Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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ture, a crusher and despiser of the Romans," re­

ports the chronicler Matthew Paris. He was buried

with great pomp at Lincoln, the archbishop of

Canterbury and several bishops being present at

the funeral. This seems to disprove the state­

ment that the pope had excommunicated him.

Miracles were reported at his grave, but in vain did

prelates and King Edward I. (1307) apply for his


Grosseteste has been called a "harbinger of the

Reformation," and he was the first link in the

chain of the Reformation in this sense, that Wychf

appealed to him, and quoted his protest against

Rome, as, later, Luther quoted Huss, and Huss

learned from Wyclif. In his impetuous and fear­

less temper he resembles Luther. Not only Wyclif,

but others, like Bishop Hall, delighted to find in the

Bishop of Lincoln a support for their Scriptural

views, or, like Richard Field, to use his name

against the claims of the pope to supreme authority

in the Church (Of the Church, iv. 384 sqq.).

Grosseteste was one of the most learned men of

his time and a voluminous author. His writings

include works on theology, commentaries on Aris­

totle and Boethius, essays on physical and mental

philosophy, translations from Greek authors, also

French poems, and even works on husbandry. A

list of his works given in Pegge's Life covers twenty­

five closely printed quarto pages.


BIHLIOGRAPRY: The best sources for a life are: his own

Epiatolle, ed. H. R. Luard, no. 24 of Rolls Series, London.

1861; Matthew of Paris, Chronica majora, and Annales

monastici, ed. H. R. Luard, no. 36 of Rolls Series, 5 vols.,

London, 1864‑69. Lives have been written by: $.

Pegge, London, 1793; R. Pauli, Tllbingen, 1864; G. G.

Perry, London, 1871; G. V. Lechler, Leipsic, 1884; J.

Felten, Freiburg, 1887; and F. s. Stevenson, London,

1899. Consult further H. Wharton, Anglia sacra, ii.

325‑348, London, 1891; J. H. Overton, The Church in

England, i. 231‑243, ib. 1897; W. R. W. Stephens, The

Evlglash Church (1086‑1,870, ib. 1901; M. Creighton, His­

torical Lectures and Addresses, pp. 116‑149, ib. 190.3;

DNB, xxiii. 275‑278.


BERECHT: German Lutheran; b. at Priesanitz,

near Naumburg (17 m. s.s.w. of Merseburg), Nov.

9, 1783; d. in Leipsic June 29, 1857. He was edu­

cated at the University of Jena; and was appointed

assistant minister, then pastor, and in 1822, teacher

and deacon at Schulpforta. In 1823 he became

general superintendent of Altenburg, in 1829 pas­

tor at St. Thomas' Church, superintendent, con­

sistorial assessor, and professor of practical the­

ology at Leipsic. He applied himself to the study

of Philo and the Apostles' Creed, and was active in

reconstructing the constitution and reorganizing the

administration of the State Church of Saxony. He

was one of the founders of the Gustav‑Adolf‑Verein

(q.v.). On occasion of the bicentennial commem­

oration of the death of Gustavus Adolphus, Nov.

6, 1832, he proposed a foundation for the support of

poor Evangelical congregations, and after the main

society was established he belonged to its governing

board and presided over its general conventions.


BIBIaoaRAPIIV: F. Blanckmeister, Vater Grossmann, der

Grander des GUBlaV‑Adolf‑Verans, Barmen, 1889 ; G.

Miiller, Ver/aeaungs‑ and Venaaltungsgewhichte der s&ch‑

sischen Landeskirche, i. 206‑208, Leipaie, 1894; G. Fuchs,

C. G. L. Grossmann, der Leipziger Superintendent, Leipsie,

1907; ADB, ix. 751‑752.

GROSSMANN, LOUIS: American rabbi; b. at Vienna Feb. 24, 1853. He came to the United States at the age of eleven and was educated at the University of Cincinnati (B.A., 1884) and the He­brew Union College in the same city, receiving his rabbinical diploma in 1884. In the same year he was called to Detroit, Mich., as rabbi of Temple Beth El, where he remained until 1898, when he was chosen to succeed I. M. Wise as rabbi of Congrega­tion B'nai Yeahurun, Cincinnati, and also as pro­fessor of ethics, theology, and pedagogics in the He­brew Union College. In theology he is an adherent of Reformed Judaism. He has written Judaism and the Science of Religion (New York, 1889); Mai­monides (1890); Hymns, Prayers, and Responses (Detroit, Mich., 1894); The Jewish Pulpit (1894); and an edition of The Selected Writings of Isaac M. Wise (Cincinnati, 1900).

