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GRETER, gr6'ter (GRETTER, GRAETER), gAS­PAR: German Lutheran; b. at Gundelsheim (30 m. s.s.w. of Heidelberg) c. 1501; d. at Stuttgart Apr. 21, 1557. In 1519‑20 he studied at Heidelberg where he took his bachelor's degree in 1522, and then ac­cepted the position of tutor in the house of Die­trich von Gemmingen. After the latter's death in 1526 he went to Brenz at Hall, and was recom­mended by him in 1527 to the town council of Heilbronn as a teacher. Here Johann Lachmann (q.v.) entrusted to him the spiritual instruction of the children, and Greter accordingly prepared in 1528 his Catechesis oder underricht der Kinder (en­larged ed., 1530). Against the conservative and libertinist party in Heilbronn he wrote Des der Christlich Glaub der einich gerecht and wahrhaftig aey (Nuremberg, 1530). He also published Drew schoen Psalmen (Ettlingen,1531), and translated into Latin the work of Brenz on matrimonial questions, under the title Tradatus caauum matrimonialium (Ett­lingen, 1536).

On Dec. 8, 1531, Greter was commissioned to treat with the Carmelites on the question of accept­ing the Reformation, but, feeling the need of more knowledge, he went in Oct., 1533, to Heidelberg, where he took his master's degree on Feb. 10, 1534. He intended at this time to study law, but the Reformation in Warttemberg (1534) gave his life a new turn. In the fall he was called to the Her­renberg parish, where, in 1536, he prepared a cate­chism which attempted to reconcile those of Luther and Brenz. Together with other prominent theo‑



logiaas, he was summoned to Urach (Sept. 10,

1537), to discuss the abolition of images, in‑ regard

to which he took a moderate line. Soon after he

was called to Cannatadt and had a voice in the mat­

rimonial court and in the theological examinations

in Stuttgart, where he was made court preacher in

1540. A sermon which he delivered in the spring

of 1542 so exasperated Duke Ulrich that Greter had

to flee. He went to his former pupil, Philip von

Gemmingen, and took up his abode in Neckar­

miihlbach. The town of Wimpfen called him as

pastor, and at the same time, he was recommended

to the Margrave George of Brandenburg for the

vacancy at the collegiate church of Ansbach.

Meanwhile, however, he was recalled by Ulrich.

He now enjoyed the fullest confidence of the duke,

who sought his advice in all important questions

pertaining to the Church of Wurttemberg. It was

due to his quick influence that the period of the

Interim in Wiirttemberg did little harm, and that

the duke took care of the victims of the imperial

policy, such as Alber and Brenz. Greter rendered

further assistance to the latter by publishing in

1548 the Explicatio pstlmorum xciv. et cxxx., which

Brenz had written in the fortress of Wittlingen,

under the name of Gamaliel Gratius, and in 1552

the Catechismus pia et utili explications Wustratus,

composed by Brenz for the private use of his friends.

After the death of Ulrich (Nov. 6, 1550) Greter

had the full confidence of the next duke, Christo­

pher, with whom he lived at Ttibingen from 1551

to 1553, and whom he no doubt advised to appoint

Brenz to the highest ecclesiastical office in his gift.

He warmly defended Brenz in the answer of the

Swabiana to the Thuringians for his position in the

Osiandrian controversy. G. BOssERT.

BniLIOGRAPBT: L. M. Fischlin, Memoria theoloporum Wir­

temberpensium, i. 3 sqq., 40 sqq., 281 sqq., 313 sqq., Ulm,

1709; C. F. Sehnurrer, Erlauterumen der urirtemberpiechan

KircherrRe/ormatione and Gelehrten‑Geschiehte, pp. 183 sqq.,

Tiibingen, 1798; C. Jriger, Mittheilunpen der adhwdbisehen

and /r4nkischen Re%rmationegeschichte, pp. 80 sqq., 268,

Stuttgart, 1828; J. Brenz, Aneedota Brentiana, pp. 308,

309, 363, 434 sqq., Tiibingen, 1868; ADS, ix. 599; Bo­

echrefbung des Oberamb Heilbronn, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1901­

1903; Monumenta Germaniae paedapopica, vol. xxi., Ber­

lin, 1900; J. M. Rau, Quellen zur Gewhichte des kirdlichen

Untemichta, Giitersloh, 1904.


