Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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GRUENEISEN, grlUn‑ni'sen, CARL: Theologian, preacher, art patron, and poet; b. at Stuttgart Jan. 17, 1802; d. there Feb. 28, 1878. His parents educated him in the spirit of true religion, and also that of genuine artistic liberality. He studied at the gymnasium of Stuttgart and in 1819 entered the University of Tubingen, where he studied the­ology. In 1824 he visited the principal cities of Germany, and was attracted by the theology of Schleiermacher in Berlin. Then he traveled to Italy where he showed a deep interest in the treas­ures of ancient and medieval art. King William I. of Wiirttemberg appointed him court chaplain and field chaplain of the guards. In 1835 he en­tered the consistory; in 1846 he became court preacher. He took a prominent part in reforms of liturgy, hymn‑book, and church constitution, and awakened a sense for art in the Church. In 1847 with Immanuel Faisat he organized a "Society for Classical Church Music," and in 1857 a "Society for Christian Art in the Evangelical Church of Wiirttemberg." In 1846 the king sent him to the first German Evangelical Church Conference in Berlin which had been convened for the purpose of bringing about a closer union between the German state churches, from which sprang, in 1852, chiefly under the influence of Graneisen, the Church Con­ference of Eisenach which elected him its president regularly from 1852 to 1868 (see EISENACH CON­FERENCE). On account of his Prussian sentiments he incurred the displeasure of King Charles, the successor of William. In 1868 he was forced to resign his position, but the consistory appointed him honorary member. In 1870 he retired alto­gether from official activity, and devoted himself

to art, chiefly in the service of the Church. He published Predigten fur Gebildete in der Gemeinde (anonymously, Stuttgart, 1835); Die evangelischen Gottesdienstordnungen in den oberdeutschen Landen (1839); Christliches Hausbuch in Gebeten and Lie­dern (1846; 7th ed., 1883); and five collections of Chrisaiche Reden (1856‑63). In the sphere of Chris­tian art he published: Ueber bildliche Darstellung der Gottheit (1828); Ueber das Sittliche in der bil­denden Kunst bei den Griechen (1835); De, protes­tantismo arttbus hand infesto (1839); Ulms Kun8tle­ben im Mittelalter (with E. Mauch, 1846); and (his most important work) Niklaus Manuel, Leben and Werke vines Malers and Dichters, Kriegers, Staats­manns and Reformators im 16. Jahrhundert (1837). He also edited an art journal, Christliches Kunstblatt fur Kirche, Schule and Haus. (H. MosArr.)

BIHmoGHAPHY: Luthardt, in Aligemeine eoangelisd‑Lutheri­sche Kirchenaeitung, 1878, pp. 233 sqq.; Gottschalk, in Unsera Zeit, 1878, p. 628; W. Litbke, in Kunetchronik, supplement to Zeieechrift far bildende Kunst, 1878, pp. 386 aqq.



burned as a heretic at Regensburg Mar. 31, 1421.

He came from Vohenstrauss (near Weiden, 32 m. s.e.

of Baireuth) in the Upper Palatinate, was educated

at Regensburg, was ordained priest, and, about

1420, occupied the post of chaplain in Regensburg.

The Hussite doctrines, toward which a portion of

the Bavarian clergy just then inclined, found a

zealous adherent in GrUnaleder. He translated

sundry writings of Huss into German, dissemina­

ting the same in lay circles, and by clandestine

sermons sought to gain a following for Hussite

ideas. In May, 1420, he was seized as a heretic.

Notwithstanding prolonged custody under the In­

quisition, he could not be induced to abjure his

heretical persuasion. Consequently he was put to


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Andrew of Regensburg, Cronica de espedi­tionibus in Bohemian contra Husaistas haereticos, ed. K. HMer, Geschichtaschreiber der husitischsn Bewepunp, in Fontes rerum Auetriacarum, Division 1, vol. vi., part 2, pp. 427‑458, Vienna, 1866; idem, Chronicon generals, in B. Pes, Thesaurus anecdotorurn novissimorum, iv. 723, Augsburg, 1723; H. Haupt, in Historisdes Taschenbuch, 6 ser., vii. 246‑247.

