no fundamental reform was attained, to remedy the moral corruption of the time. The most important of the laws passed was the one touchEcclesiasti‑ ing papal election; by its terms the cal Reform. cardinals, when a vacancy occurred, were to hold the new election in conclave. Finally; while the council was in progress, negotiations were concluded through Philip of France for the cession to the curia of the County Venaissm, which remained a papal possession until 1791.
From all this‑ it would appear that Gregory X. could point to great results, but they were not enduring. The union with the Greeks soon proved a great delusion; and the time of the crusades was past. Gregory was spared disappointment, however, for he died on Jan. 10, 1276.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: Les Registres de GrApoire X. Recueil des bulles de ce pope .... ed. J. Guiraud, Paris, 1892 aqq.; O. Raynaldus, Annales eecleaiaaticd, xiv. 188246, Cologne, 1692; J. F. B51uner, Acta imperii selects, Innsbruck, 1870; A. Potthast, Repesta pontifcum Romanorum, ii. 1651‑1703, 2131, 2138, Berlin, 1875.
Lives by three authors are collected in L. A. Muratori,
Rer. Ital. script., iii. 1, pp. 597‑4Ob, iii. 2, 424‑125, 25 vols., Milan, 1723‑51. Consult: A. Pichler, Geschichte der kirchlichen Trennung zwKachen Orient and Occident, i. 342 eqq., Munich, 1864; H. Finke, Konzilienatudien zur Geschichte des 13. Jahrhunderts, pp. 1‑18, Munster, 1891; F. Walter, Die Politik der Kurie unter Gregor X., Berlin, 1894 ; H. Otto, Die Beziehunpen Rudolfe van Hapsburg zu Papal Gregor X., Innsbruck, 1895; J. Loserth, in NA, xm (1895), 309‑310; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, v. 465‑473, London, 1897; O. Redlich, Rudolf von Habsburg, Innsbruck, 1903; Hefele. Concilienpeackichte, vi. 119 sqq.; related documents in Thatcher and McNeal, Source Book, pp. 260‑262; Neander, Christian Church, v. 71‑77; Bower, Popes, iii. 15‑23; Milman, Latin Christianity; vi. 123‑133.
On his relations to the crusades consult: F. Wilken, Geschichte der KreuzNige, vol. vii., Leipsic, 1832; G. W. Cox, The Crusades, p. 217, New York, 1875; J. I. Mombert, Short Hist. of the Crusades, p. 283, ib. 1894; A. von I3irseh‑Gereuth, Studien zur Geschichte der Kreuzzugsidee each den Kreuzzilpen, vol. i., Munich, 1896; R. 1iohriaht, Geschichte des Konipreichs Jerusalem, 1100‑1881, chap. xxxviii., Innsbruck, 1898.
Gregory XI. (Pierre Roger de Beaufort): Pope
1370‑78. He was of the diocese of Limoges, and
was chosen pope at Avignon Dec. 30, 1370. He
was a nephew of Clement VI. and was made a car
dinal in his seventeenth year. As pope he made
fruitless efforts at a reunion with the East and
against the Turks, and attacked the teachings of
Wyclif with vehemence. In response to the en
treaties of the Romans, and possibly influenced.by
St. Catherine of Sienna, he determined to return to
Rome and entered the city on Jan. 27, 1377. He
died Mar. 27, 1378. PAUL TsCHACKERT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Balusius, Vita paparum Avenioneneium, i. 425‑486, 2 vole., Paris, 1693 (contains a collection of five early lives); A. Ciaeeonius, Vito et Yes gestd Romanorum pontificum, ed. A. Aldoinus, 4 vole., Rome, 1677; J. B. Christoph, Hint. du papaut6 pendant Is xiv. ai&le, 3 vols., Paris, 1853; F. Gregoroviue, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, vi. 442 sqq‑. Stuttgart, 1879; Pastor, Popes, i. 100116; Bower, Popes, iii. 116‑124; Milman, Latin Christianity, vii. 219‑226; KL, v. 1136‑39.
