GROSSMANN, LOUIS: American rabbi; b. at Vienna Feb. 24, 1853. He came to the United States at the age of eleven and was educated at the University of Cincinnati (B.A., 1884) and the Hebrew Union College in the same city, receiving his rabbinical diploma in 1884. In the same year he was called to Detroit, Mich., as rabbi of Temple Beth El, where he remained until 1898, when he was chosen to succeed I. M. Wise as rabbi of Congregation B'nai Yeahurun, Cincinnati, and also as professor of ethics, theology, and pedagogics in the Hebrew Union College. In theology he is an adherent of Reformed Judaism. He has written Judaism and the Science of Religion (New York, 1889); Maimonides (1890); Hymns, Prayers, and Responses (Detroit, Mich., 1894); The Jewish Pulpit (1894); and an edition of The Selected Writings of Isaac M. Wise (Cincinnati, 1900).
GROTIUS, gr6'abi‑us (DE GROOT), HUGO:Dutch statesman, lawyer, and theologian; b. at Delft Apr. 10, 1583; d. in Rostock Aug. 28, 1645. He owed his first instruction to his learned father and to the minister Jan Uytenbogaert (q.v.). When he was twelve years old he became a pupil
of Scaliger at the Leyden academy. Early Life. In 1598 he accompanied Oldenbarne‑
velt and Justinus van Nassau to Paris where the fame of his learning was already publicly known. On his return he was promoted doctor in law at Orldans. After having established himself as a lawyer at The Hague, the States appointed him advocate‑general at the Court of Holland and charged him with writing the history of the rebellion against Spain, which was not published till after his death. Abroad he was known as a Latin poet by his Adamus exul and his Christus patiens, and as a lawyer by his Mare liberum, which led to an extensive correspondence with the learned men of his age.
His political career began with his being appointed pensionary of Rotterdam in 1613. From this time he attended the sessions of the States of Holland and the States‑General, but was at the same time entangled in the quarrel between the
Remonatrants (q.v.) and Contra‑RePolitical monstranta. He was the defender of Career. Oldenbarnevelt's ecclesiastical policy,
Theological which was intended to prevent a rupContro‑ ture in the Church. He took an acversies. tive part in extraordinary measures to
maintain peace in different places and was opposed to the convocation of a National Synod. During the revolution of 1618 he was put in prison and condemned to be shut up for life at the castle of Loevenatein. Here he occupied himself for two years with philological and theological studies, then escaped on Mar. 22, 1621, and fled to Paris. There he lived till 1631 with his wife and children.
Under the mild government of Frederik Hendrik he at length ventured to return to his native country, but he was disappointed in his expects‑
(?roves and Trees
tiona and went to Hamburg. Arrived there he was invited by Gustavus Adolphus to enter the Swedish
service. Before the matter was arSwediah ranged, the prince died in the battle Ambassa‑ of Liitzen, but Oxenstierna carried
dor in on the negotiations and soon after
Paris. Grotius made his appearance as Swe‑
dish ambassador at Paris. After having occupied this post for ten years, he went to Stockholm, where the Queen Christina received him with much distinction. She offered him a place of honor, but he secured release from further service. On his return he was shipwrecked and arrived at Rostock seriously ill and died there.
Hugo Grotius was also an excellent theologian. His natural disposition and the religious agitation
of his age led him involuntarily to Grotius as theological studies. Few men were so Theologian. well versed in Christian literature of
earlier and later times. At Loevenstein as well as in Paris he occupied himself with writing expositions of the Bible, which were published under the titles Explioatio trium utiliasimorum locorum Novi Testamenti, Amsterdam, 1640; Commentatio ad loea Novi Testamenti quo de Antichristo agunt, 1640; Explicatio Decalogi, 1642. His writings were not a commentarius perpetuus but annotationes, explaining difficult passages in a few words. He declared that the Bible had nothing to do with dogmatism, and dealt with the books of the Bible as with literary writings according to grammatical rules, and explained the words of Jesus and the apostles by quoting passages from Greek and Latin authors. According to his opinion the books of the prophets contained real prophecies, but concerning Israel only. He was the first to deny the Solomonic authorship of Ecclesiastes. His Annotationes, afterward also incorporated in the London Polyglot and Critici saeri, excelled by their impartiality. To him belongs the honor of first having applied the historical‑philological method to the explanation of the Scripture. He was the precursor of Emesti.
