pp. 26 sqq., ib. 1734; Heim‑
buohea:Orden urd Konpropationen, i. 149; HL, vi. 1403‑04.
HAAG, EUGENE: French Protestant; brother of the preceding; b. at Montbi6liard (100 m. n.e. of Chhlon) Feb. 11, 1808; d. at Paris Mar. 5, 1868. After studying theology at Strasburg, he conducted a boarding‑school at Cernay, and was then appointed professor of literature at a commercial school in Leipsic. In 1836 he went with his brother to Paris, and there supported himself by translating and by contributing to the periodical press. He also prepared a report on German military science for the Duke of Orldans, assisted in A. J. Matter's revision of the Bible (Paris, 1850) and in editing several periodicals, not only religious but even medical. Among his works special mention may
106 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Gwatkin
be made of his Vie de Luther (Valence, 1840); Vie
de Calvin (Paris, 1840); Histoire des dogmes ehrc
dens (2 vols., Paris, 1862); and the posthumous
Th6ologie biblique (1870). His chief fame, however,
rests upon his La France protestante (9 vols., Paris,
1846‑59), to which he contributed all the articles
except those on artists and poets. Together with
C. Weiss, A. Coquerel, jr., and C. Read he also
founded in 1852 the Social d'histoire du protestan
tisme franfais, of which he was secretary and vice
president, as well as editor of the journal of the
HAAS, JOHN AUGUSTUS WILLIAM:Lutheran;
b. at Philadelphia, Aug. 31, 1862. He was educated
at the University of Pennsylvania (A.B., 1884),
the Lutheran Seminary at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia
(1887), and the University of Leipsic (1887‑88).
He then held pastorates at Grace Lutheran Church,
New York City, in 1388‑96, and St. Paul's Lutheran
Church in the same city in 1896‑1904. Since 1904
he has been president of Muhlenberg College, Allen
town Pa., where he is also professor of religion and
research and the doctrine of inspiration and atone
ment. He has written Commentary on the Gospel of
Mark (New York, 1895); BZlical Criticism (Phila
delphia, 1902); and Bible Literature (1903), and
was also a coeditor and contributor of the Lutheran
Cyclopedia (New York, 1899).
HAAS, LORENZ : German Roman Catholic: b.
at Hungenberg, a village of Germany, Dec. 18,
1844. He was educated at the universities of
Munich and Wurzburg, after which he was vicar
of Erlangen (1868‑71), teacher of religion at Bam
berg (1871 73), and a member of the foundation of
St. Stephen's, Augsburg, where he was also occu
pied at the lyceum and gymnasium (1873‑79).
He then taught at Burghausen (1880,88) and at
Munich for a portion of a year (1888), after which
he was a professor at the lyceum in Passow in 1888
1900. Since 1900 he has held a similar position
in the lyceum of Bamberg. He has written Die
notmendVe Intention des Ministers zur gultigen Ver
waltung der heiligen Sakramente (Bamberg, 1869);
De philosopharum sceptieorum ruccessionabua eoru»r
que usque ad Seatum Empirieum acriptis (Wurzburg,
1875); Ueber Hypnotismus and Suggestion (Augs
burg, 1893); and Die immaterielle Substanzialitat
der menschlichen Seele (Regensburg, 1903).
HABAIKVUg (LXX., Ambakoum; Vulgate,
Habacuc): The eighth of the Minor Prophets.
From the subscription to the third chapter it has
been inferred that the author was a Levite, and in
the superscription of Bel and the Dragon in Codex
Chisianus this is stated as a fact. The subscrip
tion mentioned suggests personal official partici
pation in the song service of the Temple. While
there is no certain knowledge of Habakkuk's life,
a very rich body of legend clusters about his name
(F. Delitzseh, De Habacuci prophets vita atque
state, Leipsic, 1842). The titles of chaps. i. and
iii. show that he was a well‑known prophet of Judah.