Gregory Xhl. (Angelo Corrario): Pope 1406‑15. He was of a noble Venetian family and was chosen pope by the Roman cardinals Dec. 2, 1406; but even the cardinals who had voted for him forsook
him. The Council of Pisa deposed him on June 5, 1409, whereupon he, like his rival Benedict XIII. (q.v.) at Avignon, protested against the competency of the council and threatened excommunication. Finally, on July 4, 1415, he resigned and spent the rest of his life as cardinal bishop of Porto. He died Oct. 18, 1417. PAUL TscHAc$ERT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. G3aoeonius, Vita et Yes tlestos Romanorum pontifcum, ed. A. Aldoinus, 4 vole., Rome, 1677; A. L. Muratori, Rer. Ital. script., iii. 2, pp. 837‑838, 841, 1118‑1119, 25 vols., Milan, 1723‑51; J. B. Christoph, Hiss. du,papaut,6 pendant is ziv. aipcJs, 3 vols., Paris, 1853; Pastor, Popes, i. 175‑201; Bower, Popes, iii. 157‑167; Milman, Latin Christianity, vii. 296‑317; KL, v. 11391142.
Gregory XIM (Ugo Buoncompagni): Pope 15721585. He was born at Bologna in 1502 and for eight years taught canon law at his birthplace. His learning and his services at the Council of Trent procured him the cardinal's hat in 1564, and Spanish influence made him pope six years later. Gregory celebrated the Massacre of St. Bartholomew (1572) by a service of thanksgiving and a commemorative medal. Twenty‑three Jesuit colleges were founded by him and he sent the Jesuit Antonio Possevino (q.v.) to Russia to work for a union with the East, besides promoting the missions in India and Japan. He adorned Rome with magnificent churches. In 1582 he received the completed new edition of the Corpus juria canonici (see CANON ]LAW, III.), at which he had himself worked while cardinal, and by the bull of Feb. 13 of the same year he was able to announce the completion of the work of the commission he had appointed to reform the calendar (see CALENDAR, THE CHRISTIAN, §§ 8‑9). The expenses of all his undertakings brought the papal finances into disorder and the procedure of his courts incited the barons of the Papal States (q.v.) to acts of brigandage which he was unable to restrain. He died Apr. 10, 1585. K. BENRATH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The best reference is Ranks, Popes, i. 319 sqq., 185 eqq• Consult further: H. M. Baird, Hiet. of the Rise of &e Huguenots, ii. 500, 530‑534, 564, London, 1880; idem, The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, i.. 28 et passim, New York, 1886; M. Broach, Gesckichte des Kirchenataates, i. 247 sqq., Goths, 1880; Philippson, in Deutsche Zeitachrift far GeschichGwissenachaft, vol. vii., 1892; Bower, Popes, iii. 321‑322; KL, v. 1142‑45; J. Janssen, Hiet. of the German People, p. 112 et passim, London, 1905.
Gregory XIV. (Niciolo Sfondrati): Pope 1590
1591. He was born in Cremona 1535, and was
chosen to succeed Urban VII. Dec. 5, 1590. He
was pious and upright, but was wholly under the
influence of the Spanish party and the League in
France. By excommunicating Henry IV. of France
he contributed much toward making Henry's re
turn to the Roman Church a political necessity.
He died Oct. 15, 1591. K. BENRATH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita by Cicarella is in the later editions of B. Saechi de Platina, Le Vite de' pontifci, e.g., 4 vols., Venice, 1760‑85. Consult: Ranks, Popes, ii. 32‑38; H. M. Baird, The Huguenots and Henry o/ Navarre, ii. 247, 308, New York, 1886; M. Broach, Geschichte des Kirchenataates, i. 300 sqq., Goths, 1880; Bower, Popes, iii. 325; KL, v. 1145‑46.