GRUETZMACHER, GEORG: German Protes­tant: b. at Berlin Dec. 22, 1866. He was educated at the universities of Lausanne, Berlin, and Halle (Ph. D., Heidelberg, 1892), and in 1892 became privat‑docent for church history and New Testa­ment exegesis at Heidelberg, where he has been as­sociate professor of church history since 1896. He has written Untersuchung caber den Ursprung der in Zacharia 9‑I!t vorliegenden Prophetien (Berlin, 1892); Die Bedeutung Benedikts van Nursia and seiner Repel in der Geschichte des Monehtums (1892); Pachomius urul das liltede Klosterleben (Leipsie, 1896); Die evangelische Landeskirche des GrossJker­zogtums Baden (Freiburg, 1898); and Hieronymus: biographische Studien zur alten KirehxngesehicW (2 vols., Leipsic and Berlin, 1901‑06).

GRUETZMACHER, RICHARD HEINRICH: Ger­man Protestant; b. at Berlin Dec. 3, 1876. He was educated at the universities of Heidelberg and



Berlin (lic. theol., 1901), and in 1902 became privat­

docent at Greifswald. In the following year he

was appointed to his present position of associate

professor of systematic theology at Rostock. He

has written Wort and Geist, eine historasche und dog­

matische Untersuchuug zum Gnadenmittel des Wortes

(Leipsie, 1902); Weltweites Chridentum (Ham­

burg, 1904); Studien zur sgstematischen Theologie

(2 parts, Leipsie, 1905); Modems positive Vortrage

(1906); and Ist das liberals Jesusbild modern f



Protestant; b. at Bnrwalde (48 m. n.e. of Berlin)

Jan. 9, 1836. He was educated at the universities

of Tabingen, Halle, and Berlin (1854‑58), and was

assistant pastor at Pouch, near Bitterfeld (1861­

1863). He was then prison chaplain at Frankfort­

on‑the‑0der for two years, after which he was a char­

tographer in the establishment of Justus Perthes,

Gotha, for four years, preparing a missionary atlas.

Since 1869 he has been pastor at Morz, near Bel­

zig. In 1882 he founded the Brandenburg mis­

sionary conference, of which he has since been

the president. In addition to his work as editor

of G. E. Burkhardt's Kleine Mission"liothek (4

vols., Bielefeld, 1876‑81) and of the Jahrbuch der

nordostdeutschen Missions‑Kanferenz, he has pre­

pared Allgemeiner Missions‑Atlas (Goths, 1868­

1871); J. F. Riedel, sin Lebensbild (Gtitersloh,1873);

Kleiner Missions‑Atlas (Calw, 1883); Zur Statistik

der evangelischen Mission (Giitersloh, 1886); Die

deutschen Schutzgebiete in Afrika and in der Sudsee

(1886); Die Entwicklung der evangelischen Mission

im letzten Jahrzehnt, 1878‑1888 (Bielefeld, 1890);

Missions‑Studien and Kritiken (2 vols., Giitersloh,

1894‑98); Neuer Missions‑Atlas (Stuttgart, 1896);

and Kleine Missiamgeographie and Statistik (1901).

He also contributed ten parts to the Domen and

Aehren vom Missionsfelde (Berlin, 1887‑1904).