Jesuit controversialist; b. at Markdorf (11 m. e.n.e.

of Constance) 1562; d. at Ingolstadt Jan. 29, 1625.

He joined the Society of Jesus in 1578, and became

professor in the University of Ingolstadt. Here he

polemized indefatigably in all departments of the­

ology and history against Protestantism. In his

most important work, De sancta cmce, he treats of

the cross in its historical and liturgical aspects.

On account of his polemic zeal he was highly es­

teemed by Roman Catholic princes and ecclesias­

tical dignitaries. Constant fighting, made his

manner of speaking decidedly unpolished. His

collected works (229 separate volumes in print)

appeared in 17 vols., Regensburg, 1734‑39; the first

volume contains a biography. See FLAGELLATION,


BIBLIoaRAPHY: BiblioWqw des lcrivains de la compagnie

de Jiew, ed. C. Sommervogel, vol. i., Brussels, 1890; KL,


GREVIRG gr5'ving, EARL MARIA NIKOLAS JO­SEF: German Roman Catholic; b. at, Aachen (40 m. w. of Cologne) Dec. 24, 1858. He was educated at the universities of Bonn and Munich (D.D., 1893), and at the theological seminary at Cologne (1893­1894). He was then chaplain Successively at Essen (189496) and Cologne (1898‑99), and since 1899 has been privat‑docent for church history at the University of Bonn. He has written Patch von Bernried Vita Gregorii VII. Papce (Munster, 1893).
GRIBALDI, MATTEO: Italian anti‑Trinitarian

of the sixteenth century; d, at Farges, not far from

Geneva, Sept., 1564. He studied law at Padua,

and when visiting Geneva gave offense by anti­

Trinitarian utterances made in a meeting of the

Italian community. He was persecuted in Padua,

and began a restless, vagrant life. In 1555 he was

in Zurich, in Tiibingen (where he was appointed

teacher at the recommendation of Vergerio), then

at Fargea, whence be was sent to Bern. A par­

tially satisfactory confession of faith assured him

permission to reside on his estate at Farges, in spite

of the objections of the Geneva theologians to his

orthodoxy. K. BENRATH.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. M. Tracheal, Die proteatantiaclun Anti­trinitasasr, ii. 277 sqq., Heidelberg, 1844; Fazy, in M& mares de l'inetitut Geneooia, vol. xiv., 1878‑79; J. H. Allen, Hid. of the Unitarians, p. 81, New York, 1894.
GRIESBACH, grSs'b8a, JOHANN JAKOB‑ Ger­man New Testament scholar; b. at Butzbach (11 m. s. of Giessen) Jan. 4, 1745; d. at Jena Mar. 24, 1812. He was educated at Tiibingen, Halls, and Leipsic, and after a tour through Germany and Holland to London, Oxford, Cambridge, and Paris, he entered the theological faculty of Halls as privat­docent in 1771. Two years later he was appointed professor, but in 1775 was called to Jena, where he taught until his death. He was a deputy to the diet, and took a keen interest both in political and in academic affairs. As a textual critic Griesbach marks a new epoch in this department of study. He commenced his investigations by collecting and sifting variant readings, devoting special attention to the citations of the Greek Church Fathers and to various versions which had hitherto been little studied, such as the Philoxenian, the Armenian, and the Gothic. He then investigated the history of the text in antiquity, and on the basis of this history he constructed his theory of criticism which was intended to determine the choice and value of each individual reading, and which rested essentially on a combination of historic fact and logical prin­ciple. He was the first to print the teat of the New Testament as modified by the results of his criticism. Before him there had been but two forms of the teat, both products of the sixteenth century, the so‑called Textus recepctta of Stephens and Elzevir, which represented unimpeachable or­thodoxy in the eyes of the Lutherans, and that of the Complutensian Polyglot (see BIBLES, POLY­GLOT, L) and Plantin, which had been adopted by the Roman Catholics and, in part, by the Reformed. Griesbach's editions of the New Testament, which aroused conservative opposition, appeared in the following order: 47m: Novi. Testaments h(2



