BIBLIOGRAPHY: His letters and writings are in great part collected in J. H. $ottinger, Schola Tiguri‑‑ CGTOlina, pp. 115 sqq.. Zurich, 1664. Consult: G. R. Zimmermann, Die Ziircher Kirehe 1518‑1819, pp. 73‑103, Zurich, 1878; ADB, x. 239; 8. M. Jackson, Huldreieh Zuringli, pp. 360‑361, New York, 1903.
GUARDIAN:The usual title of the superior of a Franciscan convent.
GUASTALLINR, gwes"tal‑li'nf or ‑nlA. See ANGELICAIS.
and theological writer; b. at Walperswyl, near Nidau
(16 in. n.w. of Bern), June 1, 1817; d. at Bern July
14, 1882. He was educated at Bern and Berlin, and
after acting as vicar and pastor at Bienne, where as
a representative of orthodox dogma and practise he
came into conflict with the prevalent revolutionary
ideals, he became pastor of the Nydeck church at
Bern and attained repute as an eloquent preacher
and an active participant in church politics. From
1859 to 1865 he lectured on the New Testament at
the university, assuming, in contrast to the ma
jority of his colleagues, the standpoint of dogmatic
orthodoxy. In the theological controversies that
followed the publication of Langhans' Heilige Schrift
in 1866, Gdder showed himself consistently the
champion of the traditional interpretation of the
Scriptures, and was successful in winning over the
synod to his views. The law of 1874 effecting the
separation of church and state encountered in him
an uncompromising opponent, but the high esteem in
which he was held by friends and opponents alike
induced him to remain in the service of a church
which, crippled as he conceived it to be, was still
dear to him. Of his theological publications the
principal are Die Lehre von der Erscheinuttg Christi
unter den Toten (Bern, 1853) and an edition of
Sehneckenburger's Vergleichende Daratellung des
lutherischen and reformierten Lehrbegrifs (Stuttgart,
1855). (P. GtDDERt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Gilder, E. G"er, rein Leben and Wirken, Bern, 1886.
GUENEE, gb"n6', ANTOINE: French Roman Catholic controversialist; b. at ttampes (35 m. s.s.w. of Paris) Nov. 23, 1717; d. at Fontainebleau (37 m. s.s.e. of Paris) Nov. 27, 1803. He studied in Paris and for twenty years was professor of rhetoric at the Collage du Plessis there. To learn modern languages he traveled extensively in England, Germany, and Italy. He translated several works from the English and wrote among other works of less importance, Lettres de quelques Juifs portugai8, allemands et polonais h M. de Voltaire,(4 vols., Paris, 1769; Eng. transl., Letters of Certain Jews to Monsieur de Voltaire., 2 vols., Dublin, 1777), a refutation of Voltaire's attack on the Bible, and the best book produced by the Roman Catholics against the French skepticism of the eighteenth century. For this work Gudnde was made a canon in the cathedral of Amiens and afterward was attached to the chapel of Versailles by Cardinal de la RocheAymon.
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A biographical preface by Dacier is to be found in the ed. of Paris, 1815, of. Voltaire, (Euvres cony pates, vol. x., Paris, 1863; Uehtenberger, ESR, v. 756758.
GUENTHER, gwen'ter, ANTON: Roman Catholic philosopher and theologian; b. at Lindenau, near Leitmeritz (34 In. n.n.w. of Prague), Bohemia, Nov. 17, 1783; d. at Vienna Feb. 24, 1863. He studied philosophy and jurisprudence at Prague and theology in the academy at Raab, Hungary. In 1820 he received consecration as a priest and in 1822 entered the Jesuit cloister of Starawies, in Galicia. After a two years' noviciate he went to Vienna, where he spent the rest of his life as a private priest and (till 1848) censor of philosophical and juridical books. When his own works were placed on the Index in 1857 he submitted to the ecclesiastical authority. As a philosopher his aim was to effect a reconciliation between knowledge and faith. and place the dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church on a firm philosophical foundation. For current pantheism he substituted dualism, on the basis of which he sought to show that God exists outside of the world, that he can not be identified with his creation. The two opposing principles in the world, which is objectified by God, are nature and spirit, and man is the synthesis of both of these. Of his works the more important are: Vorschule zur spekulativen Theologie des positiven Christentums (2 vols., Vienna, 1828‑29; 2d ed., 1848); Peregrins Gastmahl (1830); Slid‑ and Nordliehter am Horizonte apekulativer Theologie (1832); Thomas a Scrupulis. Zur Trans, figuration der Persiinlichkeits‑Pantheismen der neuesten Zeit (1835); and Die Juste‑Milieus in der deutachen Philosophie gegenwxirtiger Zeit (1838). BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Knoodt, Anton Ganther, 2 vols., Vienna, 1881; F, H. Reuseh, Der indev der verbotenen Bticher, ii. 1121‑1125, Bonn, 1885.