SEVERIN: Danish bishop, poet, and hymn‑writer,

was born at Udby, near Vordingborg (on the s. coast

of the island of Seeland, 52 m. s.w. of Copenhagen),

Sept. 8, 1783; d. at Copenhagen Sept. 2, 1872. _In

1800 he entered the University of Co­

Early penhagen and passed his theological

Life and examination in 1803. From his mother

Works. he inherited an inclination to history

and poetry, and his active mind took a

deep interest in the events of his own time, and he

became interested also in the songs of the Edda and

the medieval chronicles of Snorre Sturleson and Saxo

Grammatirua. In 1805 he became private tutor

upon the small island of Langeland. Later he oc­

cupied himself in the study of Shakespeam, Goethe,

Schiller, Schelling, and Fichte; translated some of

the German masterworks into Danish; and pub­

lished at Copenhagen in periodicals treatises on the

fundamental thought of northern mythology, on

the reform of the liturgy in the Danish Church, and

on the lack of solid scientific education which he

found among the students and officials of the coun­

try. In 1808 he went to Copenhagen as school­

teacher, and published the same year a peculiar

poetical book, Nordene Myt)wlogie ("Mythology

of the North "). Other literary works of this period were a dramatization of the Icelandic saga of the Jomsvikings under the title, OPtrin of Kcem­pelivets Undergang i Nord ("Scenes from the De­cline of North Vikingism," Copenhagen, 1809), and a compilation of the W81sungsaga, Optrin of Nor­ners og Asers Kamp ("Scenes from the Struggle between Norns and lEsir," 1811).

A change in Grundtvig's life ensued when his aged father summoned him to become his assistant at Udby. His trial sermon treated the theme that the unity of history must be sought in

Ordina‑ the effect of Christianity upon the na­tion; Con‑ tions. Shortly after it was published

flict and in 1810, six influential clergymen of

Mental Copenhagen addressed a complaint to

Struggles. the ministry of public affairs, alleging

that the sermon contained a series of

insulting charges against the whole clergy. Grundt­

vig was reprimanded, but his sermon spread among

the laity in Denmark and foreign countries. About

this time he underwent experiences like those of

Luther in the monastery, seriously asking himself

whether he was a Christian and whether his sins

were forgiven. This mental suffering was aggra­

vated by physical weakness due to overexertion.

In June, 1811, he was ordained and devoted him­

self with great zeal to his duties as pastor. But he

also felt that the gifts which he possessed as poet

and historian should be employed for the renewal

of old Lutheran Christianity in his vocation. He

asked prominent men of his country to cooperate in

the revival of the Danish State Church, but re­

pelled many of his friends by his admonitions. In

1812 appeared his Verdens Kriinike ("World His­

tory") in which he openly criticized men who were

still alive and active. At a convention of ecclesi­

astics in 1814 Grundtvig offended again by his de­

nunciations of the clergy. From 1813 he had lived

in Copenhagen and had frequently preached there;

but after this offense pastors hesitated to admit

him to their pulpits. Before 1811 he had broken

with that part of the educated world which stood

on the ordinary ground of the eighteenth century.

Those who had been influenced by Steffens had

almost all separated from him between 1812 and

1814. Now he was deprived even of the opportunity

to preach.

To occupy his time and energies he turned to literary work. He began to translate Snorre's history of Norway, which had been written in Ice­landic, and Saxo's Historic Danica. A

Resume. rich Dane induced him to publish a

tion of Danish translation of the Anglo‑Sax­Literary on poem Beowulf. For seven years

Work. (1815‑21) translations filled up all his

time. Christianity had taught him to

see a brother in the lowliest of his fellow men, and

he intended his translations principally for the com­

mon people. He aimed to revive the northern

heroic spirit for the performance of Christian deeds

in a manner adapted to the needs and conditions

of his time. For this purpose he considered it nec­

essary to adapt his written word to the understand­

ing of the plain people and to find a genuinely

Danish mode of expression as he heard it among



peasants and read it in the old rimed chronicles of the Middle Ages and in collections of popular proverbs and heroic songs. Many found his new language too artificial and affected, and for some years Grundtvig's activity as a poet ceased, but when he resumed his pen, he had mastered his mother tongue as never before. From this later period of his life principally have proceeded the folk‑songs and hymns which are now sung in Da­nish schools and churches and have exercised such a strong influence upon Danish national and eccle­siastical life.