parts, Halle, 1774; the first three Gospels synopti­cally arranged); Epistollce omnes et Apocalypsis (1775; containing also a second, non‑synoptic, edition of the historical books). The synoptic edi­tion has been frequently reprinted. The chief edition of the entire work is that published at Halle in two volumes in 1796‑1806 with a complete critical apparatus and important prolegomena. The text in all editions, however, is not identical. See BIBLE TExT, II., 2, § 4.

The other critical works of Griesbach are as fol‑

lows: De codiclbus quatuor Evangelistarum Orige­nianis (Halle, 1771); Cure in historiam textus Epis­tolarum Pavlinarum (Jena, 1777); Symbolw criticw ad supplendas et corrigendas roarids Novi Testamenti lectiones (2 parts, Halle, 1785‑93); and Commen­tarius criticus in textum Grwcum Novi Testamenti (2 parts, Jena, 1793‑1811; also containing his Mele­temata de vetustis Nova Testamenti recensiont'bus). His other writings are of minor importance, being chiefly academic addresses collected by J. P. Gar bler under the title Opuscula academics (2 vols., Jena, 1824‑25). As a theologian, Griesbach as­sumed an intermediate position, conservative at heart, yet gradually yielding to the spirit of the times. Here his most important work was his Anleitung zum Studium der popularen Dogmahk (Jena, 1779), while his Vorlesungen aer Hermeneu­tik des Neuen Testaments, edited after his death by J. C. S. Steiner (Nuremberg, 1815), is a product of the grammatico‑historical school which was in vogue during its author's lifetime.

(E. Rmusst.)

BrawoORAPR7: J. C. G. Auguati, Ueber J. J. Griesbache Verdiensts, Breslau, 1813. Consult also: P. Schaff, Com­panion to the Greek Testament, pp. 82, 250‑252, New York, 1883; S. Davidson, Introduction to the Study of the N. T., i. 549, ii. 248, London, 1882; B. Weiss, Manual o/ Intro­duction to the N. T., ii. 419, New York, 1889; H. J. Holts­mann, Einfeitung in das N. T., pp. BO‑61, 343, 345, 354, Freiburg, 1892; A. Rilieher, Introduction to the N. T., pp. 325, 345, 620, New York, 19(1`1.

GRIFFIN, EDWARD DORR: American Pres­byterian, president of Williams College; b. at East Haddon, Conn., Jan. 6, 1770; d. at Newark, N. J., Nov. 8, 1837. He was graduated at Yale in 1790, studied theology under Jonathan Edwards, and began to preach at New Salem, Conn., in Jan., 1793. In 1795 he became pastor of the Congrega­tional Church at New Hartford, in 1801 associate pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Newark, and pastor in 1807. He was professor of rhetoric at Andover Theological Seminary from 1809 to 1811. In 1811 he became pastor of the Park Street Church, Boston, but returned to his former pas­torate in Newark in 1815. In 1821 he was elected president of Williams College. On resigning this office in 1836 he returned to Newark. He achieved success and distinction as preacher, educator, and author. His principal works are: Lectures De­livered in the Park Street Church (Boston, 1813); The Extent of the Atonement (New York, 1819); and The Doctrine of Divine Efficiency Defended (1833).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. B. Sprague prefixed a Memoir to the Sermons, 2 vole., Albany, 1838, of. idem, Annals of the American Pulpit, iv. 26‑43, New York, 1858; R. E. Thompson, in American Church History Series, vol. vi. passim, New York, 1895.



