GUNSAULUS, FRANK WAKELEY: Congregationalist; b. at Cbesterville, 0., Jan. 1, 1856. He was educated at Ohio Wesleyan University (A.B., 1875) and after being a Methodist Episcopal minister for four years joined, the Congregational denomination. He held pastorates at Eastwood Congregational Church, Columbus, O. (1879‑81), Newtonville,
Mass. (1881‑,85), Memorial Congregational Church, Baltimore, Md. (1885‑87), and Plymouth Church, Chicago (1887,89). After a few months as pastor at the Central Church in the same city in 1889, he was appointed to his present position of president of the Armour Institute of Technology. He has written Metamorphoses of a Creed (Chillicothe, 0., 1879); Transfiguration of Christ (Boston, 1886); The Man of Galilee (1899); Paths to Power (1905); Higher Ministries of Recent English Poetry (1907); and Paths to the City of God (1907).
GURK, BISHOPRIC OF:An Austrian bishopric, named from the town of Gurk (49 m. n. of Laibach) in Carinthia, on the banks of a river of the same name. A convent for seventy nuns and twenty canons was founded on the river Gurk by Emma, wife of Count William of Styria, and consecrated probably in 1043. It soon decayed, however, and the idea of turning it into the seat of a bishopric was suggested by the great extent gf the diocese of Salzburg, and carried out by Archbishop Gebhard (1060‑‑88), who gained the assent of Pope Alexander II. in 1070 and of the emperor Henry IV. in 1072. In May of the latter year, Gunter of Chraphelt was consecrated bishop of Gurk. The boundaries of the small diocese were first settled by Archbishop Conrad (1106‑47). Of the early bishops the most important were Hieronymus Balbus (1522‑357), the distinguished humanist, poet, and politician, and Urban "the Austrian" (1556‑73). From the fifteenth century the incumbents of the see have had the title of prince bishop, but at first without a seat in the Council of Princes. Since 1827 they have resided not at Salzburg but at Klagenfurt, the capital of Carinthia.
GURNALL, WILLIAM:English clergyman; b. at Walpole (8 m. w. of Lynn), Norfolk, 1617; d. at Lavenham (16 m. w.n.w. of Ispwich), Suffolk, Oct. 12, 1679. He was educated at the Lynn grammar‑school and at Emmanuel College, . Cambridge (B.A., 1635; M.A., 1639). Nothing is known of his life after he left the university till the year 1644, when the living of Lavenham was conferred upon him by Sir Symonds D'Ewes. On Dec. 16 of that year parliament ordered that the "learned divine " should be " rector for life, and enjoy the rectory and tithes as other rectors before him." At the Restoration he signed the declaration required by the Act of Uniformity and continued at Lavenham till his death. For conforming he was severely attacked in a pamphlet, Covenant‑Renouncers Desperate Apostates (London, 1665). He is known chiefly by his work, The Christian in Compldc ATM0'9.T: or a Treatise of the Saint's War against the Devil (3 vols., London, 1655‑62; new ed., with a biographical introduction, by J. C. Ryle, 2 vols., 18641865), a series of sermons on Eph. vi. 6‑20, characterized by their quaint fancy, epigrammatic style, and astonishing application of Scripture. The work passed through six editions during the author's lifetime and still enjoys a measure of popularity.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the biographical introduction to The Christian in Complete Armour, ut sup., there is available H. McKeon, inquiry into the ife o/ William Gurnall, London, 1830.
HE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
GURNEY, JOSEPH JOHN: Philanthropist and Friend; b. at Earlham Hall, near Norwich, Aug. 2, 1788; d. there Jan. 4, 1847. He attended lectures for a while at Oxford, and was recognized in 1818 as a minister by the Friends. In 1837‑40 he preached in the United States and the West Indies. He aided his sister Elizabeth Fry (q.v.) in her measures for prison‑reform, and was the associate with Clarkson, Wilberforce, and his brother‑in‑law, T. Fowell Buxton, in their efforts for the abolition of the slave‑trade. He was also a prominent advocate of total abstinence, and his temperance tract, Water is Best, has been widely circulated. Among Friends, he ‑ led an orthodox movement both in England and America which profoundly affected his, branch of the Society, and in the latter country produced a separation (see FRIEwDs, SOCIETY OF, I., § 7; WILBUR, JOUNI).