Gregory XV. (Alessandro Ludovisi): Pope 1621‑23. He was born in Bologna 1554, and was chosen to succeed Paul V. Feb. 9, 1621. His
87 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Gregory XI.‑gQI.
nephew Ludovico acted for him and continued with energy the policy of Gregory XIII. The Counterreformation prevailed in Bohemia, Austria, and Hungary. Ferdinand II. and Maximilian of Bavaria were surrounded with Jesuit influences. In France, and even in the Netherlands and at the English court, the restoration of the Roman Catholic Church made progress. A permanent basis for missions outside of Europe was provided by the foundation of the Congregation de propaganda fide, and the conclave was organized in its present form by a constitution of Gregory. He died July 8, 1623.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rsnke, Popes, ii. 202 eqq., iii. 333‑334; M. Broach, Geechirhte den Kirchenataates, i. 370 aqq., Goths, 1880; H. M. Baird, The Huguenots and as Renocation of the Edict of Nantes, i. 194‑198, New York, 1895; Bower, Popes, iii. 328; KL, v. 1146‑48. Gregory XVL(Bartolommeo Alberto Cappellari): Pope 1831‑46. He was born at Belluno (51 m. n. of Venice) Sept. 15, 1765, and at eighteen entered the order of Camaldoli. He became increasingly prominent in its affairs, and in 1805 Early Life. was made abbot of the large monastery Election of San Gregorio in Rome. After the as Pope, breach between Pius VII. and NapoFeb. a, 1831. leon he was forced to find shelter in his first monastic home at Murano, just outside of Venice, where he conducted a school for the sons of the upper classes. This he was obliged later to transfer to Padua; but in 1814 he was able to return to San Gregorio, and presently rose to be procurator‑general and vicar‑general of his order. In 1825 Leo XII. made him a cardinal and prefect of the Propaganda. On the death of Pius VIII. (Dec. 14, 1830), the conclave was divided between Cardinals Paces, and di Gregorio, and only when the friends of the latter showed signs of going over to the reactionary Giustiniani did Pacca's principal supporter Albani turn to Cappellari. Nevertheless, he did not reach the requisite number of votes until Feb. 2, after the duke of Modena had plainly signified the desire of Austria that a choice should be speedily made, in order that pope and emperor might work together to counteract the threatened revolution in central Italy.
Cappellari was hardly crowned as Gregory XVI. before the revolution broke out. Louis Philippe had declared in favor of the policy of The Italian non‑intervention in the autumn of Revolution 1830,and the small states of Italy of 1831 and hoped to be allowed to regulate their Its Conse‑ own affairs. Francis IV. of Modena, quences. perhaps in the Austrian interest, had affected to coquet with the revolutionary movement. On the day after the election of Gregory he thought the time had come to act decisively against it. But the next day a formidable rising at Reggio and elsewhere forced him to take refuge in Mantua; at the same time a similar movement showed itself in Bologna, and by Feb. 8 the Italian tricolor had generally replaced the papal flag in that part of the States of the Church. An attempted rising in Rome on the night of Feb. 12‑13 was easily suppressed; but outside the city the flood of revolution rose, and Bernetti, the secretary of
state, saw nothing for it but to summon Austria to his aid. By Feb. 25 a strong Austrian force was marching on Bologna; the provisional government fled to Ancona, and it was not long before most of the conspirators (among whom was Louis Napoleon) had taken refuge in foreign countries. Austria, felt entitled to make certain demands of the pope, and Bernetti at once promised considerable reforms. When these were not carried out, the five great powers in a joint note of May 21, 1831, demanded the admission of laymen to administrative and judicial offices, the establishment of communal and provincial councils, and a giunta or assembly of notables which should be a guaranty for continuity in the government. Gregory appointed commissions to report on these proposals, in order to gain time. The year 1831 was one of great financial distress in the Papal States, and the public debt rose alarmingly, reaching sixty million scudi by the death of Gregory. Such reforms as were introduced failed to content the populace, and when the Austrian army departed in July, a new revolution was already in contemplation. Deputations from the provinces came to Rome, hoping, with the aid of the foreign ambassadors to compel the execution of the reforms demanded by the powers. Bernetti still temporized and made slight concessions; but in Jan., 1832, Austrian troops had to be summoned once more into the legations. France had already warned Bernetti that this step would be followed by a French occupation of Ancona, which was carried out, in spite of papal protests, on Mar. 21. Casimir‑Pdrier announced that this was done with a view to compelling liberal reforms; but its effect was counterbalanced by the influence of Austria. The universities had been closed the year before and many students had to leave their homes, embittered against the Church. A good idea of the spirit which prevailed in the curia may be gained from the encyclical Mirari vos of Aug. 15, 1832a link in the series of declarations which culminated in the encyclical and syllabus of 1864; it was directed especially against Lamennais (q.v.) and against Belgium, which had shortly before adopted a constitution guaranteeing liberty of conscience. Considerable excitement was also caused in Germany by the encyclical Dum acerbissimas of Sept. 26, 1835, condemning Hermesianism (see HERmEs, GEORG).