In 1821 he resumed his clerical activity as pastor of PrBestG, a small town in southern Seeland, and the next year he was called to the chaplaincy at the Church of our Savior in Copenhagen. He looked with anxiety at the growing doubt of the learned concerning the origin and authenticity of the Bible,

and was disturbed by assertions that Later the fundamental doctrines of the

Clerical Church‑the Trinity, the divinity of

Activity. Christ, and the Atonement‑are not in

the Bible at all. He sought for a sure, universal, and powerful testimony, valid for the layman and the scholar alike, and found it in the Apostles' Creed. In 1825 he became involved in a controversy with H. N. Clausen, professor in Copenhagen, the representative of the reigning rationalism, in which his violent language occar sioned a civil suit as a result of which he was sen­tenced to pay a fine, and forbidden to publish with­out permission of the royal censor. From that day a party of "Grundtvigians" existed in the Danish Church.

In 1828 Grundtvig's second retirement began. He now devoted himself to the study of the his­tory of the world. He published %r6nike‑Riim tit Borne‑Lcerdom ("History in Rime for Children," Copenhagen, 1829), and Haandbog i Verdertahis­torien ("Handbook of the World's History," 3 parts, 1833). In 1829, 1830, and 1831 he visited

England to study the Anglo‑Saxon Second manuscripts, and gave a powerful im­Retirement. pulse to the study of Anglo‑Saxon

Later there. The individual liberty in Eng­

Work and land made a deep impression upon

Interests. him, and after his return to Denmark

he worked for its realization in his own country and advocated the erection of schools "for popular scientific training and civil education." He visited England again in 1843, and his travels deeply influenced his views concerning the Danish Church. The great problem for him became to preserve the State Church and yet allow the life of the church to develop as freely as possible. He advocated liberty of doctrine and rite among the pastors, and maintained that laymen should be at liberty to sever their parochial connection and join another parish, to legalize which a law was enacted in 1855 and amplified in 1868. In 1839 Grundtvig was made chaplain of the Vartov (a home for aged indigents) in Copenhagen. It was essentially a free congregation within the national Church. He translated certain Psalms as well as Greek, Latin, Anglo‑Saxon, English, and German hymns, and also made slight changes in the expression of the

Danish hymns. In this way originated his Srsng­Vdrk Q den Danske Kirke (" Hymn‑Book for the Danish Church," Copenhagen, 1837), which gave to song in the Danish churches a new and very orig­inal character. Although Grundtvig never had support among the leading bishops of Denmark, his influence upon the Church increased greatly during the last thirty years of his life. At the fiftieth anniversary of his ordination (1881) the king conferred upon him the title of bishop with the rank of the bishop of Seeland.

(L. Scnaanaa,.)

Bmwofi81PHY: a. Kaftan, Grundtoip, der ProPUt des Nor­de»e,Bawt 1878; H. Brun, Biakop N. F. B. Grundtoipa

Lewietalo6, 2 vols., Bolding, 1879‑82.
GRUSCHA, grfi'ahd, ANTON JOSEF: Roman Catholic cardinal; b. at Vienna, Austria, Nov. 3, 1820. After the completion of his studies he was in charge of various parishes and instructor in religion at the Theresianum gymnasium of his native city. He was then cathedral preacher and for many years was the confessor of the Archduchess Sophie. In 1863 he was appointed professor of pastoral the­ology at the University of Vienna and fifteen years later was made apostolic chaplain of the Austrian army and consecrated titular bishop of Carrhae. In 1890 he was enthroned prince archbishop of Vienna, and in the following year was created car­dinal priest of Santa Maria degli Angeli. Through­out his life he has been deeply interested in the cause of the working men, and is a member of the Roman Congregations of the Propaganda, Index, Disci­pline, and Indulgences.
GRYIPEUS, gri‑nf'us (GRYNER): A family of Swabian origin which produced several celebrated Reformed theologians.