Gurney issued a number of tracts and pamphlets, with some larger works. Of these the principal. are, Essays on the Evidences, Doctrines and Practice Operations of Christianity (London, 1827); History, Authority, and Use of the Sabbath (1831), and Puseyism traced to its Root (1845).
BIHLIOdRAPBY: The principal Memoir is by J. B. Braith‑
waite, 2 vols., Norwich, 1854, Bd ad., 1902; others are by
J. Alexander, London, 1847; and B. Barton, ib. 1847.
Consult also DNB, xriii. 803‑304, and F. 8. Turner, The
Quakers, pp. 295‑302 et passim, London, 1889.
GURYr, gii"ri', JEAN PIERRE: French Roman Catholic moralist; b. at Mailleroncourt, FrancheComte, Jan. 23, 1801; d. at Vals (80 m. a. of Lyons) Apr. 18, 1886. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1824, studied at Rome 1828‑32, and in 1833 became professor of morals at the Jesuit College in Vals. In 1847 he went to Rome as professor at the Collegium Romanum, but returned to Vals in 1848 and taught there till his death. Following Alfonse Liguori he revived the old Jesuit casuistry and probabilism. His teachings are embodied in Compendium theologies moralis (2 vols., Lyons and Paris, 1850; best ed., Rome, 1882), which quickly became a favorite text‑book of ethics among Roman Catholics; and Casus canacientice in prwcipuas questiones theologise moralis (2 vols.,1864, new ed.,1891). Both works have been variously edited and revised in numerous editions.
BIHLIaa$APHT: Vie du J. P. (icy, Le Pay, 1807; C. W.
Lines, Das Handbuch der djeolopisrhen Moral des Jeeuiten
Oury and die ckristlide Ethik, Freiburg, 1809.
GUSTAV‑ADOLF‑VEREIN ("GUSTAVUS ADOL‑
PHUS ASSOCIATION"): A society of German Prot.
estants, aiming to give aid and support to Protes
tant families and congregations wherever needed,
especially to succor the " Diaspora " (q.v.). The
idea of the association was conceived by Dr. C. G.'
L. Grossmann of Leipsic in 1832 in connection with
the celebration of the second centennial of the
death of Gustavus Adolphus (q.v.), at
Origin and Liltzen. An association was formed
Earlier by committees in Leipsie and Dresden,
History. and on Oct. 4, 1834, its statutes were
confirmed by the Saxon king. Sue
pass was slow; contributions were scares; and the
foundation was hardly known outside of Saxony.
But it gradually developed and gained the acknowledgment and support of King Frederick William III. of Prussia and of King Charles XIV. of Sweden. Continual, appeals for assistance, particularly from Austria; forced upon the leaders the idea of soliciting a larger participation by change of the statutes. Before this was done, however, a pastor of Basel named Legrand suggested at a conference of preachers an association to support poor Evangelical congregations, and on Oct. 31, 1841, Karl Zimmermann, court preacher at Darmstadt, propounded a similar plan, though neither knew of the existence of the Saxon association. Zimmermann's proposal was eagerly seized everywhere in Evangelical Germany and Switzerland. After an agreement with the leaders of the Saxon movement, the older and. younger associations united. Leipsic remained the center of administration, and the association was now called Evangeliacher Verein der (3taatav‑Adolf‑Stiftuttg (" Evangelical Association of the Gustavus Adolphus Foundation "). At the second convention in 1843 at Frankfort, new statutes were adopted, twenty‑nine associations being represented by delegates, including representatives of countries outside of Germany.