GROTIUS, gr6'abi‑us (DE GROOT), HUGO: Dutch statesman, lawyer, and theologian; b. at Delft Apr. 10, 1583; d. in Rostock Aug. 28, 1645. He owed his first instruction to his learned fa­ther and to the minister Jan Uytenbogaert (q.v.). When he was twelve years old he became a pupil

of Scaliger at the Leyden academy. Early Life. In 1598 he accompanied Oldenbarne‑

velt and Justinus van Nassau to Paris where the fame of his learning was already publicly known. On his return he was promoted doctor in law at Orldans. After having established himself as a lawyer at The Hague, the States appointed him advocate‑general at the Court of Holland and charged him with writing the history of the rebel­lion against Spain, which was not published till after his death. Abroad he was known as a Latin poet by his Adamus exul and his Christus patiens, and as a lawyer by his Mare liberum, which led to an extensive correspondence with the learned men of his age.

His political career began with his being ap­pointed pensionary of Rotterdam in 1613. From this time he attended the sessions of the States of Holland and the States‑General, but was at the same time entangled in the quarrel between the

Remonatrants (q.v.) and Contra‑Re­Political monstranta. He was the defender of Career. Oldenbarnevelt's ecclesiastical policy,

Theological which was intended to prevent a rup­Contro‑ ture in the Church. He took an ac­versies. tive part in extraordinary measures to

maintain peace in different places and was opposed to the convocation of a National Synod. During the revolution of 1618 he was put in prison and condemned to be shut up for life at the castle of Loevenatein. Here he occupied himself for two years with philological and theological studies, then escaped on Mar. 22, 1621, and fled to Paris. There he lived till 1631 with his wife and children.

Under the mild government of Frederik Hen­drik he at length ventured to return to his native country, but he was disappointed in his expects‑


(?roves and Trees

tiona and went to Hamburg. Arrived there he was invited by Gustavus Adolphus to enter the Swedish

service. Before the matter was ar­Swediah ranged, the prince died in the battle Ambassa‑ of Liitzen, but Oxenstierna carried

dor in on the negotiations and soon after

Paris. Grotius made his appearance as Swe‑

dish ambassador at Paris. After hav­ing occupied this post for ten years, he went to Stock­holm, where the Queen Christina received him with much distinction. She offered him a place of honor, but he secured release from further service. On his return he was shipwrecked and arrived at Rostock seriously ill and died there.

Hugo Grotius was also an excellent theologian. His natural disposition and the religious agitation

of his age led him involuntarily to Grotius as theological studies. Few men were so Theologian. well versed in Christian literature of

earlier and later times. At Loeven­stein as well as in Paris he occupied himself with writing expositions of the Bible, which were pub­lished under the titles Explioatio trium utiliasimorum locorum Novi Testamenti, Amsterdam, 1640; Com­mentatio ad loea Novi Testamenti quo de Anti­christo agunt, 1640; Explicatio Decalogi, 1642. His writings were not a commentarius perpetuus but annotationes, explaining difficult passages in a few words. He declared that the Bible had nothing to do with dogmatism, and dealt with the books of the Bible as with literary writings according to grammatical rules, and explained the words of Jesus and the apostles by quoting passages from Greek and Latin authors. According to his opinion the books of the prophets contained real prophecies, but concerning Israel only. He was the first to deny the Solomonic authorship of Ecclesiastes. His Annotationes, afterward also incorporated in the London Polyglot and Critici saeri, excelled by their impartiality. To him belongs the honor of first having applied the historical‑philological method to the explanation of the Scripture. He was the precursor of Emesti.

Grotiua's book De Veritate religionis Christian is no less celebrated. At Loevenstein he wrote a Dutch didactic poem as a manual for sailors to help them refute pagans and Mohammedans; later he worked it over in Latin prose at Paris and pub­lished it there 1627. This book was published again and again, and translated into many lan­guages, including Arabic and Urdu. It shows how little Grotius esteemed the dogmas of the severe Lutherans and Calvinists, and caused him to be considered the founddr of the scientific apology and gives him a place next to Pascal.