Grotiua's book De Veritate religionis Christian is no less celebrated. At Loevenstein he wrote a Dutch didactic poem as a manual for sailors to help them refute pagans and Mohammedans; later he worked it over in Latin prose at Paris and published it there 1627. This book was published again and again, and translated into many languages, including Arabic and Urdu. It shows how little Grotius esteemed the dogmas of the severe Lutherans and Calvinists, and caused him to be considered the founddr of the scientific apology and gives him a place next to Pascal.
In more than one writing Grotius has shown his irenie tendency‑e.g., Via ad pacem ecclesiasticam, Amsterdam, 1642 ; Votum pro pace ecclesiastiea, 1642. He wanted peace in the Church and a Chris‑
tianity without religious discord. He His Irenic would admit in one ecclesiastical alTendency. liance not only Remonstrants and
Contra‑Remonatrants, but also Lutherans and Socinians, even Roman Catholics. In his time, however, he was misunderstood. With Arminius he believed in the universality of divine
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
grace, but he did not want to be taken for a Pelagian (Diaquisttio an Pelagiana aunt ea dogmata quee nunc sub so nomine traducuntur, Paris, 1622). As to the doctrine of reconciliation he differed from Augustine and Anselm, but in his Defentio , fides: catholicce de aatiafadione Christi adversua F. Socinum, 1614, he defended the doctrine of the Church. He regretted that the Reformation had brought so much quarreling among Christians. It was his conviction that the English Church had done better than Calvin, taking from Catholicism what was not repugnant to the Gospel and suffering the ancient organization of the Christian Church to remain. His Annalm et hiatorim de rebus Belgicia, 1657, and his Historia Gothorum, Vandalorum et Longobardorum, 1655, are not without importance for church history. His Dissertatio de cants ad_ ministrations ubi paatores non aunt, 1638, belongs to liturgies. His De imperio summarum potestatum circa. sacra, Paris, 1647, to canon law. Although he had chosen a political career, he deserves a place of honor among the theologians of his age, and also among the world's greatest benefactors; for he laid the foundations of the modern international law in his great book, The Rights of War and Peace.
His Opera appeared, 4 vola., Basel, 1732. In
English translation there have appeared: Two
Tracts: 1. Whether the Sacrament of the Lord's Sup
per May be Administered Where There are no Pas
tors t 2. Whether it be Necessary at All Times to
Communicate with the Symbols f (London, 1700);
The Mourner Comforted (1652); A Poem on the
Holy Sacrament (Edinburgh, 1732); Adamua Exul;
or, the Prototype of Paradise Lost (London, 1839);
Annals and History of the Low‑Countrey Wars
(1665); The Whole Duty of a Christian (1711);
Christ's Passion, a Tragedie (1640); A Treatise of
the Antiquity of the Commonwealth of the Battavers
(1649); The Right of the State in the Church (1651);
The Rights of War and Peace (1738; abridged
transl., 1853); The Truth of the Christian Religion
(new ed., 1859); A Defence of the Catholic Faith,
Concerning the Satisfaction of Christ against Paustus
torie roan hot leven van H. de Groot, 2 vole., Amsterdam,
1727; J. Levesque de Burigny, Vie de Grotius, acec t'hist.
de $ea ouvrages, 2 vols., Paris, 1752, Eng. tranal., London
1754; H. Luden, H. Grotius each semen Schicksalen and
Schriften, Berlin, 1808; C. Butler, Life of Hugo Grotius,
London, 1826; G. F. Creuser, Luther and Grotius,
oder GTaube and Wiwenecha/t, Heidelberg, 1846; d. L.