An indiscreet note of Bemetti's which came into Metternich's hands caused his downfall. He was replaced by the Genoese Lambruschini,
Lambrus‑who had been nuncio in Paris during chini the July Revolution, and as a diplomat
Secretary was a pupil of Consalvi's, though with of State. more churchly feeling. He soon made The Jesuits himself feared, and the pope was Suppressed wholly led by him. The Austrians
religious belief of the populace, still coupled the
name of God with that of the people in its appeals.
The neo‑Guelph party which arose in the forties,
under the leadership of Gioberti and Count Cesare
Gregory of Montelongo
Gregory XV1. THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG as
Balbo, adhered to the teachings of the Church, and could have no concord with a liberalism hostile to the Holy See. Lambruschini, however, had no greater sympathy for the neo‑Guelphs than for Young Italy; and relations began to be strained between Rome and France. Gregory XVI. caused uneasiness in Paris by his frank sympathy with the duke of Bordeaux and the Legitimist cause. The government began to be suspicious of French Ultramontanism, and the students in the College de France applauded Michelet and Quinet when they attacked the Jesuits. Guizot sent Pell‑,grino Rossi to Rome to induce the pope to withdraw his support from the order. At first it seemed a hopeless task; but the curia gradually came to see that the Jesuits must be less prominent. Louis Philippe frankly told the nuncio in Paris that he was not prepared to risk his crown for the sake of the order, and Lambruschini finally yielded. In July, 1845, the order was suppressed in France and its houses closed.
Meantime the revolution had lifted its head once more at Bologna and Rimini in 1843. Luigi Carlo Farini issued a manifesto which called Later for an amnesty, juster penal laws, and Events in a share in the government; Massimo Italy. d'Azeglio and Gino Capponi published Gregory's notable appeals. , Lambruschini's an‑
Merits. ewer was the exercise of still greater severity, and d'Azeglio was banished from Tuscany at his request. The Jesuit question came up in Italy also. Some expressions of Gioberti in his Prolegmneni al Prinwto (1845) called forth a defense of the order from Francesco, brother of Silvio Pellico, and Curci; Gioberti was not silenced, but began to collect material for his thoroughgoing work 11 Geauith mod‑ (8 ‑Is‑, Paris, 1846‑47). Before it was published, however, Gregory XVI., already failing in health, died June 1, 1846. He was a friend of all the monastic orders, and did much to prepare for the definition of the immaculate conception. Stiff and unyielding in his ecclesiastical policy, he came into serious conflict with Prussia over the mixed marriage question (see DRO$TE‑VIBCHERING), and by the encyclical Inter prcecipuas of May 8, 1844, condemned the Bible societies and the newly formed Evangelical Allicance. He was a liberal patron of art and letters; he established the Etruscan and Egyptian collections of the Vatican, and laid the foundation for the Lateran museum of Christian antiquities. (F. NIEIBENt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. N. Maynard, JacQues Cretineau‑Joiy, Paris. 1875; M. Brooch, Oesehdchts doe Kirchenstaatea, ii. 337 sqq., Goths, 1882; C. Sylvain, Grbpoire XVI. et son pontdfCat, Paris, 1889; J. J. 1. von D611inger, Kirche and Kirden, pp. 581 eqq., Munich, 1881; idem, Dos Papsh tum, pp. 234 eqq., ib. 1892; C. Mitt, Die yremsiseAe Gosandtaehaf am Ho% des Papatea. pp. 28 eqq. Ldpsie, 1899; F. Nippold, The Papacy in the 18th Century, Pp. 82, 93, 95, 112, New York, 1909; F. Nielsen, Hid. of fhe Papacy in the 1 9th Century, 2 vole.. ib. 1905; Bower, Popes, iii. 470‑472; KL, v. 1148‑58. For the Encyclicals of Gregory consult the Eng. trends. which appeared Dublin, 1833, London, 1838; The Encyclical Letter of ‑ ‑ ‑Pope Gregory XVI. . . issued may 8th, 1844, Lat. text, Ital. tranal., London, 1844; A Voice /turn Rome Answered by an American Citizen. A Review of the Encyc1ioa4 Philadelphia, 1844 (with the text); L Rupert, La LiberM moderns iuD& Pay' 1'Miae. Eneyclique . . . de Gr6poire XVl„ Paris, 1882.