GRIFFIS, WILLIAM ELLIOT: Congregation­alist'; b. at Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 17, 1843. He was educated at Rutgers College (A.B., 1869), after serving in the Civil War with the Forty‑Fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers during Lee's invasion of his native State. In 1870 he went to Japan for the purpose of organizing schools, and was successively superintendent of education in the province of Echizen (1871) and professor of physics in the Im­perial University of Tokyo (1872‑74). Returning to the United States in 1874, he was graduated from Union Theological Seminary (1877), and served as pastor of the First Reformed Church, Schenectady, N. Y. (1877,86), Sbawmut Congregational Church, Boston (1886‑93), and the First Congregational Church, Ithaca, N. Y. (18931903), but in 1903 he resigned from the active ministry to devote himself to authorship and lecturing. He was a member of the committee of the Boston Congregational Club to erect a Pilgrim memorial at Delfshaven, Hol­land, and has traveled extensively in that country. In theology he is liberal, and distinctly subordi­nates doctrine to personal belief in Christ. He has written The Mikado's Empire (New York, 1876); Japanese Fairy World (Schenectady, N. Y., 1880); Asiatic History; China, Cores, and Japan. (New York, 1881); Corea, the Hermit Nation (1882); Corea, Without and Within (Philadelphia, 1885); Matthew Calbraith Perry (Boston, 1887); The Lily among Thorns (1889); Honda the Samurai (1890); Sir William Johnson and the Six Nations (New York. 1891); Japan in History, Folk‑Lore, and Art (Boston, 1892); Brave Little Holland and What she Taught us (1894); The Religions of Japan (1895); Townsend Harris, First American Envoy/ in Japan (1895); Romance of Discovery (1897); Romance of American Colonization (1898); The Pilgrims in their Three Homes (1898); The Stu­dent's Motley (New York, 1898); The Romance of Conquest (Boston, 1899); The American in Hol­land (1899); America in the East (New York, 1899); Verbeck of Japan (Chicago, 1900); The Pathfinders of the Revolution (Boston, 1900); In the Mikado's Service (1901); A Maker of the New Orient (Chi­cago, 1902); Young People's History of Holland (Boston, 1903); Sunny Memories of Three Pastor­ales (Ithaca, N. Y., 1903); Dux Christus: An Out­line Study of Japan (New York, 1904); Japan in History, Folk‑lore and Art (1906); Japanese Nation in Evolution (1907); and The Fire‑fly's Lovers and Other Fairy Tales of Old Japan (1908).
GRILL, JULIUS VON: German Protestant; b. at Gaildorf (32 m. n.e. of Stuttgart) July 10, 1840. He was educated at the universities of Tabingen (1858‑62; Ph.D., 1873) and Heidelberg (1865‑66), and visited London, Oxford, and Paris for purposes of study (1865‑66). He was lecturer at the theologicakseminary at Tubingen (1867‑70), deacon in Calw (1870‑76), and a deputy member of the Halle conference for the revision of Luther's translation of the Old Testament (1871). In 1876 he was appointed professor at the seminary of Maulbronn, and four years later was made ephor of the same institution. Since 1888 he has been professor of Old Testament exegesis at Tubingen.



He has written Der ochtundsechzigate Psalm erkM (Tubingen, 1883); Untersuchungen fiber die Entste­hung des vlerten Evangeliums, i. (1902); Die persisAe Myaterienretigion in rbmischeqa Reich and das Chr4ztentum (1903); and Das Primat des Petrus (1904); and has edited the Sanskrit drama of Na­rayana Bhatta entitled Venaaamhdra (Leipsic, 1871) and translated Hundert .Laeder des AMarew Veda (Stuttgart, 1889).
GRIKM, JOSEPH: German Roman Catholic; b. at Freising (20 m. n.e. of Munich) Jan. 23, 1827; d. at Warzburg Jan. 1, 1896. He studied at the University of Munich, became a teacher in 1852, and a chaplain two years later. In 1856 he was appointed professor of Old and New Testament exegesis in the royal lyceum at Regensburg, but in 1879 was called to Wiirzburg as professor of New Testament exegesis. He was the author of Die Samariter and ihre Steddung in der Weltgeschichte (Regensburg, 1854); Die Einheit des Lukasevan­geliuma (1863); Die Einheit der vier Evangelien (1868); Das Leben Jesu each den vier Evangelien (5 vols., 1876‑85); and Das alte Israel and die ba­deaden Kiinste (1889).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Schell and A. FJarhard, Gedenk‑Bldtter

zu Ehren des Dr. Joseph Grimm W iirzburg, 1897.