GUERICKE, gt‑ri'ke, HEINRICH ERNST FERDINAND: German Lutheran theologian; b. at Wettin (15 m. n.e. of Elberfeld) Feb. 25, 1803; d. Halle Feb. 4, 1878. He studied at the University of Halle and in recognition of his biography of August Hermann Francke (Halle, 1827), and his Beitrdge zur histori8eh‑kritischen Etnleitung ins Neue Testament (1828‑31) he was appointed associate professor at Halle in 1829. He was a zealous student of the history of theology; and published several works which attained much popularity. Among these may be mentioned: Handbuch der Kirchengeschiehte (Halle, 1833; Eng. tranal., A Manual of Church History, Andover, 1857); Allgemeine christliche Symbolik (Leipsie, 1839); Historisch‑kritische Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1843; 3d ed., entitled Neutestamentliche 1sagogik, 1867); and Lehrbuch der christlich‑kirchlichen Archdologie (1847; Eng. transl., Manual of the Antiquities of the Church, London, 1851). In 1834 he was ordained pastor of a small congregation at Halle, but when this congregation emigrated to America. a few years later he returned to his professorship, and in 1840 he founded, together with Dr. Rudelbach, the Zeitschrift fur die gesammte lutherische Theologie and Kirche, of which he was associate editor until his death. His life of Francke was translated into English, London, 1837.
GUERRY, ger'i, WILLIAM ALEXANDER:Protestant Episcopal bishop of South Carolina; b. at Fulton, S. C., July 7, 1861. He was educated at the University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn. (M.A., 1884; B.D., 1888), and after being rector of St. John's, Florence, S. C., from 1888 to 1893, was chaplain and professor of homiletics and pastoral theology in the University of the South until 1907, when he was consecrated bishop coadjutor of South Carolina, and in 1908, on the death of the bishop, became full diocesan.
GUETZLAFF, guts'laf, KARL FRIEDRICH AUGUST:German Protestant missionary; b. at Pyritz (24 m. s.e. of Stettin), Pomerania, July 8,1803; d. at Hongkong, China, Aug. 9, 1851. In 1821 he entered the mission established in Berlin by Johann Jfinike. In 1823 he entered the service of the Netherlands Missionary Society. During 1826‑28 he was located at Batavia where he learned the commonest Chinese dialects. In 1828 he went to Bangkok as an independent missionary, and in 1831 he proceeded to China, residing first at Macao, afterward at Hongkong, whence he made numerous journeys to various parts of the Chinese empire. He assisted W. H. Medhurst and Robert Morrison in translating the Bible into Chinese, wrote in Chinese several tracts of useful information, edited a monthly magazine in Chinese, and in 1844 founded at Hongkong an institution for the training of native missionaries. After 1835 he held the office of interpreter and secretary to the English commission, and by his knowledge of the people and country rendered valuable aid to the English during the Opium War. He wrote: Journal of Three Voyages along the Coast of China (London, 1834); A Sketch of Chinese History (2 vols., 1834); China Opened (2 vols., 1838); Geschichte des chinesischen Reichs (Stuttgart, 1847); Die Mission in China (Berlin, 1850); and The Life of Taou Kwang (1851).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. C. Cosack, Leben and Hefmpanp C. P. A.
GVtzlaff, Berlin, 1851.
GUIANA: A district of northeastern South America between the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil, and Venezuela. Colonization began about 1620 by the French and Dutch, and, more permanently, by the English in 1650. The present division into the three colonial governments of British, Dutch, and French Guiana was established by the Treaty of Breda (1667) and the Peace of Paris (1815).