Motley, John o/ Barneoetd, vol. i., chap. x3di., New York, 1874; L. Neumann, Hugo Grotius, 1653‑16.;6, Berlin, 1884; D. Nesmith, Makers o/ Modern Thought, 2 vole., New York, 1892.
GROVES, ANTHONY NORRIS: English missionary;b. at Newton (20 m. n. of Winchester), Hampshire, 1795; d. at Bristol May 20, 1853. He studied chemistry in London, took up dentistry under his uncle, James Thompson, and at the same time studied surgery in the London hospitals. In Feb., 1813, he settled as a dentist at Plymouth, but removed to Exeter in 1816, and in 1825 took charge of a small church at Poltimore, near Exeter.
87 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Grotins
Groves and Trees
With a view to taking orders he studied at Trin
ity College, Dublin, where he associated with John
Nelson Darby and other early Plymouth Brethren
(see DARBY, Jowl NEI$ON;t~pand PLYMOUTH Brrrm
REN). His proposal in 1860 that Christians meet
together in brotherhood, with no other tenets than
faith in Christ, entities him to be regarded as one
a very ancient one, regarded the place as hallowed
by some supposed theophany or like manifestation.
Not seldom the tradition suggests the actual divin
ity of the grove itself or of some individual tree in
it (as when a part of the sacred oak was built into
the Argo in the expedition of the Golden Fleece).
The progress in the development of regard for a sa
cred grove may be stated in this way: in the ani
mistic period the tree itself was divine and gave
omens or warnings, in a later period the tree was the
home of a spirit or deity, while still later a deity
used the tree to indicate his will.
Among the Semites the tree cult was indigenous,
so that the Hebrews on coming into Canaan found.
the practise established. The Semites regarded
certain trees as connected with the fructifying
powers of nature, and in many cases with female
deities‑and this is doubtless one cause of the severe
denunciations of the prophets of Israel (see below).
So the moon was brought into this connection, espe
cially as giving moisture in the shape of dew (see
A$HERAB; AsHroRwH; and MooN); and in the
Astarte‑Aphrodite circle of cult, the cypress, myrtle,
palm, and pomegranate were sacred to this deity.
But a large portion of the great region inhabited
by the Semites is characterized by a scarcity of
tree growth. As a consequence, among Semites it is
much more common to hear of the sacred tree than
of the grove. Hence the Passages in the Old Tes‑
tament where the A. V. speaks of groves the R.V. either changes the translation or, where proper, correctly transcribes the Hebrew original "Asherah" (see ABHERAH).
Aside from the Asherah, which was probably a survival of tree‑worship (cf. G. A. Barton, Semr is Origins, pp. 87 eqq., New York, 1902), the traces of a tree cult in the Old Testament are quite numerous. Abraham built an altar to Yahweh at "the tree of the seer" (Gen. xii. 6‑7, Hebr. Won moreh, A.V. "plain of Moreh," R.V. "oak of Moreh," margin, "terebinth"; d. Judges iv. b, according to which Deborah dwelt under "the palm‑tree of Deborah "). Moreover, Abraham took up his residence, built an altar, and witnessed a theophany by the terebinths of Mature (Gen. Ioii. 18, ziv. 13, aviii. 1, Hebr. 'elowm, Septuagint Wi drut, A.V. "plain," R.V. "oaks," margin "terebinths"). He planted a tamarisk (Hebr. 'sahd, AN. "grove") at Beersheba and "called there on the name of Yahweh" (Gen. aai. 33), and this place was held sacred by Isaac (Gen. aavi. 25) and by Jacob (a1vi. 1), and apparently by Joshua, who set up the stone of witness "under tire oak (Hebr. 'aRah) that was by (in) the sanctuary" at Sheclem (Josh. naiv. 26); but of. Judges ix. 6, where the terebinth (Hebr. 