GREGORY (Gk. Gr9gorioa): The name of several patriarchs of Constantinople, the most important being the following:
Gregory III.: Patriarch 1445‑48; d. at Rome 1459. He was a Cretan by origin, and bore the epithets of Mamas, Melissenus, and Strategopulus. As protosyneellus of the patriarch of Constantinople and confessor of the Emperor John VIII., Palteologus, he attended the council held at Florence for a union of the Greek and Roman Churches (see FERRARA‑FLORENCE, COUNCIL OF). Originally orthodox, he now became an adherent of the Roman party, and after his return was appointed patriarch. On the death of the emperor in 1448, however, he was forced to resign, spending the remainder of his life at Rome. In defense of the union he wrote his three works, "Apology for the Confession of Ephesus"; "Apology for the Epistle of Ephesus"; and "To the King of Trebizond." His sole argument for union was its harmony with the teachings of the Church Fathers.
BrBwOGaAPHY: The three works are in MPG, clx. 13‑248. Consult Fabrieius‑Harles, Biblioywca Grwca, xi. 393394, Hamburg. 1808; Krumbacher, Geschichte, p. 119.
Gregory V.: Patriarch 1797‑98, 1806‑08,18181821; b. at Dimitzana (40 m. n.w. of Sparta) 1745; d. at Constantinople Apr. 22, 1821. He was educated at Athens, Smyrna, and Patmos, and in 1785 was consecrated metropolitan of Smyrna, becoming patriarch of Constantinople twelve years later. In the following year the intrigues of the clergy forced him to resign, although he ruled again from 1806 to 1808. His third patriarchate lasted from 1818 to his strangulation by the order of the Sultan. The manner of his death has caused Gregory to be regarded as the martyr of Greek freedom, although he took no part in the uprising of his fellow countrymen, and his attitude toward the Greek movement for independence was unsympathetic. As patriarch, he promoted the welfare of his Church in all ways, and particularly by education. He made Romaic translations of the nine homilies of Basil on the hexaemeron (Constantinople, 1807), as well as the addresses of Chrysostom on the priesthood (new edition by J. Papadopulos, Smyrna, 1879), and he is also said to have edited the "Ethics" of Basil in 1807.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Accounts of his life, in Greek, appeared at
Athens in 1863 and, in 2 vole., 1885.
Gregory VI.: Patriarch 1835‑40, 1867‑71; b.
Mar. 13, 1798; d. at Constantinople June 20, 1881. His entire tendency was reactionary and devoted to the purification of the Greek Church from all foreign elements. In this spirit he waged an unceasing war against the Occidental churches, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, as well as against every liberal movement within his own communion, so that he may almost be said to have given his impression to the present Greek Orthodox Church. Important
factors in this struggle were his decrees, which have been collected by Gedeon and partially translated into German by Wenger. (PHILIPP MEYER.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Wenger, Beltrdp our Kenntnlse dee pepenw&tipen asides and zustandes der priechisehen Kirche in Griwhenland and der TRrkey. Berlin, 1839; M. 1. Gedeon, narp&apxucoi*ivases, Constantinople, n.d.; idem. Harovwai gtarasat, 2 vols., ib. 1888‑89.
GGreirory of Montelonro,
GREGORY OF ELVIRA:Bishop of Elvira, in Spain (hence called Bwticm, the "Andalusian"); fl. c. 357‑384. He was one of the stanchest western adherents of the Nicene Creed. He rigorously opposed Hosius of Cordova (q.v.) when the latter returned from exile; and stood firmly in relation to the Homoian party at the synod of Ariminum, 359. Afterward he joined Lucifer of Calaria (q.v.), and became one of the leaders of the Luciferians. It seems probable that Gregory composed the socalled Tractatus Origenis (ed. P. Batiffol, Paris, 1900), and "Five Homilies on Canticles" (ed. G. Heine, in Bibliotheca anecdotorum, Leipsic, 1848). He is the probable source, besides, of a brief tract, De file, generally attributed to Ambrose (Vigiliua of Thapsus, Phaebordius of Agennum, MPL, xx. 31; cf. Jerome, De vir. ill., cv.). Moreover, Kattenbusch holds that to Gregory should be credited Exhortatw sands Ambroadi episeopi ad neophytos de aymbolo (cf. C. P. Caspari, Quellen our Geschichte des Taufsymbole, ii. 128‑182, Christiania, 1869).