Every country, every larger state, and every province has a main association with branch associations. At least every third year a general con‑
vention takes place. Since the general Later convention of Frankfort, the aesocia‑
History. tion has developed rapidly. Only Ba‑
varia, the Stronghold of the Roman Catholics, closed its doors, the introduction of the association into that country being prohibited by royal edict of 1844. A controversy arose in regard to the admission of preachers of " free congregations " as delegates, and the majority decidgd that only members of the Evangelical State Churches should be admitted. The confessional basis was considered necessary for the sound development of the association. Owing to the events of 1848 and 1849, the interest in the movement slackened, and the contributions decreased considerably; but the lost ground was soon recovered, and by an ordinance of 1849 Bavaria was also open to the .work of the association. In 1851 at the suggestion of Dr. Jonas, preacher in Berlin, a new branch was added in the organization of women's associations. After 1852 associations originated also in Holland, Sweden, Austria, Transylvania, Hungary, and in 1859 an association for supporting Lutheran congregations was formed in Russia. At several universities students' associations were called into existence. Institutions like the Evangelical Society for Protestant Germans in North America at Barman and Elberfeld, the Society for Pastoral Assistance in Berlin, the Rhenish Institute for Pastoral Assistance in Duisburg, the Jerusalem Association in Berlin, the 7nstheriacher Ootteskasten (q.v.), all originated under the influence of the Gustav‑Adoif=Verein. Associations in foreign countries, working in the same spirit, but having no connection with the original German association, have been established in Belgium, France, Rumania, and Italy, though England, Denmark, and America do not possess them.
Since its beginning, the Gustav‑Adolf‑Vereia has
101 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA ~ 1'.1°e
expended 33,094,069.74 marks and supported 4,518 congregations of which 2,729 belonged to the German Empire; 1,203 to the Austrian Monarchy, and 586 to other European countries and countries outside of Europe. To this sum must be added 424,334.33 marks for personal support and contributions in kind. The Association has built 1,972 churches and houses of prayer, 882 schoolhouses, 768 parsonages and established 80 cemeteries. It has paid special attention to Evangelical instruction in the Diaspora, and has also cared for widows and orphans of ministers and teachers and contributed to the erection and maintenance of asylums and teachers' seminaries. The principal periodicals published in the interests of the association are the Dormstddter Bote (since 1843), Markischer Bote, Thiirirnger Bote, Rheiniaeh‑westfdlischea Gustav‑Adolf‑Blatt, Oesterreichi8cher Protestant, Gudav‑Ado(j‑Berichte aua Leiden, and others.
BIHLIOGRAPH:7: K. Zimmermann, aewAichte des GuetaeAdolf‑Vereins, Darmstadt, 1877; W. pressel, Bausteine zur Geschichte des Gudaro‑Adolf‑Vereim, 2 vols., Freienwelde, 1878; Der Guetas‑Adolf‑Veredn and doe Volk Israel, Tilbingen, 1879; W. Zschimmer, Bins Gwtao‑AdoltBeiee, Halle, 1888; K. Benmth, GeerhicW des Hauptvereins der Gvataro‑Adolf‑Stittung, 18¢¢‑8.¢, K6mgsberg, 1894; F. Blanclmneister, Gustaro‑Adott‑Stunden, Leipei0. 1894; idem, Fedechriften far Guetaro‑Adolf‑Vereine, ib. 1902 sqq.
GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS. See THIRTY YEARS' WAR.
GUSTAVUS VASA. See SWEDEN.
GUTHE, gil'te, HERMANN: German Protes. tant; b. at Westerlinde, a village of Brunswick, May 10, 1849. He was educated at the universitieb of G6ttingen (1867‑69) and Erlangen (18691870; 1873), and after being a private tutor in Livonia from 1870 to 1873 was a lecturer at GSttingen from 1873 to 1877. In 1877 he became a privat‑docent at Leipsic, and seven years later was appointed to his present position of associate professor of Old Testament exegesis. In 1881 and 1904 he was in Palestine, engaged in scientific excavation. His theological standpoint is one of ethical supernaturalism with entire freedom in historical research. He has edited the Zeitschrift des deutechen PaUstina‑Vereins from 187'8 to 1896 and its Mitteilungen tend Nachrichten .since 1897, and has also written: De fiederia notions Jeremiana (Leipsic, 1877); Ausgrabungen bei, Jerusalem (1883); Paldstina in Bald and Wort (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1983‑‑84; the German edition of Pidureaque paleadine in collaboration with G. Ebers); Geachichte des volkea Israel (Freiburg, 1899); The Books of 9zra and Nehemiah in The Polychrome Bale (New York, 1901); Jeaaia (Tabingen, 1907); and Pal"na (Bielefeld, 1908). He likewise prepared a number of maps of Palestine and a Kwze8 Baelworterbuch with the assistance of other scholars (Ttibingen, 1903).