GRIMM, KARL LUDWIG WILIBALD: Pro­fessor of theology at Jena; b. at Jena Nov. 1, 1807; d. there Feb. 22, 1891. He studied from 1827 to 1831 at Jena, where he became privatdocent in 1833. He was appointed extraordinary professor in 1837, and honorary professor in 1844. Most of his life was spent at Jena, where he labored (church councilor from 1871, privy church councilor 1885) until, in 1888, at the age of eighty‑one, he lost his eyesight. His was the quiet life of a scholar, rever­enced by his many pupils as prceceptor Thurin&.

Grimm's field of labor was the New Testament, although he also treated in his lectures theological encyclopedia (cf. ZWT, xxv., 1882, pp. 1‑24), symbolics, and dogmatics‑the latter on the basis of his Institutio theologies dogmatieae (Jena, 1848; 2d ed., 1869), which was composed in excellent Latin. Grimm broke his work up into various es­says, which he published in periodicals, treating, in part, historical and critical questions of isagogics, in part, again, in an exegetical way, detached Bib­lical passages. His two principal works are the Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apo­kryphen des Alien Testaments, in collaboration with O. F. Fritzsche, for which he prepared the Books of the Maccabees (Leipsic, 1853‑57) and Wisdom (1860; of. ZWT, xvii., 1874, pp. 231‑238; six., 1876, pp. 121‑132; xxiv., 1881, pp. 38‑56); and his Lexicon gra:co‑Winum in lzros Novi TestameWi (Leipsic, 1867, 1878, 1888), which he prepared on the basis of Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti philo­I1ogica (Eng. trand., with valuable additions, by J. H. Thayer, New York, 1886, 1889). What the older philological labor had achieved for the New Testament is here coordinated; and although the progress of modem times calls for a New Testament lexicon upon totally new foundations, Grimm's work will always retain an honorable place in the history of sacred philology (cf. Grimm's Kri.‑

tischrhwtoruche Uebersicht der neutestementlwAen

Verbauexica seit der Reformation, in TSK, 1875, pp.

479‑515, and 1877, pp. 512‑513; also his review

of Woaai's Cluvis, TSK, 1858, pp. 368 sqq., and of

Cremer's Btbliwi‑theology cUs Worterbuch, TSK,

1884, pp. 581‑589). Grimm also took part in the

revision of Luther's translation of the Bible (cf. his

LvdAerbtbel and ihre Texlesrevdaion, Berlin, 1874;

Kurzgefasste Geschwhte der tuthertschen BiUvber­

setaung, Jena, 1884; ZWT, xv., 1872, pp. 521‑528;

TSK, 1883, pp. 375‑400). His theological stand­

point was one of circumspect supernaturalism,

while all his works were characterized by great

painstaking, breadth of scholarship, and rare philo­

logical acumen. E. voar Dosscafz.

BrexAoaserar: Proteatantiache Kirchenwittunp, 1883, nos. 19‑20, 1891, nos. 9‑10; H. J. Holtmmann, Einleitung in day N. T., paa4m, Freiburg, 1892.
GRIMME, HUBERT‑ Swiss lay Orientalist; b. at Paderbom (75 m. n.e. of Elberfeld), Germany, Jan. 24, 1864. He was educated at the University of Berlin (Ph. D., 1887), and, after teaching at the real‑school of Lippstadt in 1888‑89, accepted a call to the newly founded University of Freiburg a's privat‑docent. Since 1892 he has been full pro­fessor of Semitic languages and literatures in the same institution. He has written Mohammed (2 vols., Munster, 1892‑95); Grundzuge der hebra­isehen Akzent‑ and Vokallehre (Freiburg, 1896); Psalmenprobleme (1902); Die weltgeschichtliche Be­deutung Arabiens (Munich, 1904); and Das israel­itische I'fingstfest and der Plejadenkult, Paderbom, 1907.