In more than one writing Grotius has shown his irenie tendency‑e.g., Via ad pacem ecclesiasticam, Amsterdam, 1642 ; Votum pro pace ecclesiastiea, 1642. He wanted peace in the Church and a Chris‑

tianity without religious discord. He His Irenic would admit in one ecclesiastical al­Tendency. liance not only Remonstrants and

Contra‑Remonatrants, but also Lu­therans and Socinians, even Roman Catholics. In his time, however, he was misunderstood. With Arminius he believed in the universality of divine



grace, but he did not want to be taken for a Pelagian (Diaquisttio an Pelagiana aunt ea dogmata quee nunc sub so nomine traducuntur, Paris, 1622). As to the doctrine of reconciliation he differed from Augustine and Anselm, but in his Defentio , fides: catholicce de aatiafadione Christi adversua F. Soci­num, 1614, he defended the doctrine of the Church. He regretted that the Reformation had brought so much quarreling among Christians. It was his con­viction that the English Church had done better than Calvin, taking from Catholicism what was not repugnant to the Gospel and suffering the ancient organization of the Christian Church to remain. His Annalm et hiatorim de rebus Belgicia, 1657, and his Historia Gothorum, Vandalorum et Longobardorum, 1655, are not without importance for church history. His Dissertatio de cants ad_ ministrations ubi paatores non aunt, 1638, belongs to liturgies. His De imperio summarum potestatum circa. sacra, Paris, 1647, to canon law. Although he had chosen a political career, he deserves a place of honor among the theologians of his age, and also among the world's greatest benefactors; for he laid the foundations of the modern international law in his great book, The Rights of War and Peace.

His Opera appeared, 4 vola., Basel, 1732. In

English translation there have appeared: Two

Tracts: 1. Whether the Sacrament of the Lord's Sup­

per May be Administered Where There are no Pas­

tors t 2. Whether it be Necessary at All Times to

Communicate with the Symbols f (London, 1700);

The Mourner Comforted (1652); A Poem on the

Holy Sacrament (Edinburgh, 1732); Adamua Exul;

or, the Prototype of Paradise Lost (London, 1839);

Annals and History of the Low‑Countrey Wars

(1665); The Whole Duty of a Christian (1711);

Christ's Passion, a Tragedie (1640); A Treatise of

the Antiquity of the Commonwealth of the Battavers

(1649); The Right of the State in the Church (1651);

The Rights of War and Peace (1738; abridged

transl., 1853); The Truth of the Christian Religion

(new ed., 1859); A Defence of the Catholic Faith,

Concerning the Satisfaction of Christ against Paustus

Socinus (Andover, Mass., 1889); Joseph, a Tragedy

(London, 1652); A Letter to the States Ambassador

(1675); Politick, Maxims and Observations (1654).

(H. C. Roaaat.)

BIBLIOasAP87: C. Brandt and A. van Cattenburgh, Hia‑

torie roan hot leven van H. de Groot, 2 vole., Amsterdam,

1727; J. Levesque de Burigny, Vie de Grotius, acec t'hist.

de $ea ouvrages, 2 vols., Paris, 1752, Eng. tranal., London

1754; H. Luden, H. Grotius each semen Schicksalen and

Schriften, Berlin, 1808; C. Butler, Life of Hugo Grotius,

London, 1826; G. F. Creuser, Luther and Grotius,

oder GTaube and Wiwenecha/t, Heidelberg, 1846; d. L.

Motley, John o/ Barneoetd, vol. i., chap. x3di., New York, 1874; L. Neumann, Hugo Grotius, 1653‑16.;6, Berlin, 1884; D. Nesmith, Makers o/ Modern Thought, 2 vole., New York, 1892.

GROVES, ANTHONY NORRIS: English mis­sionary; b. at Newton (20 m. n. of Winchester), Hampshire, 1795; d. at Bristol May 20, 1853. He studied chemistry in London, took up dentistry under his uncle, James Thompson, and at the same time studied surgery in the London hospitals. In Feb., 1813, he settled as a dentist at Plymouth, but removed to Exeter in 1816, and in 1825 took charge of a small church at Poltimore, near Exeter.