The book is cast in the form of dialogue. Chap. i. 2‑1 contains the prophet's complaint against the corruption among his people; i. :rll is the divine answer foretelling the impending judgment through the Chaldeans; i. 12‑17 expresses the prophet's wonder at their use by the Almighty; the divine answer follows in a fivefold "wo" presaging the overthrow of the enemy (ii. 2‑20); chap. iii. is the answer of the trusting community to this double revelation, closing with an expression of perfect confidence in God. The kernel of the book is in the second announcement, ii. 2‑3.
Against the early and persistent interpretation that in i. 2‑4 the prophet has the Chaldeans in mind are: (1) that the same sins are denounced by other prophets (e.g., Ezek. xiii. 8); (2) that as component parts of the prophecy appear the sin, the punishment, forgiveness, and restoration; (3) the use of "law" in i. 4, which must mean the divine law. Also that the punishment of the Hebrews by the Chaldeans involves retribution of the instrument also is an integral part of the prophecy. The interpretation given avoids any necessity for considering i. 5‑11 an interpolation, or for taking ii. 9‑20 as a later addition, or for regarding the whole as a short preexilic prophecy worked over in the Exile.
There is only internal evidence upon which to determine the date either of the prophet or of his writing. Delitzsch's date, after the twelfth regnal year of Josiah, involving the assumption that Zeph. i. 7 depends on Hab. ii. 20, is doubtful‑the dependence may be the other way. It is better to accept the verdict of most of the later critics and place it shortly before the battle of Carchemish. Delitzach's later placing of Habakkuk under Manasseh is against i. 5 "in your days."
The diction of Habakkuk is classical, the words
are rare and often peculiar to himself, the style is
artistic and independent of earlier models. Chap.
iii., an example of the highest art in Hebrew poetry,
pictures Yahweh coming forth from Sinai in the
ophany to judge the foes of his people. All creation
is in consternation at his presence; the earth is
shaken to its foundations, sun and moon withdraw
before the bright glow of his arrows and spear. Even
the prophet, to whom the purpose of this coming is
known, is stricken with terror until he recovers in
view of the end which he sees and breaks off in a
song of triumph. There is a close relationship be
tween parts of the song and Ps. lxxvii. 16‑20, and
between Jer. iv. 13, v. 6, and Hab. i. 8. The passage
ii. 4 is used by Paul in Rom. i. 17 and Gal. iii. 11;
it is used also in Heb. x. 37‑38, but in much altered
form. (W. VOLCxt.)
It is scarcely possible to regard as a unit the prophecy ascribed to Habakkuk. At any rate chap. iii. gives no indication of a close relation with the first two chapters. The inscription (iii. 1) and the musical note (iii. 19) indicate the use of the chapter in the second temple, while the style and contents correspond to those of some of the latest psalms (e.g., Ps. lxviii:). The Chaldeans of i. 6 are not mentioned or suggested, and the fact that in verse 13, as the parallelism shows, it is the people of Israel that is called the "anointed" indi‑
Habakkuk THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 108
cates that the regal period is past and that the
community has taken the place of the king as the
theocratic representative. The poem does not give
information regarding the nature of the impending
danger which is to bring about the intervention of
Yahweh (as in the days of old). This danger can
hardly be a drought and failure of the crops, such
as is suggested in verses 17‑19; hence many recent
critics assume that these verses constitute an addi
tional hymn, also by an unknown late author. If
this be the am, these two compositions had appar
ently been written on the same roll and thus came
to be used as a single liturgical psalm. Before the
canonical limitation of the Psalter this composite
psalm was plated alongside the prophecy contained
in the first two chapters on account of their general
The first two chapters are not very easily ex
plained as an original unit. It is not plain how
the several sections of which they are composed
are related to one another; and whsle it is possible
to connect them as is done in the teat above, such
an explanation seems somewhat forced and is rather
to be accepted as tentative than as final. On the
other hand, it must be admitted that no alternative
view of the composition of the prophecy has as yet
met general approval. J. F. McCuRny.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Delitasch, Der Prophet Habakkuk, Leip
sie, 1843; L. Reinke, Der Prophet Habakuk, Briaen. 1870
(contains full list of earlier works); A. G. Baumgartner,
Le Prophhto Habakkuk, Leipsie, 1885; F. W. Farrar, The
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. W. Strieder, Grundlaye su einer heesiaehan Gelehrten‑ and Schriftetellerfiewhichte, vol. v., 21 vole.. GSttingen, 1781‑1888; H. L. J. Heppe, Kirehenpeaehichts beider Hamm vol. ii., Marburg, 1878; dDB, vol. z
HABERXANN, ha'blir‑man, JOHANN UOHAN
NES AVENARIITS) : German Protestant theologian;
b. at Eger (92 m. w. of Prague) Aug. 10, 1516; d.