BIaLIoanAPar: F. Kattenbusch, Daa apostdiache Symbol, 2 vole, Leipeic, 1894‑1900 (consult Index); G. Morin, in Revue de i'hiatoire et de litttrature relipieuaea, 1900, pp. 145‑161; A. Wilmaert in Bulletin de to litt,6rature ecddsiaetique, 1906, pp. 233‑299; DCB, ii. 739‑740.
GREGORY OF HEIMBURG:German popular reformer; b. at Schweinfurt (22 m. n.n.e. of Wiirzburg) about the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at Dresden 1472. His importance has been overestimated; he was no "forerunner of the Reformation," still less "a civil Luther." As a youth he devoted himself to legal and humanistic studies and took the degree of doctor of civil and canon law at Padua about 1430. Upon his return to Germany he practised law, and was present at Basel during the sessions of the Council, becoming acquainted there with Rneas Sylvius Piccolomini (afterward Pope Pius IL). In 1435 he was elected syndic of Nuremberg and held this influential position till 1461. He often had an opportunity to play a part in public affairs, and to work for the diminution of the influence of the Italian papacy in Germany. In 1446 he headed a delegation which the German electors sent to Pope Eugenius IV. Angered by the ill success of his mission, he wrote against the curia, after his return, his Admonitio de iniustia u8urpatitmZus paparum. When Aneas Sylvius was elected pope in 1458, his antipapal spirit became even more aggressive. The new pope convoked a meeting of the German princes at Mantua in 1459, at which Gregory was present as the representative of Sigismund of Austria to oppose the crusade projected by Pius against the Turks, and where he even delivered a mocking discourse against the pope. Pius soon found an opportunity to take vengeance. When Duke Sigismund of the Tyrol had fallen out with Nicholas of Cusa, cardinal bishop of Brixen, and had been excommunicated by the pope (June 1, 1460), Gregory pleaded his cause. Pius II. now excommunicated Gregory also, and, in a brief dated Oct. 18, 1460, requested the city council of Nuremberg to expel the offender and to confiscate his property. Gregory replied in a stern appeal to a future council.. In 1464 Nicholas of Cuss and Pius
II. died. Sigismund had made his peace with the pope shortly before and had obtained absolution, but Gregory remained under the ban, which obliged him to leave the court of the duke of Austria. He went to Bohemia to King George Podiebrad, in whose interest'he continued to oppose the papacy in controversial writings. The death of his protector drove Gregory from Bohemia, and he now fixed his residence in Saxony, whose dukes had asked his advice on former occasions. When Sixtus IV. ascended the papal throne, he obtained absolution, and died in the same year. His polemical works were published under the title Scripts nervosa justititeque plena (Frankfort, 1608).
BIBLIOORAPBT: J. M. Dfx, Nicolaus von Cusa, especially book iv., 2 vole., Regensburg, 1848; C. Broekhaue, Gregor van Neimburp, Leipsic, 1861; A. JAger, Der Streit des .
Nicolaua von Cuaa mil dens Hersop Sigmund von Oesterre", 2 vols., Innsbruck, 1861; G. Voigt, Xnea Silvio de' Piccolomin%, ii. 349‑351, Berlin, 1862; C. Uhlmann, Reformers before the Reformation, i 195‑202, Edinburgh, 1874; Lorenz, DGQ, i. 220, ii. 382‑384; P. Joachimson, Gregor Heimburp, Bamberg, 1891; Pastor, Popes, iii. 184192 et passim; Creighton, Papacy, iii. 32, 76‑$1, 256265 et passim; KL, v. 1648‑52; ADB,.:a. 327.