GUTHLAC, guth'lac, SAINT: Presbyter and hermit of Crowland (40 m. s.s.e. of Lincoln, Lincolnshire) ; b. in Mercia c. 673; d. at Crowland Apr.11, 714. He was the son of a wealthy Mercian nobleman and in his youth came under the influence of the martial spirit of the time. For nine years he led a band of
his fellow noblemen in a life of wild guerrilla warfare until his conversion in 697. He then became a tonsured monk in the monastery at Repton and in the neat two years learned all the psalms, canticles, hymns, and prayers used in the choir service. In 699 he began his life as a hermit at Crowland, then a dreary island of the Welland, in the very heart of the fen. Here he spent the remainder of his life in religious devotion, subsisting on one meal a day, composed of barley bread and water, which he took after sunset. Like St. Anthony he was for years tormented by visions of demons,. until he was rescued from them by his patron St. Bartholomew. His fame for piety spread far and wide, and pilgrims of all classes visited him. One of these was Hedda, bishop of Lichfield, who ordained him priest. He was buried in his oratory, and a year after his death his remains were, placed in a shrine, which at once became an object of pilgrimage. In 716 Ethelbald, king of Mercia, reared over his relics the building which afterward . grew into Crowland Abbey.
BnawoOHAP87: The Vita by Felix of Croyland, with other material, is in ASB, April, ii. 38‑60; also in R. Gough, History and Antiquities of Croyland Abbey, pp. 131‑153, London, 1783; is edited by W. de Gray Birch, Wisbeck, 1881, and an Eng. trend. with the AngloSason Version was edited by C. W. Goodwin, London, 1848. Consult: C. F. de T. Montalemberk Les Moines d'oetidsnt, v. 118129, Paris, 1868; DHB, atiii. 373‑374.
GUTHRIE, THOMAS: Free Church of Scotland;
b. at Brechin (60 m. n.n.e. of Edinburgh), Forfar
shire, Scotland, July 12, 1803; d. at St. Leonards
on the Sea (now a part of Hastings), Sussex, Eng
land, Feb. 23, 1873. He entered Edinburgh Uni
versity in his thirteenth year; was
Life and licensed by Brechin Presbytery in
Ministry. 1825; and after two years of further
study in Edinburgh and Paris, fol
lowed by two years as a bank agent in Brechin,
became parish minister of Arbirlot, Forfarshire, in
1830. His Evangelical preaching, pastoral zeal,
and strenuous opposition both to voluntaryism and
to patronage attracted public notice, and led, in
1837, to his translation to the Collegiate Church of
Old Greyfriars, Edinburgh. In 1840, the charge
was divided, and a new church (St. John's) was
built, of which Guthrie became minister, with the
Cowgate as his territorial sphere.
Meanwhile the conflict between church and law courts over the Veto Act had culminated in 1838, when the Court of Session enjoined the Church to induct a qualified but unpopular presentee to Auchterarder. Guthrie would have preferred agitation for the abolition of patronage to a Veto Act of disputed legality; but he attached himself cordially to the non‑intrusionists. In 1840 he preached in Strathbogie by instruction of the General Assembly, in defiance of the Court of Session. He itinemted in behalf of non‑intrusion and " spiritual independence." His sagacity and' tact helped to prevent division in the convocation of 1842:
After the Disruption,.Guthrie became minister of Free St. John's, Edinburgh, erected fifty yards from his former church. For about twenty years he ministered to a large and influential congregation, and attracted crowds of strangers from all parts of
Guthrie THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG102
the world. His chief service to the Free Church
after the Disruption was the raising in 1845‑46 of
£115,000 as a manse fund. In 1862 he was elected
moderator of the Free Church Assembly. III
health, brought on by overwork, constrained him to
retire from the pastorate in 1864, when a testimo
nial, including a gift of £5,000, was presented to him
in the name of contributors from all ranks and of
many churches and lands.