Groves and Trees

With a view to taking orders he studied at Trin­

ity College, Dublin, where he associated with John

Nelson Darby and other early Plymouth Brethren

(see DARBY, Jowl NEI$ON;t~pand PLYMOUTH Brrrm­

REN). His proposal in 1860 that Christians meet

together in brotherhood, with no other tenets than

faith in Christ, entities him to be regarded as one

of the founders of this sect. In 1829 he went as

an independent missionary to Bagdad, whence he

proceeded to Bombay in Apr., 1833. With the

exception of two visits to England to secure re­

cruits for the missionary cause, he spent the neat

nineteen years in effective missionary work in India.

Of interest are his Journal . . . Diving a Journey

from London to Bagdad (London, 1831); and his

Journal of a Residence at Bagdad Draing the Yom

1880 and 1881 (1832).

BmLj0G86PH7: Memoir and Corraspondenoe o) d. N. (hover,

by his widow, London, 1866; W. B. NesAby, HiA of the

Plymouth Brethren, ib. 1902; DNB, ntii. 299‑300.


of religious development the use of groves as

places of worship is attested. These groves were

not the result of deliberate choice, but marked

the locality in which some superhuman being was

supposed to be or to have been manifest. It is

most probable that sacred groves in populated

regions and in historical times were survivals of

parts of the early forest around the spot where a

divinity had revealed itself, since the area thus

honored was protected by taboo (see COMPARATIVE

RELIGION, VI., 1, c). It often happened, however,

that these groves were in part the result of man's

assistance of nature, that trees were planted and

carefully reared and protected, as in the case of the

great sacred park at Antioch; but where this was

the case it was always bemuse tradition, generally

a very ancient one, regarded the place as hallowed

by some supposed theophany or like manifestation.

Not seldom the tradition suggests the actual divin­

ity of the grove itself or of some individual tree in

it (as when a part of the sacred oak was built into

the Argo in the expedition of the Golden Fleece).

The progress in the development of regard for a sa­

cred grove may be stated in this way: in the ani­

mistic period the tree itself was divine and gave

omens or warnings, in a later period the tree was the

home of a spirit or deity, while still later a deity

used the tree to indicate his will.

Among the Semites the tree cult was indigenous,

so that the Hebrews on coming into Canaan found.

the practise established. The Semites regarded

certain trees as connected with the fructifying

powers of nature, and in many cases with female

deities‑and this is doubtless one cause of the severe

denunciations of the prophets of Israel (see below).

So the moon was brought into this connection, espe­

cially as giving moisture in the shape of dew (see

A$HERAB; AsHroRwH; and MooN); and in the

Astarte‑Aphrodite circle of cult, the cypress, myrtle,

palm, and pomegranate were sacred to this deity.

But a large portion of the great region inhabited

by the Semites is characterized by a scarcity of

tree growth. As a consequence, among Semites it is

much more common to hear of the sacred tree than

of the grove. Hence the Passages in the Old Tes‑

tament where the A. V. speaks of groves the R.V. either changes the translation or, where proper, correctly transcribes the Hebrew original "Ash­erah" (see ABHERAH).