British Guiana, the westernmost of the three colonies, was organized as a crown colony in 1831. The area is 90,277 square miles; population (1904), 301,923, chiefly negroes, East Indian coolies, and half‑breeds; there are about 8,000 Indians living in the settled regions. The greater portion of the colored population had been won to at least a nominal Christianity through the missionary activity of the Anglican Church, which early adopted an organized mode of procedure, though the bishopric of Guiana was not created till 1842. The see is at the capital, Georgetown, or Demerara, and the diocese forms part of the province of the West Indies, having as metropolitan the archbishop of Jamaica. It now contains 120,000 souls. There is
also a synod of the Church of Scotland with fifteen ministers, and a Wesleyan Methodist district with twenty preachers. The Congregationalists have a few congregations, and the Moravians have planted settlements and congregations among the colored people in connection with their activity in the neighboring Dutch colony. The Coolie Mission Association and the Diocesan Mission Society are active in missionary work. The Roman Catholic Church had about 24,000 adherents, Irish immigrants and converts of the Jesuits, who have had general charge of the spiritual interests of those of their faith in the colony. The apostolic vicariate of British Guiana or Demerara was created in 1837.
Dutch Guiana or Surinam, east of British Guiana, has an area of 46,072 square miles and a population estimated at 90,000, about half of whom are descended from emancipated negro slaves. The largest number of adherents is accredited to the Moravians who settled in the colony as early as 1739, with missionary activity among the slaves primarily in view. They consecrated the first church for these Christians in 1796. At the abolition of slavery in 1863, some 20,000 of the 33,000 slaves belonged to the Brethren, and the total of their converts in 1902 amounted to 29,300. Next stands the Dutch Reformed Church, with seven congregations and about 5,000 souls; then the Anglican Church, the "Society for Free Evangelization," and two Presbyterian bodies with 4,000 followers all told. The Roman Catholic Church gained a footing in 1787 by opening a house of worship in the capital, Paramaribo, but closed it six years later, and Roman Catholic worship was not permanently reinstated until 1810. In 1842 the apostolic vicariate of Dutch Guiana was created for some 13,000 Catholics, the majority of whom are colored. They have pastors of the Redemptorist Order. There are upward of 1,200 Jews, mostly descendants of those expelled from Brazil in 1663; the first synagogue was built in 1730. Somewhat more numerous, 2,000 to 2,100, are the Mobammedans, and there are nearly 8,000 Brahmans who have come from India and supplanted the negroes on the plantations.
sua libri iii. The first book only, which reaches to
his election as abbot, is biographical; it is written
after the plan of Augustine's "Confessions," and
treats of his errors and his repentance through the
divine grace. The second book contains historical
material on the monastery at Nogent, relates Gui
bert's election, and tells monks' stories. The most
interesting part is the third book, a description of
the doings of the unworthy bishop Galderich of
Leon and of the controversies between him and the
community of Laon. S. M. I)EUTscm
BIRLIoaRAPHY: Guibert'e works were edited, with notes, by L. d'Achdry Paris, 1861 and am reprinted thence in MPL, elvi. Consult: J. Mabillon, Annales ordinis S. Benedicti, books lx. hiv.; J. A. Fabrieius, Bibliotheca Latina media< et infimae aelatis, book vu. 382‑368; Histoire litt€raire de 14 France, x. 433 sqq.; H. F. Reuter,
GssehirJUs der redagibsen Aufkidrun® im iA(indalter, i. 143 aqq, Berlin, 1875; J. Michaud, BiblioWque dm voisadu, i. 122 sqq Paris, 1829; idem, Hiatoire des coieadea vi. 88 aqq., Paris, 1841; H. C. L. von Sybel, Gesdhichts des ervtsa Krrousaups, pp. 88, 38, DBeseldorf, 1841; T. A. Archer and C. L. $ingsford, The Crusades, pp. 28 3435, 440, New York, 1895; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vi. 288, 292; Moeller, Clridian CA‑W4 ii. 323‑324, 332, 373; Meander, Christian Chard, iv. 124 sqq., et passim.