Guthrie's most signal philanthropic service was
the institution of " Ragged Schools " for the
reclamation of juvenile " waifs," who
His Pllilan‑ were fed, taught, and trained for in
drinking customs, were widely circulated and fruit
ful. He was a warm friend of foreign missions and
devoted his sermon as retiring moderator to their
advocacy. He was still more notable in pleading
for the Waidensian Church and its mission work.
Guthrie was an ardent but not narrow Presby
terian and Free‑churchman. He was a zealous
advocate of union with the United Presbyterian
Church. In 1843, he exerted his influence to pre
vent the insertion in the Free‑church
His Broad‑ standards of what might preclude
mindedness. union with the Secession Churches.
His Plea for Union in 1867 and some
of his latest letters strongly urged the consumma
tion of the union. He disapproved of the estab
lishment of Free‑church schools after the Disrup
tion, and looked forward to a national system of
After his retirement from the ministry Guthrie
exerted a most extensive influence by his pen.
Literary distinction had already been
Writings. obtained through his Gospel in Ezekiel
(Edinburgh, 1856), Christ and the
Inheritance of the Saints (1858), and several vol
umes of sermons. He now became editor of a new
periodical, the Sunday Magazine, in which appeared
originally, in serial form, Man and the Gospel, The
Angels' Song, The Parables, Our Father's Business,
Out of Harness, Early Piety, Studies of Character,
and Sundays Abroad. All his works were repub
lished in the United States and were as popular
there as in Great Britain. HENRY COWAN.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Autobiography of Thomas Guthrie . . and
Memoir by his Sons . . D. K. and C. J. Guthrie, 2 vols.,
London, 1874‑75; O. 9meaton, Thomas Guthrie, Edin
burgh, 1900; D71rB, xxiii. 380‑382.
GUYON, gi"6n', JEANNE MARIE BOUVIER DE
LA MOTTE: French mystical writer of the Quietist
school; b. at Montargis (38 m. e. of Orl4ans) Apr. 13,
1648; d. at Blois June 9, 1717. Her earliest educa
tioh was received in convents. As a young girl of
delicate constitution, she displayed an enthusiastic tendency toward an ascetic, self‑tormenting mysti‑
cism, marked especially by a fervent Early Life. devotion to the name of Jesus. She
early became familiar with the writings of St. Francis of Sales and St. Jane Frances de Chantal (see VISITATION, ORDER OIL' THE) and began instinctively to make all the vows and practise all the good works she found recommended in the latter's works.
Her great desire was to join an order, and especially that of the Visitation founded by her model, but her mother had other plans for her. On Jan.
28, 1664, she was married to a rich man Marriage. twenty‑two years her senior, Jacques
Guyon, Seigneur de Chesnay, whom she had seen for the first time two or three days before. She was exceedingly unhappy in the worldly and otherwise uncongenial atmosphere of her husband's house, and her only consolation was to maintain unbroken communion with God; but, insufficiently acquainted with the practises of mysticism, she found it difficult to live a life of prayer until a young Franciscan whom she met at her father's spoke the decisive words which were to direct her whole life: " Your trouble comes from seeking externally what all the time is within you. Accustom yourself to seek God in your own heart, and you will find him there."
From this time she began the methodical practise of ascetic usages, scourging herself till the blood came, wearing nettles next to her skin and a girdle set with sharp nails, drank bitter drafts to spoil the taste of the little food she allowed herself, and broke off all intercourse with the world. Not long after she had entered on this course of life, she became acquainted in Paris with the prioress of the Benedictine nuns there, Genevipve Granger, who recommended her to the mystic Bertot as her director. In the same summer, under the prioress' advice, she went through the solemn form of a mystical espousal with Christ. Four years later M. Guyon died. His wife had given him the most devoted care during his illness; but she felt that now her chains were broken and she was free to devote her whole life unreservedly to God. The next day she renewed her mystical espousal and vowed never to take another earthly husband, on condition that her director approved of making the vow for life.
In 1680 she went to Paris for a time, and entered into correspondence with Pyre Ia Combe, superior
of the Barnabites at Thonon. Moved Widow‑ by his words and by some striking hood. Re‑ occurrences at the time, she believed lations with herself called by God to go to Geneva.