Aside from the Asherah, which was probably a survival of tree‑worship (cf. G. A. Barton, Semr is Origins, pp. 87 eqq., New York, 1902), the traces of a tree cult in the Old Testament are quite numerous. Abraham built an altar to Yahweh at "the tree of the seer" (Gen. xii. 6‑7, Hebr. Won moreh, A.V. "plain of Moreh," R.V. "oak of Moreh," margin, "terebinth"; d. Judges iv. b, according to which Deborah dwelt under "the palm‑tree of Deborah "). Moreover, Abraham took up his residence, built an altar, and witnessed a theophany by the terebinths of Mature (Gen. Ioii. 18, ziv. 13, aviii. 1, Hebr. 'elowm, Septuagint Wi drut, A.V. "plain," R.V. "oaks," margin "terebinths"). He planted a tamarisk (Hebr. 'sahd, AN. "grove") at Beersheba and "called there on the name of Yahweh" (Gen. aai. 33), and this place was held sacred by Isaac (Gen. aavi. 25) and by Jacob (a1vi. 1), and appar­ently by Joshua, who set up the stone of witness "under tire oak (Hebr. 'aRah) that was by (in) the sanctuary" at Sheclem (Josh. naiv. 26); but of. Judges ix. 6, where the terebinth (Hebr. 'clan) seems to have been sacred to Basl‑berith, while in Judges ix‑ 37 it is called (ILV. margin) "the au­gurs' terebinth," and note II Sam. v. 24, where the signal for marching is given by rustling in the mul­berry‑trees. Jacob buried the rejected idols under the terebmth (Hebr. 'dah) which was by Shechem; Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried beneath "the oak of weeping" below Bethel (Gen. xxav. 8), and the ashes of Saul and his sons were buried under the tamarisk in Jabesh (I Sam. xxxi. 13). The theopbany of Es. ii. 2 is connected with a bush. Gideon witnessed a theophany under the tere­binth at Ophmh (Judges vi. 11 sqq.) and built an altar there. Possibly Saul's place of encamp­ment under "the pomegranate" (I Sean. Iav. 2) and his place of judgment under the tamarisk on the height (I Sam. a:ui. 6; cf. Judges iv. b sqq.) were sacred spots. The "green tree" as a place of idolatry is noted in I Kings aiv. 23; II King avi. 4; II Chron. gaviii. 4. In later times, just as the worship at the high places and at the numerous altars came undue the ban of the prophets, though these altars seem to have existed with the approval of earlier prophets (cf‑ I Kings via. 14, "altars" in the plural), so this worship under "oaks, poplars, and terebinths" was regarded as sinful (Has. iv. 13; cf. Ira. i. 29, lviL 5, 1zv. 3, lavi. 17; Deut. xii. 2; Jer. fi. 20, avii. 2). lAek. vi. 13 (cf. xx. 28) is quite decisive of the trees as places where idolatry was practised. Burton (ut sup., p. 90) thinks that the story of Judah end Tamer (Gen. axxviii.; note that Hebr. famar, memo "Palm,,) indicates that a palm clan was incorporated into the tribe of Judah, the palm in this case being a totem (cf. the place name Baai‑tamer, judges ax. 33). Tlie same authority, sees saae6ity in the men­tion (Ex. av. 27) of seventy pshDtrees and twelve springs (possibly a combination of asered trees and springs). It is not unlikely that Jerxbo, the city of palm‑trees (Dent. xxxiv. 3; Judges i. 16, iii. 13),



was once a sacred city. It is noteworthy that the

pomegranate and the palm‑tree formed part of the

adornment both of Solomon's temple (I Kings vi.­

vii.) and of Ezekiel's (Ezek. x1i. 18), and the cheru­

him are connected with both. In elucidation of

the last fact Barton, in a striking passage (cat sup.,

pp. 91‑92), quotes Tylor as suggesting that the

cherubim were personifications of the wind which

was so important in fertilizing the male date palm.

The two trees, originally perhaps only one, in Gen.

ii.‑iii. were explained in the Book of Enoch (chap.

xxiv.) and by the rabbis generally as date palms,

and the two varieties of palms, male and female,

were associated with the discovery of sexual dis­

tinction in man. GEo. W. GILmORE.

BIHLIGGuAPHY: W. Baudisein, Studien zur semitiachen Re­lipionegeschichte, ii. 143 eqq., Leipsie, 1878 (list of older literature on p. 184); B. Stade, Geschichte des Volkes Israel i. 455, Berlin, 1887; A. von Gall, Altisraelitischen Kulb e, pp. 23‑28. Giessen, 1898; Smith, Rel. o/ Sem., pp. 125, 169, 174‑175, 178‑179, 185‑197; ED, iv. 4892‑93; 'and the work of Barton cited in the text. On the general tree‑cult the most important work is J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3 vols., London, 19W; idem, Adonis, Attic, Osiris, London, 1906; Stark, in Berichte der kaniglich­sacheischen Gesellseha#t der isaenschaften zu Leipzig, Phil.‑hilt. Clasee, viii (1856), 32‑120; M. Ohnefalsch­Richter, Kypros, die Bibel and Homer, pp. 32‑227, Berlin, 1893; H. C. Trumbull, Threshold Covenant, pp. 228 sqq., New York, 1896; Mrs. J. H. Philpot, The Sacred Tree or the Tree in Religion and Myth, London, 1897; H. P. Smith, Old Testament History, p. 135, New York, 1903; Evans, in Journal of Hellenic Studies, xxi. 106 sqq.; Folk‑Lore, vi. 20 aqq.

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