GUIBERT OF RAVENNA: Archbishop of that city and antipope (Clement III.) 1080‑1100; b. in Parma c. 1025; d. at Civita Castellana (19 m. s.e. of Viterbo) Sept. 8, 1100. He was the descendant of a noble Italian family, and entered political service as chancellor for Italy, officiating from 105710&3. After the death of Nicholas II. in 1061 he openly separated from the curial party and induced the bishops of Lombardy to protest against the election of Alexander II. and to ally themselves with the secular court. The election of Bishop Cadalus of Parma as antipope at Basel, Oct. 1061, took place probably in his presence and corresponded to his conception of the situation. TM resolution of the Synod of Augsburg which led to the acknowledgment of Alexander II. did not have his consent, and probably for this reason he resigned his chancellor ship after that synod. For the next ten years he seems to have lived in Parma. Though his name was not prominent during this period, the German court did not lose sight of him. In 1072, at the intercession of the empress, Henry IV. made him archbishop of Ravenna. In the beginning of the p6ntificate of Gregory VII. Guibert seems to have cooperated with the pope, but probably as early as 1074 he took the side of the opposition. As he absented himself from the synod of 1075, Gregory VII. suspended him from his office. In 1080 the imperial party elected him antipope, but it was not till Mar. 24, 1084, that he reached Rome and was enthroned in the Lateran Church. The German episcopate acknowledged him as pope at the Synod of Mainz, April, 1085; but his elevation did not bring to the emperor that increase of power which he expected.
Personally Guibert was respected by friend and foe, but he lacked the initiative necessary for a champion of the imperial cause. He remained faithful to Henry IV., and on March 31, 1084, crowned him king, but was never able to exercise a decisive influence upon the condition of the Church.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jaff6, Regesta, 1. 849‑655; O. K6hneke, Wibert wen Ravenna, Leipeic, 1888; Schaff, Christian Church, v. i, pp. 41, 81 eqq., 73, 75; Milman, Latin Christianity, vol. iii. passim, iv. 87; Bower, Popes, ii, 397‑427.
GUIDO, gi'do, OF AREZZO: Benedictine; b. at Arezzo (55 m. s.e. of Florence) between 990 and 1000; d. about 1050. In the early part of the eleventh oeutury he became a monk in the monastery of Pomposa, but the success of his method of teaching singing aroused such jealousy that he was expelled. He found refuge with the bishop of Arezzo, and at the invitation of John XIX. went to Rome. His abbot then urged him to return to Pomposa, but whether he did so or whether he is to be identified with the Prior Guido who died at the Camaldolite monastery of Avellana in 1050, is uncertain.
95 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Quilt
He applied the famous syllables "ut re mi fa sol !a " to the notes of the scale, these being the initial syllables of the hemisticbs of a hymn on John the Baptist. He improved the system which already existed by the use of additional lines and by availing himself of the spaces between them. The signs which he placed on and between the lines were not notes, but the old neumes. In addition to the works enumerated in the bibliography, he was probably the author of a letter against simony, addressed to Heribert, archbishop of Milan.
Bramooasrai: Guido's works on music, genuine and doubtful, were edited by Gerhart in Script. eaT. de musim sacra, vol. ii., St. Blas, 1784, in MPL, cxh., and in C. E. H. de Couseemaker, Scriptonsm de muaica . . . novus series, vol. ii., Paris. 1865. Consult: R. G. Siesewetter, Guido von Armzo, Leipsic, 1840; H. Niemann, Studien zur Geschichte der NotenaehriA ib. 1878; idem, Musiklexaon, ib. 1895.
GUIDO OF CREMA. See PASCHAL III.
GUIDO (GUY) DE BRAY (BRES). See Bales.
GUIDONIS, gwWa'nis, BERNAARDUS, (BER
NARD GUI): Dominican, inquisitor in Toulouse;
b. at Roy&es (department of Haute‑Vienne, arron
dissement of Saint‑Yrieix, 27 m. s. of Limoges) about
convents at Albi, Carcassonne, Castres, and Limoges;
in 1314 he was vicar of the province of Toulouse;
and about 1318 became procurator general of his
Order. In 1307 he was appointed inquisitor of
Toulouse, where for nearly eighteen years he ad
ministered his office with zeal and took an active part
in the extirpation of the Catbarist heresy (see NEW
MANCcHEANs. II.). A fairly exhaustive narrative of
his activity is supplied in the Liber sententiarum in
qui8itionis TolosancE, published by P. van Limborch
in his Hiatoria inquiaWo4ia (Amsterdam, 1692). An
official manual for the procedure of the officers of
the Inquisition was prepared by Guidonis under
the title: Practice inpisitionia (first issued by
C. Douais, Paris, 1886), a volume furnishing val
uable elucidations of the doctrines and peculiarities
of the various heretical factions. That the Curia
appreciated his eminent ability, appears from his
repeated employment in the papal diplomatic serv
ice. Thus in 1317 he was despatched to Italy in
behalf of pacification between the Guelphs and
Ghibellines, and for the adjustment of partisan
strifes at Genoa; and in 1318 he was commissioned
to mediate a reconciliation between Philip V. of
France and Count Robert of Flanders. In 1233 he
became bishop of Tuy, in Spain; whence, in 1324,
he was translated to the diocese of LodAve.