'clan) seems to have been sacred to Basl‑berith, while in Judges ix‑ 37 it is called (ILV. margin) "the augurs' terebinth," and note II Sam. v. 24, where the signal for marching is given by rustling in the mulberry‑trees. Jacob buried the rejected idols under the terebmth (Hebr. 'dah) which was by Shechem; Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried beneath "the oak of weeping" below Bethel (Gen. xxav. 8), and the ashes of Saul and his sons were buried under the tamarisk in Jabesh (I Sam. xxxi. 13). The theopbany of Es. ii. 2 is connected with a bush. Gideon witnessed a theophany under the terebinth at Ophmh (Judges vi. 11 sqq.) and built an altar there. Possibly Saul's place of encampment under "the pomegranate" (I Sean. Iav. 2) and his place of judgment under the tamarisk on the height (I Sam. a:ui. 6; cf. Judges iv. b sqq.) were sacred spots. The "green tree" as a place of idolatry is noted in I Kings aiv. 23; II King avi. 4; II Chron. gaviii. 4. In later times, just as the worship at the high places and at the numerous altars came undue the ban of the prophets, though these altars seem to have existed with the approval of earlier prophets (cf‑ I Kings via. 14, "altars" in the plural), so this worship under "oaks, poplars, and terebinths" was regarded as sinful (Has. iv. 13; cf. Ira. i. 29, lviL 5, 1zv. 3, lavi. 17; Deut. xii. 2; Jer. fi. 20, avii. 2). lAek. vi. 13 (cf. xx. 28) is quite decisive of the trees as places where idolatry was practised. Burton (ut sup., p. 90) thinks that the story of Judah end Tamer (Gen. axxviii.; note that Hebr. famar, memo "Palm,,) indicates that a palm clan was incorporated into the tribe of Judah, the palm in this case being a totem (cf. the place name Baai‑tamer, judges ax. 33). Tlie same authority, sees saae6ity in the mention (Ex. av. 27) of seventy pshDtrees and twelve springs (possibly a combination of asered trees and springs). It is not unlikely that Jerxbo, the city of palm‑trees (Dent. xxxiv. 3; Judges i. 16, iii. 13),
Grundtvig THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG88
was once a sacred city. It is noteworthy that the
pomegranate and the palm‑tree formed part of the
adornment both of Solomon's temple (I Kings vi.
vii.) and of Ezekiel's (Ezek. x1i. 18), and the cheru
him are connected with both. In elucidation of
the last fact Barton, in a striking passage (cat sup.,
pp. 91‑92), quotes Tylor as suggesting that the
cherubim were personifications of the wind which
was so important in fertilizing the male date palm.
The two trees, originally perhaps only one, in Gen.
ii.‑iii. were explained in the Book of Enoch (chap.
BIHLIGGuAPHY: W. Baudisein, Studien zur semitiachen Relipionegeschichte, ii. 143 eqq., Leipsie, 1878 (list of older literature on p. 184); B. Stade, Geschichte des Volkes Israel i. 455, Berlin, 1887; A. von Gall, Altisraelitischen Kulb e, pp. 23‑28. Giessen, 1898; Smith, Rel. o/ Sem., pp. 125, 169, 174‑175, 178‑179, 185‑197; ED, iv. 4892‑93; 'and the work of Barton cited in the text. On the general tree‑cult the most important work is J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3 vols., London, 19W; idem, Adonis, Attic, Osiris, London, 1906; Stark, in Berichte der kaniglichsacheischen Gesellseha#t der isaenschaften zu Leipzig, Phil.‑hilt. Clasee, viii (1856), 32‑120; M. OhnefalschRichter, Kypros, die Bibel and Homer, pp. 32‑227, Berlin, 1893; H. C. Trumbull, Threshold Covenant, pp. 228 sqq., New York, 1896; Mrs. J. H. Philpot, The Sacred Tree or the Tree in Religion and Myth, London, 1897; H. P. Smith, Old Testament History, p. 135, New York, 1903; Evans, in Journal of Hellenic Studies, xxi. 106 sqq.; Folk‑Lore, vi. 20 aqq.