at Zeitz (23 m. s.w. of Leipsic) Dec. 5, 1590. He
went over to the Evangelical Church about 1540,
studied theology, and filled a number of pastorates.
After a brief academic activity at Jena and Witten
berg, in 1575, he accepted a call as superintendent
of Naumburg‑Zeitz. Though praised by his con
temporaries as an Old Testament exegete, his sig
nificance lies in the practical field. He published
a number of sermons, a Trm"chlein, a life of Christ,
and above all the prayer‑book, Chrietliche Gebett fur
allerley Not and Stende der gantzen Chrmtenheit
(Wittenberg, 1567), in which, for the first time, the
prayers for various Christian needs were appor
tioned among the several days of the week. With
a few exceptions the prayers are written in plain
Biblical language, without ornament. The work
was translated into Latin, English (The Enimie
of Securitie, London, 1580), and French, and was
widely circulated in Protestant circles. Despite its
occasional crudities of expression the book is still
used; and some of the prayers have passed into
church books. HERmANN BECK.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are the funeral sermon by J. Oertel, Leipsie, 1591; Zeuner, Vito professorum Jenensium, i. 88 eqq., Jena, 1711. Consult: H. Beek Die Erbau‑
unpalitteratur der evanpetisehen Kirche Deutachlands, i. 270 eqq., Erlangen, 1883; idem, J. Habarmann. sin Gedenkblatt, Pfarrhaus, 1890.
HABERT, ha"bar', ISAAC:Bishop of Vabres; b. in Paris at the end of the sixteenth century; d. at Pont de Salara, near Rodez (230 m. s.w. of Lyons) Sept. 15, 1668. He was educated in Paris and in 1626, on receiving his doctorate in theology from the Sorbonne, was made a canon in the cathedral at Paris. In 1641, probably at the instigation of Richelieu, he started the attack on Jansenism and subsequently provoked Antoine Arnauld to publish his two apologies for the doctrine, which led to numerous polemic writings pro and con. He was responsible for the letter sent to Pope Innocent X. in 1650, signed by eighty‑five bishops, praying him to suppress the Jansenistic heresy. He was bishop of Vabres from 1645 till his death. His principal writings are: De consenau hierarcha:Ie et tlwnurchiw (Paris, 1640); De cathedru sew primatu sancti Petri (1645); and Theologi‑ gra;corum Ixitrum trindicofce circa universam materiam graha= perpetua eolWione acripturce eonctaiorum . . . sari tree (1646; reprinted, Warzburg, 1863), his chief work against Jansenism.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Besoign^ Hist. de 1'abbaye de Port Royal, Vol. vi., Cologne, 1753; C. Cl6menoet, Hilt. ohdrale de Port Roial, vol. iri., 10 vole., Amsterdam. 1755‑57; W. H. Jervis, The Gallican Church, London, 1872; Lichtenberger, ESR, vi. 56‑57.