GRINDAL, EDMUND : Archbishop of Canter­bury; b. near St. Bees (26 m. s.w. of Carlisle), Cumberland, c. 1519; d. at Croydon (10 m. s. of London Bridge) July 6, 1583. He was educated at Magdalen College, Christ's College, and Pem­broke Hall, Cambridge (B.A., 1538; M.A., 1541, D.D., 1564), where he was made a fellow in 1538, proctor of the university in 1548, and Lady Mar­garet's preacher in 1549. He was selected to argue on the Protestant side in one of the disputations held at Cambridge in 1549 and was afterward em­ployed in such disputations elsewhere. In 1850 he became chaplain to Nicholas Ridley, bishop of London, in 1551 precentor of St. Paul's and chap­lain to Edward VI., and in 1552 prebendary of Westminster. On the accession of Queen Mary he abandoned his preferments and took refuge in Germany, spending his exile at Strasburg, Wassel­heim, Speyer, and Frankfort. He returned to London in Jan., 1559, took part in revising the lit­urgy, and also in the disputation held at West­minster to silence the Roman divines. In July, 1559, he was elected master of Pembroke Hall, and in the same month bishop of London. His sym­pathy for the Puritans unfitted him for the govern­ment of the diocese of London, the main stronghold of Puritanism, and in 1570, through the influence of Archbishop Parker, he was translated to the see of York. Early in 1576, when Queen Elizabeth was temporarily leaning toward Puritanism, Grindal succeeded Parker as archbishop of Canterbury; but immediately after his elevation Elizabeth, who




had now begun to court the favor of the Roman Catholic powers, found him in her, way and sought to get rid of him. For refusing to put down "prophesying.," meetings of the clergy to discuss the Scriptures, he was sequestered for six months in June, 1577, by order of the Star Chamber. His sequestration was subsequently prolonged to sev­eral years, and he was not fully restored to his office till 1582. His writings will be found in The Remains of Edmund Grindal (ed. for the Parker Society by W. Nicholson, Cambridge, 1843).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Strype, Life and Ads of . . . Edmund Grindal, 2 parts, London, 1710; idem, Annals of the Ref­ormation, 4 vole., Oxford, 1824; W. Nicholson's Preface to the Remains, ut sup.; C. H. Cooper, Athena; Canta­brigienses, i. 470‑480, London, 1858; W. F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, new nor., vol. v., 12 vole., ib. 1860‑78; W. Clark, The Anglican Reformation, pp. 315‑324 et passim, New York, 1897; J. H. Overton, The Church in England, i. 448‑472, London, 1897; W. H. Frere, The English Chw•h . . . 1668‑IB86, passim, ib. 1904 (very full); DNB, axii. 261‑264.

GRISWOLD, SHELDON MUNSON: Protestant Episcopal missionary bishop of Salina, Kan.; b. at Delhi, N. Y., Jan. 8, 1861. He was educated at Union College (A.B., 1882) and at the General Theological Seminary, from which he was grad­uated in 1885. He was then rector at Union, N. Y. (1885‑88), Emmanuel, Little Falls, N. Y: (1888‑90), and Christ Church, Hudson, N. Y. (1890‑1903), being also archdeacon of Albany (1898‑1902). In 1903 he was consecrated missionary bishop of Salina.
GROEN, grOn, VAN PRINSTERER, GUILLAUME: Conservative Dutch statesman and religious leader; b. at Voorburg, an eastern suburb of The Hague, Aug. 21, 1801; d. at The Hague May 19, 1876. He studied classical philology and law at the Univer­sity of Leyden, where he belonged to the circle which gathered around the poet Bilderdijk, from whom he received an impulse that led him to break with liberalism; but while Bilderdijk was a pro­nounced reactionary, Groen became the father and leader of the "antirevolutionary" party. In 1827 the king appointed him referendary of the cabinet; in 1829 he became secretary. In 1828 he went to Brussels, where he learned to know the Revolution, and also, through the "awakening" under the influence of Merle d'Aubign5, the Gospel. His watch‑word now became, "against revolution,.the Goapell" A severe illness forced Groen to resign his position as secretary, but in 1833 he became director of the royal archives, devoting himself principally to historical studies and the edition of the Archives ou torreapondance iMdite de la maison d'Orange‑Nasstdu (14 vole., Leyden, 1855‑82). In 1840 he was elected member of the "Double Cham­ber," which had been convened for the purpose of revising the constitution. With power and ability he defended and recommended his antirevolutionary principles. During the following eight years he kept aloof from practical politics, delivering before a select audience a famous course of historical lec. tures, which he published under the title Ongeloof en revolulie (" Unbelief and Revolution," Leyden, 1847)‑a powerful testimony against both evils and for Groen himself a confession of faith.