Along with his official activity, Guidonis exhibited a remarkably comprehensive literary industry. Of his historical works, the best known are his great history of the popes (Flom cronicomm seu caaalogus PorttifLum Romanorum); his compendious account of the popes and emperors (Catalogus br‑ pordtfcu' m Romanorum el imperatorum); and his annals of the French kings. Of importance, moreover, is the great work on the history of the Dominican Order, which Guidonis undertook in
1304; only parts have hitherto been published, but C. Dousis has repeatedly made use of Guidonis' materials for the history of that Order. Guidonis' digest of the acts of the original chapter general of the Dominican Order has been edited by B. M. Reichert (Monuments ordinie frnh‑um prcedicatorumm, vol. iii., Prague, 1898); the acts of the provincial chapter of the Dominican province of Provence (down to 1302) were made known by Dousis in 1894. As yet unpublished are Guidonis' Spy lure sanctorale (a valuable collection of legends of the saints) and De ternporibus et annie generalium et prmrincialium conctliorum. Great confusion ensued formerly from the designation erroneously attributed to Guidonis: "de Castris S. Vincentii "; since his writings thus came to be partly ascribed to Bernardus de Castris S. Vincentii. He has also been confused with the Dominican Guido de Pileo of Vinoenaa (d. 1331), and is to be distinguished from his elder fellow Dominican, Bernardus Guidonis of Bdaiers (hence Biterrensia), who died in 1273.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The earlier literature is given in U. Chevalier, REperloira lea aourm historiquea du mown‑doe, btblioyraphis, i. 1919, Paris, 1905. The principal modern work is L. Delisle, Notice err lea manusaita de Bernard Oui, in Notices et eitraita lea MSS. de la biblio&bqus nationals, uvii. 189‑465, Paris, 1879. Consult: C. 'Molinier, L'Inquiaitton dare Is midi de la Prance, pp. 5 aqq., 197 aqq., ib. 1880; idena4 in Archivba lea 'minions seir entifiques et litt6raires, 3 ser., aiv. 189 .qq., 238 eqq., ib. 1888; O. Lorenz, DGQ, vol. ii. passim, Berlin, 1887; H. Bachne, in Halts was du hoot, Berlin, 1891; idem, Bernardue Guuidonis and die Apostelbreder, Rostock, 1891; Potthast, Wepweiser, pp. 150‑152 (indispensable for the sources); F. Arbellot, Elude biographique et bibliopraphique sur Bernard Guidonia, Limes, 1896; C. Dousia, Documents pour servir h Mist. de l'inquwition, Paris, 1900.
GUILLON, gVYW, MARIE NICOLAS SYLVESTRE: French Roman Catholic, Bishop of Morocco in partibus infaWium; b. in Paris Jan. 1, 1760; d. at Montfermeil (19 m. n.e. of Paris) Oct. 16, 1847. He studied at the College du Plessis and at the College Louis‑le‑Grand and acquired great proficiency in medicine, as well as in theology. He became almoner and librarian to the Princess Lamballe, but fled to Sceaux after her execution in 1792 and practised medicine there, and at Meaux, for several years under the assumed name of Pastel. After the Revolution he was made honorary canon and librarian of the cathedral of Paris. He accompanied Cardinal Fesch to Rome, and on his return became professor of rhetoric at the Lycde Bonaparte, and shortly afterward professor of sacred eloquence at the Sorbonne. He also became almoner of the Coll6ge Louis‑le‑Grand, almoner to the Princess of Orldans, honorary canon of Saint Denis, bishop of Morocco (1833), dean of the theological faculty at the Sorbonne, and an officer of the Legion of Honor, He was a prolific writer, and some of his works are still of value, particularly his Colledion des brefa du Pope Pie VI. (2 vols., Paris, 1798); Btbliothkue choisie lea pyres greea et lading (26 vols., 1822); and his excellent translation of Cyprian's works (2 vols., 1837).
Biamoaserer: Lichtenberger, ESR, v. 792‑793.
GUILT: The state resulting from the violation of law. In Christianity the presuppositions of guilt are the Christian view of Sin (q.v.),' personal