HACBET, JOHN: Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield; b. in London Sept. 1, 1592; d. at Lichfield Oct. 28, 1670. He was educated at Westminster School, London; and at Trinity College, Cambridge (B. A.,1612; M.A., 1615), where he was
107 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA
elected to a fellowship. He was ordained in 1618 and soon afterward became chaplain to John Williams, through whose patronage he was instituted to the rectories of Stoke Hammond (Buckingbsmehire) and Kirkby Underwood m 1621. In 1623 he became proctor for the diocese of Lincoln, prebendary in Lincoln Cathedral, and chaplain to James I., and the following year he received the livings of St. Andrews, Holborn, and Cheam in Surrey. In 1631 he became archdeacon of Bedford, and in 1642 canon residuary of St. Paul's. He was a member of the committee for religion appointed by the House of Lords in Mar., 1641, to reconcile the Puritans by making certain concessions regarding church service and discipline; and in May, 1641, at the request of this committee, he spoke in the House of Commons against the so‑called "root and branch" bill for the abolition of all offices connected with the episcopal form of church government. In 1643 he became a member of the Westminster Assembly, but, with other episcopal divines, he soon withdrew from that body. During the civil war he lost all of his preferments except his small benefice at Cheam. At the Restoration he was made chaplain to Charles II., and was consecrated bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, Dec. 22, 1661. He restored the cathedral at Lichfield, a work of eight years, and contributed largely to this and other causes. His only important book is his life of Archbishop Williams, Scrinia reserata: a Memorial Wered to the Great Desemngs of John W%Uiams, D.D. (London, 1693; abridged by A. Philips, 1715), an excellent biography, which S. T: Coleridge considered invaluable for the insight it gives into the times preceding the civil war.
B;HLIOaaA?87: T. Plume, An Account of the Life and Death of . . . John Hacket, ad. with . . . Additions and . . . Notes, by M. E. C. Walcott, London, 1885; John Walker, Sufferings of the Clergy, ib. 1714; Diary of Samuel Pepys, vol. iii., ib. 1858; DNB, mil. 418‑920.
HACKETT, HORATIO BALCH: Baptist; b. in Salisbury, Mass., Dec. 27, 1808; d. in Rochester, N. Y., Nov. 2, 1875. He was graduated from Amherst College in 1830 and studied theology at Andover 1830‑‑31 and 1832‑34, having been tutor at Amherst during the year 1831‑32. Extended studies on infant baptism during his senior year in the seminary shook his confidence in his denomination and prevented him from entering on the work of the Congregational ministry immediately after graduation from the seminary. He was instructor in Mount Hope College, Baltimore, 1834‑35 and was immersed in Baltimore in July, 1835. The same year he became professor of languages in Brown University, and in 1839 professor of Biblical literature and interpretation in Newton Theological Institution. He was also ordained to the ministry in 1839. During 1841‑42 he studied at Berlin and Halls. Pressure of literary work led him to resign at Newton in 1868. From 1870 till his death he occupied the New Testament chair in Rochester Theological Seminary. His first publications were translations from the German. In 1844 he published an annotated edition of Plutarch's De sera niniums vindida (Andover, 1844). This was followed by a translation, with improvements, of
Winer's Grammar of the Chaldee Language (1845); a Hebrew Grammar (1847); Commentary on Ads (Boston, 1851; new ads., 1858 and 1877); Mua.. trotiona of Scripture; Suggested by a Tour through the Holy Land (1855; also 1868 and 1882); Ph" mon (1860); Christian Memorials of the War (1864); a translation with additions of Van Oosterzee's Philemon (1868) and of Braune's ,Philippians (1870) for Schaff's edition of Lange; an edition of Rawlinson's Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament (1873). With Ezra Abbot, he edited the American edition of Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1868‑70). He also collaborated in the Bible version of the American Bible Union (see BiB1.B Soc1BTiEs, III., 2), before which he delivered a memorable address on Bible revision in 1859. (A. H. NEwMAN.)
Bmwoowsrar: G. H. Whittemore, Memorials of H. B. HackeU, Rochester, 1878.