The period of his most vigorous activity now


began. In 1849 the district of Harderwijk sent him to the Second Chamber, of which he was a member until 1857. When he entered, he stood alone in his views, yet he did not hesitate to take up a vigorous campaign against Thorbecke, the leader of the liberal party. In spite of his strenuous activity, he found time from 1850 to 1855 to edit a daily paper, De Nederlander, for the propagation of his religious and political principles and supported it entirely from his own means. But everywhere he met either open or underhand resistance. He op­posed with great zeal a bill advocating the emanci­pation of the school from the Church, and when it was passed in spite of his protests, he resigned his position as member of the Second Chamber. Later he entered it again for a short time, but in 1865 he turned his back on parliamentary life forever. His influence was still potent, however. He gave the impulse to the organization of the "Association for Christian‑National Instruction in Schools" (1861) and took an active part in its leadership. He worked for his conservative principles until his death, firmly believing that his ideas would in the end prevail among the people, in spite of the con­tinual triumph of the parties opposed to him.

Groan was a faithful Christian, a Calvinist, and a Netherlander who knew and understood the history of his people. These circumstances explain his principles and actions. Faith and subjection to God were to him the highest ideals. Without them, he held, there is no salvation for a people. God's sovereignty must be acknowledged in the political sphere as well. Reason is corrupted by sin. Who­ever enthrones the principle of reason is "revo­lutionary." The "revolutionary" principle in Church and State, school and science, must be op­posed by the Gospel. He stood upon the ground of Christian history, and in church matters advocated the confessional tendency, being a decided opponent of the liberty of doctrine as it was advocated by the School of Groningen (q.v.). The influence of Groan's ideas is perceptible in the political and ecclesiastical tendencies in the Netherlands of the present, but owing to the fact that he did not succeed in uniting his thoughts in a compact system, there is no harmony among the different parties. His moat important works not already mentioned are: Handboek der Geschiedertia van hat Vaderland (Am­sterdam, 1852), Maurice et Barteeveld, etude his‑

'~ torlqtie (187b), and a number of pamphlets on canon

law. Beside his daily paper De Nederlander, he

published also a political journal entitled Neder­

lartdache Gedachten. (S. D. veN VEEN.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. J. Vos, Groan roan Prsnaterar en sign tiyd, 2 vole., Dort, 1888‑91; M. C. Stuart, in memoriam, Guil­laume Groan van Prinaferer, Utrecht, 1878; J. T. Buija, in De tide. 1878, ii. b40‑b48; T. Wenaelburger, in Preus­aische Jahrbftcher, al (1877), 203‑224; W. H. de Beau­fort, in De (aide. 1883, iii. 92‑130. The correspondence of Groan van Prirmterer and his wife are collected in the three volumes: Groan van Prinaterer, Brieven roan Thor­becke, 1830‑1832, Amsterdam. 1873; Brieven van Isaac do Costa, 1830‑80, ib. 187&‑78; Brieven roan J. A. Wormeer, IB.¢8‑8,8, 2 vole., ib. 74‑78.

GRONIftGEN, gren'ing‑en, SCHOOL: A school of Dutch theologians and scholars, deriving its name from the university town of Groningen, where its founders and principal representatives lived and

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