1. Simon Gryn us was born at Vehringen (40 m. s. of Stuttgart), Hohenzollern‑Sigmaringen, 1493; d. at Basel Aug. 1, 1541. He studied at Pforz­heim and at the University of Vienna and became professor of Latin (1524) and of Greek (1526) at Heidelberg. In 1529 he was summoned to Basel to succeed Era‑emus, who had left the city upon the introduction of the Reformation. Delay in the reorganization of the university, which was not effected till 1531, afforded him opportunity for a journey to England, where he was entrusted by Henry VIII. with the task of obtaining the sanction of the Reformed theologians to the king's desired divorce from Catherine of Aragon. This favorable attitude to Henry's plans, which he shared with the majority of Swiss theologians, he was induced to change by the influence of Butzer. After the death of (Ecolampadius in 1531 Grynaeus refused to con­tend with Myconius for the post of antistes of the church in Basel, but received in addition to his chair in Greek the appointment of extraordinary pro­fessor in theology, in which capacity he delivered lectures on New Testament exegesis. In 1534 he was entrusted by Duke Ulrich of Wiirttemberg with the establishment of the Reformation in his terri­tories and the reorganization of the University of Tiibingen. In 1536 he took part in the drawing up of the so‑called First Helvetic (Second Basel) Con­fession and in 1540 was the only Swiss represent‑


ative at the Conference of Worms. He died of the plague in the following year. Grynwus was one of the greatest scholars of his time; in Greek espe­cially few were his rivals. As a theologian he die` tinguished himself by his broad knowledge, clear insight, and repugnance for controversy.

2. Johann Jakob Grynaus, grandnephew of Simon, was born at Bern Oct. 1, 1540; d. at Basel Aug. 13, 1617. He studied at the universities of Basel and TObingen, and in 1565 succeeded his father in the pastorate at Rotelen near Basel, whence he went to the city, in 1575, as professor of the Old Testament at the university. At this time he definitely abandoned his Lutheran views on the Eucharist. In 1584 he was entrusted by the Elector Palatine John Casimir with the reorganization of the University of Heidelberg, but returned to Basel in 1586 as successor to Sulzer in the post of antiates of the church. Connected with this office were the duties of pastor at the cathedral, president of the city clergy, archdeacon of the territory of Basel, and professor of theology at the university. In the internal history of the church at Basel his ad­ministration is important as marking the downfall of the movement toward Lutheranism fostered by Sulzer and the assimilation of the doctrines of the church of Basel with that of the other Swiss churches. The Basel Confession of 1534, set aside by Sulzer, was reissued by Gryneeus in 1590. Blindness, which overtook him in 1612, did not pre­vent him from continuing his duties as pastor and professor.

S. Johann Grynteus (1705‑44) was an Orientalist of note and one of the founders of the Frey‑Grynwan Institute at Basel.

4. Simon Grynteus (1725‑99), the last of the name, is known as a translator of antideistic wri­tings from French and English, and as the author of a Bible version in the taste of his time (Basel,

1776). (R. STiiaEraNt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY'. 1. The Literce, with an index of the works of Simon Gryneaue, were edited by G. T. 8treuber, Basel, 1847, who in the Baaler Taechsnbwh for 1853 wrote a sketch of the life. Consult also R. Thommen, (Jeachichte der Un4veradf5t Basel 16,2‑IB32, Basel, 1889.

2. The EgiatoLca fomiliaree of J. J. Grynarus, ed. 8. A.

Apinus, appeared Frankfort, 1715; a Vita, by J. J. and H. a Brun, gathered from his own. writings, was published Basel, 1818. Consult K. R. Hgenbach, Hr%tieche Ge­achichte . . . der crates Basler Confession, pp. 137‑158, Basel 1827; idem, Die theologiache $chule Bawl&, pp. 16­17, ib.1880; R. Thommen, utsup., pp. 117‑131.