Ptre Is The bishop of that diocese (d'AranCombe. thon) being then in Paris, she sought
an interview with him and told him it was her intention to devote her property to the foundation of a community for " those who were willing truly to turn to God and serve him without reserve." The bishop told her of an association already at work in his diocese for the education of the daughters of Protestants and other converts to the Catholic faith, which was planning to establish
103 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Guthrie
an institution at Gex, and offered her the headship
of this community. She set off without telling
any one of her intention, reached Geneva on July 21,
1681, and proceed to Gex, where she was joined
by Pdre la Combe, whom she now (Bertot having
died just before) adopted as her spiritual father.
She was not at all comfortable in the house, how
ever, so that it was not long before she gave up the
project and took refuge with the Ursulines of Tho
non. Here her life began to be a continuous series
of visions and revelations; and here, at 1a Combe's
ical, which led to her visits there being interdicted.
Soon it was reported that Bossuet had found a
number of grave errors in her writings, and accu
sations were even whispered against her manner
of life. She besought Madame de Maintenon for
an investigation, and a commission was named,
consisting of Bossuet; de Nosilles, Bishop of Cb$
lons; and Tronson, superior of St. Sulpice, a friend
of Fdnelon's. The final result of their meetings, at the latter of which Fdnelon, now archbishop of Cambrai, assisted, was made known on Mar. 10, 1695. Thirty propositions collected from her writings were condemned. On Apr. 15 she signed a revocation of these propositions, after which Bossuet gave her a certificate of orthodoxy. Returning to Paris from Meaux, where she had spent some time for convenience of examination, she felt fortified by her rehabilitation and began to hold meetings for promoting the spiritual life. On Dec. 28 she was again arrested and imprisoned, first at Vincennes and afterward in the Bastille. She remained in confinement until the king and Bossuet had obtained from the pope (Mar., 1699) a condemnation of her Maximes des saints, and Bossuet had emerged victorious from his conflict with Fdnelon. He now began to take a milder tone with her, and she was released either in 1700 or 1702. She lived fifteen years longer in retirement at Diaiers near Blois, where her son was, maintaining a voluminous correspondence with admirers in France, Germany, Holland, and England.
Madame Guyon's influence did not perish with her, but spread wider throughout France and the surrounding countries, where her folHer lowers regarded as Gospel truths her
Influence maxims‑that the true Christian must and strive for a pure, wholly disinterested
Writings. love; that he must pray, not in order
to gain anything, even salvation, from
God, but as an act of submission and resignation
without any will of his own; that perfect prayer is
institutions and sacraments of the Church, was ac
ceptable to Protestants, it had numerous fol
lowers among the members of different religious
bodies in both England and Germany. Among
Madame Guyon's works the following are note
worthy: her autobiography in three volumes
(Cologne, 1720); Moyen court et trds facile pour
l'oraison (Lyons, 1688); Le Cantique des eantigues,,
interprN selon le sens mystique (Grenoble, 1685);
and her version of the Bible with notes and reflec
tions (Les Torrens spirituels, 30 vols., Cologne,
1713‑15). (C. PFENDER.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A number of Madame Guyon's works are acoessible in English e.g., her Autobiography, Bristol, 1772, Dublin, 1775, Bristol, 1806, and a full tranel. by T. T. Allen, 2 vols., London, 1897; many of her Poems were translated by w. Cowper, London, 1811, and they appeared, edited and arranged, with a short life, by A. Saunders Dyer, Glasgow, 1887; A Method o/ Prayer, An Analysis . . by T. C. Upham, London, 1859; A Short and Easy Method of Prayer, ib. 1867; and A Method of Prayer, by D. MacFadyen, ib. 1902.
On her life consult: J. B. Bossuet, Quakerism h la
mode, or a History of Quietism, particularly that of .
Madame Guyone, Containing her Life, Prophecies and
Visions, London, 1698; L. M. Francis, The Biographies
of Lady Russell and Madame Guyon, Boston, 1832; C.
Hermes, Ztipe aus derv Leben der Frau von Guioxi, Magde
burg, 1.845; T. C. Upham, Life and Religious Opinions
and Experience of\Madame de la Mothe Guyon, 2 vols.,
New York, 1847; H. Heppe, Geschichte der quietistischen
Mystik, pp. 145 sqq., Berlin, 1875; A. Grivesu, Ettudr