GUALBERTO, gwiil‑bia,r'to, GIOVAIPNI: Floren­tine nobleman, founder of the Order of Vallom­brosa; b. in Florence 985; d. July 12, 1073. Ac­cording to tradition, his father sent him to avenge the murder of a kinsman, and on Good Friday he found the assassin in a defile. The murderer, how­ever, in his prayer for mercy, raised his arms in the form of a cross, whereupon his life was spared. Gualberto then hastened to the church of the Bene­dictine monastery of San Miniato near Florence, where he knelt in prayer before the crucifix. In recognition of his act of mercy, the head of Jesus bowed to him, and he then resolved to consecrate himself to the Church and the service of God. In 1038 he became a monk, but before long joined the hermits of Camaldoli (see Cexelrnorrr>,s), only

to leave them shortly afterward.with the intention

of founding an order of his own for contemplative

piety. With two other hermits, he began the exe'

cution of his plane in the valley of Aquabella or

Vallombrosa (whence his order was to take its name)

near Camaldoli, and there he was soon joined by

others. Gualberto's order won such approval that

it soon attained considerable strength, and was

divided by its founder into religious, lay brothers,

and laity, the second class being apparently first

introduced by him. At the time of the founder's

death, the order possessed seven monasteries, and

when be was canonized by Celeatine III. in 1193

they had increased to about sixty, all in Italy,

except the French abbey of Corneillac near Or­

l6ans. A reform in the discipline of the order,

which had become lax, was begun by Eugeniua IV.

and completed by Pius II. in 1463, while from 1662

to 1680 the monks were united with the Sylvee­

trians. The original habit of the monks of Vallom­

brosa was gray, but under Abbot Blasius of Milan

they assumed a brown habit, which was temporarily

changed to black during their union with the

Sylveatriana. In the thirteenth century Rosana,

Altimonte (Sister Humilitaa; d. 1310) founded at

Faenza a female branch of the order of Vallombroea.,

whose last cloister of San Salvi existed in Florence

until 1869. (0. ZSc>iraat.)

Bisrroaawra:: The early Yitce, with the Miracula and commentary, are in A$B, July, iii. 311‑458. Consult also: F. UBhelli, Italia sacra, iii. 294, 10 vole., Venice. 1717‑22; O. Delarc, in Rev" des questions historiVes, aliii (1888), b‑80: E. Aoerbi, vita di s. Giovanni t7ual­berto, Florence, 1889; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 398‑399. On the order consult: Helyot, Ordru nwnar­tiquea, v. 298‑321; Heimbuoher. Order and Honprepa­tioncn, i. 408‑414.


Third artistes of the Church of Zurich; b. at Zurich

Nov. 9, 1519; d. there Dec. 25, 1686. From 1538

to 1541 he studied at Basel, Strasburg, Lausanne,

and Marburg, and in 1542 was appointed pastor of

St. Peter in Zurich and remained in that position

until his death. His sermons represented the tran­

sition from the free homily of the Reformers to the

more artistic manner of later times. As assistant

of Bullinger he rendered great services in the leader­

ship of the Zurich Church and in the cultivation of

active relations with the Reformed Churches of all

countries. In 1575 he succeeded Bullinger as ar­

tistes. Of his literary works may be mentioned

especially his homilies and expositions of the Bible,

which appeared in great number and many editions,

almost yearly. He edited vole. i.‑iii, of the first

edition of the works of Zwingli (his father‑in‑law),

translated more than thirty of his German writings

into Latin, and prefixed an Apologia pro Ztvinglio et

operum eiss editione (also published separately).

Another work was Oucir>n aeu sernus ecclesiasticus,

de Officio ministtrorum eccleaiaatico oratio (1548). He

wrote poems on Simon Grynseus and Margaretha

Blaurer (qq.v.), a work on metrics entitled De

ayllabarum et carminum rtttione lz'brt; ii (1542);

Arguments omnium rum Vetetas tum Non Teatamenti

capitwm elegia nine conscriPta (1543); and even

attempted a drama, Nttbal co»uedia sacra (1562).

(Enfl>; Eors.)

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